Dinex Ecocat Oy
Dinex Ecocat Oy
Honkanen M.,Tampere University of Technology |
Hansen T.W.,Technical University of Denmark |
Jiang H.,Aalto University |
Karkkainen M.,University of Oulu |
And 7 more authors.
Journal of Catalysis | Year: 2017
Structural changes of PtPd nanoparticles in a natural gas oxidation catalyst were studied at elevated temperatures in air and low-oxygen conditions and in situ using environmental transmission electron microscopy (ETEM). The fresh catalyst shows <5 nm, PtPdOx particles on the γ-Al2O3 support. At 700 °C, the noble metal oxide decomposes and Pt gets trapped by PdO particles followed by formation of metallic Pd and Pt containing particles. At 1000 °C, the particles had a metallic Pd and Pt containing core surrounded by PdO particles. In addition, the presence of <10 nm sized particles was always observed. The activity measurements indicate the decrease in activity at the elevated temperatures. ETEM studies showed significant mobility of the noble metal particles above 850 °C. Above 1100 °C, PtPd particles were mobile and smaller particles were trapped by larger ones by a particle coalescence mechanism. © 2017 Elsevier Inc.
Valiheikki A.,University of Oulu |
Karkkainen M.,University of Oulu |
Honkanen M.,Tampere University of Technology |
Heikkinen O.,Aalto University |
And 6 more authors.
Applied Catalysis B: Environmental | Year: 2017
The impact of sulphur, phosphorus and water and their co-exposure on a monolith-type Pt/SiO2-ZrO2 diesel oxidation catalyst was investigated. The accelerated laboratory-scale sulphur treatments for Pt/SiO2-ZrO2 were done with and without water (S- and SW-treatments, respectively) at 400 °C. Similarly, the phosphorus treatment with water (PW-treatment) as well as the co-exposure of phosphorus, sulphur and water (PSW-treatment) were also done to find out the interactions between the impurities. The studied catalysts were characterized by using several techniques and the activity of the catalyst was tested in lean diesel exhaust gas conditions. Based on the XPS and the elemental analysis, more phosphorus was adsorbed on the Pt/SiO2-ZrO2 catalyst than sulphur. Sulphur, in the presence and absence of water, was found to have a negligible effect on the CO and C3H6 light-off temperatures (T90) over the fresh Pt/SiO2-ZrO2, whereas the T90 values of CO and C3H6 increased by 30–45 °C as a result of the PW-treatment and by 15–35 °C after the PSW-treatment. Based on the Transmission electron microscope (TEM) analyses, no morphological changes on the Pt/SiO2-ZrO2 surfaces were observed due to the phosphorus treatment. Therefore, the reason for the lower activity after the PW-treatment could be the formation of phosphates that are decreasing the specific surface area of the catalyst, blocking the accessibility of the reactants to the catalyst pores and active sites. However, it is worth noting that sulphur decreased the amount of adsorbed phosphorus and thus, inhibited the poisoning effect of phosphorus. © 2017 Elsevier B.V.
Agency: European Commission | Branch: H2020 | Program: IA | Phase: GV-7-2014 | Award Amount: 27.80M | Year: 2015
The overall objective of HDGAS is to provide breakthroughs in LNG vehicle fuel systems, natural gas and dual fuel engine technologies as well as aftertreatment systems. The developed components and technologies will be integrated in up to three demonstration vehicles that are representative for long haul heavy duty vehicles in the 40 ton ranges. The demonstration vehicles will: a) comply with the Euro VI emission regulations b) meet at minimum 10% CO2 reduction compared to state of the art technology c) show a range before fueling of at least 800 km on natural gas; d) be competitive in terms of performance, engine life, cost of ownership, safety and comfort to 2013 best in class vehicles. Three HDGAS engine concepts/technology routes will be developed: - A low pressure direct injection spark ignited engine with a highly efficient EGR system, variable valve timing comprising a corona ignition system. With this engine a stoichiometric as well as a lean burn combustion approach will be developed. Target is to achieve 10% higher fuel-efficiency compared with state of the art technology - A low pressure port injected dual fuel engine, a combination of diffusive and Partially Premixed Compression Ignition (PPCI) combustion, variable lambda close loop control and active catalyst management. Target is to achieve > 10% GHG emissions reduction compared with state of the art technology at a Euro VI emission level, with peak substitution rates that are > 80%; - A high pressure gas direct injection diesel pilot ignition gas engine, that is based on a novel injector technology with a substitution rate > 90% of the diesel fuel. Target is to achieve same equivalent fuel consumption (< 215g/kWh) and 20% lower GHG emissions than the corresponding diesel engine. HDGAS will develop all key technologies up to TRL6 and TRL7 and HDGAS will also prepare a plan for a credible path to deliver the innovations to the market.
Agency: European Commission | Branch: H2020 | Program: IA | Phase: MG-4.1-2014 | Award Amount: 25.11M | Year: 2015
The project HERCULES-2 is targeting at a fuel-flexible large marine engine, optimally adaptive to its operating environment. The objectives of the HERCULES-2 project are associated to 4 areas of engine integrated R&D: Improving fuel flexibility for seamless switching between different fuel types, including non-conventional fuels. Formulating new materials to support high temperature component applications. Developing adaptive control methodologies to retain performance over the powerplant lifetime. Achieving near-zero emissions, via combined integrated aftertreatment of exhaust gases. The HERCULES-2 is the next phase of the R&D programme HERCULES on large engine technologies, which was initiated in 2004 as a joint vision by the two major European engine manufacturer groups MAN and WARTSILA. Three consecutive projects namely HERCULES - A, -B, -C spanned the years 2004-2014. These three projects produced exceptional results and received worldwide acclaim. The targets of HERCULES-2 build upon and surpass the targets of the previous HERCULES projects, going beyond the limits set by the regulatory authorities. By combining cutting-edge technologies, the Project overall aims at significant fuel consumption and emission reduction targets using integrated solutions, which can quickly mature into commercially available products. Focusing on the applications, the project includes several full-scale prototypes and shipboard demonstrators. The project HERCULES-2 comprises 4 R&D Work Package Groups (WPG): - WPG I: Fuel flexible engine - WPG II: New Materials (Applications in engines) - WPG III: Adaptive Powerplant for Lifetime Performance - WPG IV: Near-Zero Emissions Engine The consortium comprises 32 partners of which 30% are Industrial and 70% are Universities / Research Institutes. The Budget share is 63% Industry and 37% Universities. The HERCULES-2 proposal covers with authority and in full the Work Programme scope B1 of MG.4.1-2014.
Maunula T.,Dinex Ecocat Oy |
Wolff T.,Dinex GmbH
SAE Technical Papers | Year: 2016
The latest emission regulations for mobile and stationary applications require the use of aftertreatment methods for NOx and diesel particulate filters (DPF) for particulate matter (PM). SCR catalysts were evaluated by laboratory experiments and the most promising SCR catalysts were also scaled up to full-size. Development with copper (Cu) and iron (Fe) on zeolitic materials (Beta, ZSM-5, SAPO, chabazite) has resulted in the new generation of thermally durable SCR (selective catalytic reduction) catalysts, which have also an improved sulfur tolerance and a low N2O formation tendency. Opposite to Cu on Beta and ZSM-5, Cu on chabazite and SAPO showed clearly lower N2O formation. Cu-SCR catalysts had a low dependency on NO2/NOx but Fe-SCR catalysts required a higher NO2/NOx ratio (>0.3) to keep a high NOx efficiency. The decomposition of sulfates on the durable Cu- and Fe-SCR catalysts was investigated by temperature programmed oxidation (TPO) and reduction (TPR) methods to find the appropriate conditions for desulfation. Full-scale SCR systems with diesel oxidation catalysts (DOC) were evaluated by engine bench experiments. The Cu-SCR based catalysts showed a wide operation window, resulting in NOx conversions above 95% as fresh and thermally aged at 650-750°C. The platinum containing ammonia slip catalyst (ASC) is usually integrated as a short zone on the SCR unit and its main role is to prevent slip in transient conditions. Copyright © 2016 SAE International.
Saari S.,Tampere University of Technology |
Karjalainen P.,Tampere University of Technology |
Ntziachristos L.,Tampere University of Technology |
Ntziachristos L.,Aristotle University of Thessaloniki |
And 4 more authors.
Atmospheric Environment | Year: 2016
Particle and NOx emissions of an SCR equipped HDD truck were studied in real-world driving conditions using the "Sniffer" mobile laboratory. Real-time CO2 measurement enables emission factor calculation for NOx and particles. In this study, we compared three different emission factor calculation methods and characterised their suitability for real-world chasing experiments. The particle number emission was bimodal and dominated by the nucleation mode particles (diameter below 23 nm) having emission factor up to 1 × 1015 #/kgfuel whereas emission factor for soot (diameter above 23 nm that is consistent with the PMP standard) was typically 1 × 1014 #/kgfuel. The effect of thermodenuder on the exhaust particles indicated that the nucleation particles consisted mainly of volatile compounds, but sometimes there also existed a non-volatile core. The nucleation mode particles are not controlled by current regulations in Europe. However, these particles consistently form under atmospheric dilution in the plume of the truck and constitute a health risk for the human population that is exposed to those. Average NOx emission was 3.55 g/kWh during the test, whereas the Euro IV emission limit over transient testing is 3.5 g NOx/kWh. The on-road emission performance of the vehicle was very close to the expected levels, confirming the successful operation of the SCR system of the tested vehicle. Heavy driving conditions such as uphill driving increased both the NOx and particle number emission factors whereas the emission factor for soot particle number remains rather constant. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd.
Valiheikki A.,University of Oulu |
Petallidou K.C.,University of Cyprus |
Kalamaras C.M.,University of Cyprus |
Kolli T.,University of Oulu |
And 4 more authors.
Applied Catalysis B: Environmental | Year: 2014
The selective catalytic reduction of NOx by H2 (H2-SCR) under strongly oxidizing conditions (520ppm NOx/1% H2/5% O2/10% CO2/He; NO:NO2-4:1-9:1) in the 150-600°C range has been studied over 3wt-% W-promoted CeO2-ZrO2 solids (85wt-% CeO2-15wt-% ZrO2 (CeZr), and 17wt-% CeO2-83wt-% Zr (ZrCe) synthesised by a proprietary method) for the first time. The highest NOx conversion (XNOx=54%) was obtained on the W-ZrCe (Zr-rich) solid at 300°C (GHSV of 51,000h-1), whereas N2-selectivity was in the 77-92%-range over both W-ZrCe (Zr-rich) and W-CeZr (Ce-rich) catalysts. Significantly higher integral specific rates (RNO, μmolNOm-2min-1) were estimated on the W-ZrCe (Zr-rich) catalyst compared to the W-CeZr (Ce-rich) one in the 250-350°C range. The formation of adsorbed NOx under 0.1% NO/10% O2/He gas treatment at 25°C followed by H2/O2-TPSR experiments revealed that at least two different kinds of active NOx of low concentration (4-7μmolg-1) were formed on both catalysts, whereas other inactive (spectator) NOx species formed were of larger concentration (>160μmolg-1). UV-vis/DRS studies revealed that deposition of 3wt-% W on ZrCe (Zr-rich) mixed metal oxide following calcination at 600°C resulted in the formation of both polymeric WOx and WO3 clusters, whereas on CeZr (Ce-rich) only the latter phase (W6+) was seen. Large differences in the concentration (μmolm-2) and strength of surface acid sites between the W-CeZr and W-ZrCe solids were revealed after performing NH3-TPD and NH3-DRIFTS. These results were found to correlate with the specific H2-SCR rate (μmolm-2min) obtained for the two solids. In particular, the surface acid sites on W-ZrCe and W-CeZr solids were found to be 5.96 and 2.76μmolm-2, respectively, whereas the specific reaction rate was 0.14 and 0.046μmolm-2min at 300 and 250°C, at which maximum rates were observed, respectively. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.
Hilli Y.,University of Eastern Finland |
Kinnunen N.M.,University of Eastern Finland |
Suvanto M.,University of Eastern Finland |
Savimaki A.,Dinex Ecocat Oy |
And 2 more authors.
Journal of Molecular Catalysis A: Chemical | Year: 2015
Abstract The formation of hydrogen sulfide in car exhaust is undesirable due to unpleasant odor and toxicity of H2S gas. H2S release can be suppressed by the addition of a NiO scavenger to a three-way catalyst (TWC). In this work, Pd-Ni bimetallic catalysts were prepared by the co-addition of Pd and Ni to γ-Al2O3 or Al2O3-La2O3 support, by the impregnation method. Different concentrations of a propionic acid aqueous solution were used as the impregnation solvent. The structure of prepared catalysts was characterized by Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET), X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and temperature-programmed reduction (TPR) techniques. Catalyst poisoning by SO2 was simulated under lean conditions and H2S release under rich conditions. XRD and TPR measurements revealed the effect of the impregnation solvent concentration on the ratio between NiO and NiAl2O4 spinel species and the reducibility of Ni species. Co-addition of Pd with Ni was proven to be beneficial for H2S suppression. Prepared bimetallic catalysts released considerably less H2S compared to physical mixtures of Pd/Al2O3 with NiO. The presence of bulk and well dispersed NiO on Pd-Ni catalysts assisted in sulfur release in the form of sulfur oxides rather than H2S. Bimetallic catalysts supported on Al2O3-La2O3 were found to release more H2S compared to catalysts on γ-Al2O3. The use of diluted solvent in bimetallic catalysts preparation decreased H2S release from Pd-Ni catalysts. © 2015 Elsevier B.V.
Dinex Ecocat Oy | Date: 2013-02-14
A catalyst coating for use in a hydrolysis catalyst (H-catalyst) for the reduction of nitrogen oxides, a manufacturing method for such a coating, a catalyst structure and its use are described. The H-catalyst includes alkaline compounds, which are capable of adsorbing HNCO and/or nitrogen oxides and which include alkali and alkaline earth metals, lanthanum and/or yttrium and/or hafnium and/or prasedium and/or gallium, and/or zirconium for promoting reduction, such as for promoting the hydrolysis of urea and the formation of ammonia and/or the selective reduction of nitrogen oxides.