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Bansal D.,Jamia Millia Islamia University | Khan M.,Jamia Millia Islamia University | Salhan A.K.,DIPAS
2nd International Conference on eHealth, Telemedicine, and Social Medicine, eTELEMED 2010, Includes MLMB 2010; BUSMMed 2010 | Year: 2010

The paper represents work on the challenge of real time, non-invasive simultaneous acquisition and wireless transmission of human physiological parameters using easy and cost effective approach. Electromyograph (EMG) signal detection and analysis is utilized in various clinical and biomedical applications including generation of control signal for prosthetic tools. However, better solutions to obtain noise free signal using compact detection arrangement and wireless communication technologies are being upgraded. In this work, surface EMG signal is acquired under various levels of bicep muscle contractions using simple computer interface and processed using MATLAB based Filter algorithm for online clean display and wireless transmission. EMG and Carotid artery pulsation are then acquired in time coherence to analyse the effect of rectus abdominis muscle contractions on carotid pulse wave and developed into a stand alone MATLAB executable file. The effect manifests as raised amplitude in the Carotid pulse wave form. Hence, a clear correlation is established between surface EMG signal and Carotid artery pulsation to give a compact, cost efficient solution to physiological signal monitoring. © 2010 IEEE.


Pandiaraj M.,Biomedical Research Laboratory | Sethy N.K.,DIPAS | Bhargava K.,DIPAS | Kameswararao V.,Defence Research and Development Establishment | Karunakaran C.,Biomedical Research Laboratory
Biosensors and Bioelectronics | Year: 2014

We have designed here a label-free direct electrochemical immunosensor for the detection of cytochrome c (cyt c), a heme containing metalloprotein using its specific monoclonal antibody. Two nanocomposite-based electrochemical immunosensor platforms were evaluated for the detection of cyt c; (i) self-assembled monolayer (SAM) on gold nanoparticles (GNP) in polypyrrole (PPy) grafted screen printed electrodes (SPE) and (ii) carbon nanotubes (CNT) integrated PPy/SPE. The nanotopologies of the modified electrodes were confirmed by scanning electron microscopy. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and cyclic voltammetry were employed to monitor the stepwise fabrication of the nanocomposite immunosensor platforms. In the present method, the label-free quantification of cyt c is based on the direct electron transfer between Fe (III)/Fe (II)-heme redox active site of cyt c selectively bound to anti-cyt c nanocomposite modified SPE. GNP/PPy and CNT/PPy nanocomposites promoted the electron transportation through the conductive pore channels. The overall analytical performance of GNP/PPy based immunosensor (detection limit 2. nM; linear range: 2. nM to 150. μM) was better than the anti-cyt c/CNT/PPy (detection limit 10. nM; linear range: 10. nM to 50. μM). Further, the measurement of cyt c release in cell lysates of cardiomyocytes using the GNP/PPy based immunosensor gave an excellent correlation with standard ELISA. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.


Madasamy T.,Biomedical Research Laboratory | Pandiaraj M.,Biomedical Research Laboratory | Balamurugan M.,Biomedical Research Laboratory | Bhargava K.,DIPAS | And 2 more authors.
Biosensors and Bioelectronics | Year: 2014

This work presents a novel bienzymatic biosensor for the simultaneous determination of nitrite (NO2-) and nitrate (NO3-) ions using copper, zinc superoxide dismutase (SOD1) and nitrate reductase (NaR) coimmobilized on carbon nanotubes (CNT)-polypyrrole (PPy) nanocomposite modified platinum electrode. Morphological changes of the PPy and CNT modified electrodes were investigated using scanning electron microscopy. The electrochemical behavior of the bienzymatic electrode (NaR-SOD1-CNT-PPy-Pt) was characterized by cyclic voltammetry exhibiting quasi-reversible redox peak at +0.06V and reversible redox peaks at -0.76 and -0.62V vs. Ag/AgCl, for the immobilized SOD1 and NaR respectively. The electrocatalytic activity of SOD1 towards NO2- oxidation observed at +0.8V was linear from 100nM to 1mM with a detection limit of 50nM and sensitivity of 98.5±1.7nAμM-1cm-2. Similarly, the coimmobilized NaR showed its electrocatalytic activity towards NO3- reduction at -0.76V exhibiting linear response from 500nM to 10mM NO3- with a detection limit of 200nM and sensitivity of 84.5±1.56nAμM-1cm-2. Further, the present bienzymatic biosensor coated with cellulose acetate membrane for the removal of non-specific proteins was used for the sensitive and selective determinations of NO2- and NO3- present in human plasma, whole blood and saliva samples. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.


Pandiaraj M.,Biomedical Research Laboratory | Pandiaraj M.,Florida International University | Benjamin A.R.,The American College | Madasamy T.,Biomedical Research Laboratory | And 5 more authors.
Sensors and Actuators, A: Physical | Year: 2014

In this paper, a portable, cost-effective electrochemical assay is presented for rapid, sensitive, and quantitative detection of cytochrome c (cyt c) release. The developed cyt c assay consists of two parts: (i) a miniaturized electrochemical biosensor based on cytochrome c reductase (CcR) functionalized screen printed electrodes (SPE); (ii) a microcontroller based data acquisition unit integrated with potentiostat circuit capable of performing cyclic voltammetry technique for the analysis. The working electrode surface of SPE was integrated with polypyrrole (PPy)-carbon nanotubes (CNT) nanocomposite for an enhanced immobilization of the enzyme, CcR. The acquired biosensor data are processed into digital form by the microcontroller and further transferred to a PC through USB port for analysis. GUI based system implemented here makes the analyzer easy to operate. Under optimal conditions, the electroanalytical behavior of the CcR-CNT-PPy-SPE biosensor linearly responds to the cyt c concentration range from 10 nM to 500 μM with a detection limit of 10 nM and a sensitivity of 0.102 ± 0.005 μA μM-1 cm-2. The performance of the volume miniaturized SPE based biosensor coupled with the portable microcontroller based instrument was further evaluated by applying it for the measurement of mitochondrial cyt c release during cardiomyocytes apoptosis; the results are validated well with the commercial electrochemical analyzer and standard ELISA. © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


PubMed | DIPAS, Biomedical Research Laboratory and Defence Research & Development Establishment
Type: | Journal: Biosensors & bioelectronics | Year: 2014

We have designed here a label-free direct electrochemical immunosensor for the detection of cytochrome c (cyt c), a heme containing metalloprotein using its specific monoclonal antibody. Two nanocomposite-based electrochemical immunosensor platforms were evaluated for the detection of cyt c; (i) self-assembled monolayer (SAM) on gold nanoparticles (GNP) in polypyrrole (PPy) grafted screen printed electrodes (SPE) and (ii) carbon nanotubes (CNT) integrated PPy/SPE. The nanotopologies of the modified electrodes were confirmed by scanning electron microscopy. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and cyclic voltammetry were employed to monitor the stepwise fabrication of the nanocomposite immunosensor platforms. In the present method, the label-free quantification of cyt c is based on the direct electron transfer between Fe (III)/Fe (II)-heme redox active site of cyt c selectively bound to anti-cyt c nanocomposite modified SPE. GNP/PPy and CNT/PPy nanocomposites promoted the electron transportation through the conductive pore channels. The overall analytical performance of GNP/PPy based immunosensor (detection limit 2 nM; linear range: 2 nM to 150 M) was better than the anti-cyt c/CNT/PPy (detection limit 10 nM; linear range: 10 nM to 50 M). Further, the measurement of cyt c release in cell lysates of cardiomyocytes using the GNP/PPy based immunosensor gave an excellent correlation with standard ELISA.


Vats P.,DIPAS | Ray K.,DIPAS | Majumadar D.,DIPAS | Amitabh,DIPAS | And 5 more authors.
High Altitude Medicine and Biology | Year: 2013

Vats, Praveen, Koushik Ray, Dhurjati Majumadar, Amitabh, Duraisamy Arul Joseph, Susovon Bayen, Almaz Akunov, Akpav Sarbaev, Shashi Bala Singh. Changes in cardiovascular functions, lipid profile, and body composition at high altitude in two different ethnic groups. High Alt Med Biol 14:45-52, 2013. - High altitude (HA) presents inhospitable environmental conditions that adversely affects human physiology and metabolism. Changes in physiological functions are reported during high altitude exposure, but the changes vary with physical state, culture habits, geographical locations, and genetic variation of individual. The present study was carried out to explore the variation in acclimatization pattern of two different ethnic groups in relation to cardiovascular functions, lipid profile and body composition. The study was carried out on 30 human volunteers (20 Indian and 10 Kyrgyz) initially at Bishkek for basal recording and on day 3, 7, 14, and 21 of high altitude (3200 m) induction and again on day 3 of de-induction. On altitude exposure significant decrease in body weight was observed both in Indian (day 14, p<0.001) and Kyrgyz (day 3, p<0.01) subjects. Decreased levels of total body water, extra cellular and intra cellular body water were also observed in both the groups. Significant reduction in body mass index (p<0.01), fat free mass (p<0.01), body cell mass (p<0.01) and body volume (p<0.01) was also observed in Kyrgyz subjects, whereas in Indian subjects the changes were not significant in these variables on high altitude exposure. Diastolic blood pressure and heart rate increased significantly on day 3 (p<0.001 and p<0.01, respectively) of induction in Indian subjects; whereas in Kyrgyz significant increase was observed on day 14 (p<0.05) in both the cases. High density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol levels increased significantly on day 7 of HA exposure in both the groups. Results indicate that the Indian and Kyrgyz groups report differently, in relation to changes in cardiovascular functions, lipid profiles, and body composition, when exposed to HA. The difference observed in acclimatization pattern in the two groups may be due to ethnic/genetic variation of two populations. Copyright © 2013, Mary Ann Liebert, Inc. 2013.


Atale N.,Jaypee Institute of Information Technology | Chakraborty M.,Jaypee Institute of Information Technology | Mohanty S.,Jaypee Institute of Information Technology | Bhattacharya S.,Jaypee Institute of Information Technology | And 3 more authors.
Cardiovascular Toxicology | Year: 2013

Diabetic patients are known to have an independent risk of cardiomyopathy. Hyperglycemia leads to upregulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) that may contribute to diabetic cardiomyopathy. Thus, agents that suppress glucose-induced intracellular ROS levels can have therapeutic potential against diabetic cardiomyopathy. Syzygium cumini is well known for its anti-diabetic potential, but its cardioprotective properties have not been evaluated yet. The aim of the present study is to analyze cardioprotective properties of methanolic seed extract (MSE) of S. cumini in diabetic in vitro conditions. ROS scavenging activity of MSE was studied in glucose-stressed H9C2 cardiac myoblasts after optimizing the safe dose of glucose and MSE by 3-(4,5-dimethyl-thiazol-2-yl)-2, 5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide. 2′,7′-dichlorfluorescein diacetate staining and Fluorescence-activated cell sorting analysis confirmed the suppression of ROS production by MSE in glucose-induced cells. The intracellular NO and H2O2 radical-scavenging activity of MSE was found to be significantly high in glucose-induced cells. Exposure of glucose-stressed H9C2 cells to MSE showed decline in the activity of catalase and superoxide dismutase enzymes and collagen content. 4′,6-diamidino-2-phenylindole, propidium iodide and 10-N-nonyl-3,6-bis (dimethylamino) acridine staining revealed that MSE protects myocardial cells from glucose-induced stress. Taken together, our findings revealed that the well-known anti-diabetic S. cumini can also protect the cardiac cells from glucose-induced stress. © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media New York.


Chowdhury B.,DIPAS | Bhattacharyya D.,DIPAS | Majumdar D.,DIPAS
Journal of Eye Movement Research | Year: 2015

Multilingualism has become an integral part of our present lifestyle. India has twenty two registered official languages with English and Hindi being most widely used for all official activities across the nation. As both these languages are introduced later in life, it was hypothesised that comprehensive reading will be better and faster if the native medium was used. Therefore present study aimed to evaluate the differences in performance while using one of the four Indian Dravidian vernaculars (Tamil, Telugu Kannada and Malayalam) and two non-vernacular (English and Hindi) languages for onscreen reading task. A multi-dimensional approach including physiological (Eye movement recording), subjective (Language Experience And Proficiency Questionnaire, LEAP-Q, Legibility rating) and Objective (Reading time and Word processing rate) measurements were used to quantify the effects. Forty-four Indian infantry soldiers from each of the Dravidian language groups participated in the study. Volunteers read aloud two simple story passages onscreen in their respective vernacular and non-vernacular languages using both time bound and self-paced reading mode. Reading time was lower and word processing rate was higher respectively in case of vernacular than non-vernacular. Consideration of fixation count in both the modes of reading indicated better performance with vernaculars. Legibility score was better in Dravidian languages than others. Results indicated that reading text was faster in vernacular media followed by English and Hindi. Use of vernaculars in onscreen text display of high density workstation may therefore be recommended for easier and faster comprehension.

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