Bangaon, India
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Saha D.K.,Dinabandhu Mahavidyalaya | Midya S.K.,University of Calcutta
Indian Journal of Physics | Year: 2010

The paper presents the nature of variations of clouds and total ozone over Kolkata (22°34′N, 88°24′E), India. The low-level cloud over Kolkata has been noticed to occur for many days and nights, particularly in the months from June to September. The low level cloud occurrences were minimum in winter months. The effect of cloud occurrence on ozone concentration has been critically analyzed and explained. It has been observed that the concentration of ozone increased with the increase of cloud occurrence. The related possible chemical explanation for ozone production processes has been offered. © 2010 IACS.

Sarkar D.,Howrah Zilla School | Saha D.K.,Dinabandhu Mahavidyalaya | Midya S.K.,University of Calcutta
Journal of Earth System Science | Year: 2012

The paper presents the nature of annual cycles of tropospheric ozone, cloud occurrences, NO 2, rainfall, SO 2, SPM, CO, non-methane hydrocarbon and surface solar radiation for the period October 2004 to June 2009 over Alipore (22.52°N, 88.33°E), India. Annual cycle of low-level cloud occurrences depicts that the low-level cloud over Alipore had been noticed to occur for many days and nights, particularly from June to September. The low-level cloud occurrences were found in winter months and post-monsoon period. The effect of cloud occurrences on tropospheric ozone concentration has been critically analysed and explained. It has been observed that the concentration of ozone is oscillatory with cloud occurrences and has a slight linear decreasing trend with the increase of cloud occurrences and vice versa. The concentration of tropospheric ozone attained higher value at moderate cloud occurrences and comparatively lower value at both of the lower and higher cloud occurrences. The related possible chemical and physical explanation for role of cloud occurrences on tropospheric ozone has been offered. © Indian Academy of Sciences.

Chakraborty R.,Dinabandhu Mahavidyalaya | Bose K.,Vidyasagar University | Koziel S.,Polish Academy of Sciences
Annals of Human Biology | Year: 2011

Background: Waist circumference (WC) has been previously shown to be the most efficient measure to explain variability in body mass index (BMI) and percentage body fat (PBF) in Bengalee males, including those under study. Aim: The objective was to evaluate the relative usefulness of WC and its single suitable value, if any, to identify both generalized obesity and hypertension in Bengalee men. Subjects and methods: This cross-sectional study included 433 adult (18-60 years) Bengalee Hindu slum dwelling men. Height, weight, waist circumference, systolic (SBP) and diastolic (DBP) blood pressures were measured. BMI was computed as weight (in kg) divided by height (in metres) squared. Hypertension (HT) was defined as SBP ≥ 140 mmHg and/or DBP ≥ 90 mmHg. A BMI ≥ 23 kg/m 2 and ≥ 25 kg/m 2 were considered overweight and obesity, respectively. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analyses were employed to determine the best cut-off points to define HT and overweight. Results: Prevalence of HT, overweight and obesity were 17.6% and 20.1% and 8.3%, respectively. Prevalence of central obesity using the cut-offs of 102 cm, 90 cm and 80 cm were 0.46%, 5.08% and 24.7%, respectively. Both in obese and non-obese, WC ≥ 80 cm was significantly associated with higher SBP and DBP than WC < 80 cm. WC>79.4 cm and>80.3 cm were the most appropriate for detecting HT and overweight status. Conclusion: WC value of ∼80 cm could efficiently discriminate both obesity and hypertension among the Bengalee Hindu slum dwelling men aged between 18-60 years. Central obesity, determined by WC ≥ 80 cm, was associated with increased blood pressure and higher risk of HT, independent of age and general obesity. © Copyright ©2011 Informa UK, Ltd.

Roy B.C.,Dinabandhu Mahavidyalaya | Mukherjee A.,Vivekananda College
Journal of Biomolecular Structure and Dynamics | Year: 2016

Ionotropic glutamate receptors (iGluRs) function as glutamate-activated ion channels in rapid synaptic transmission in animals. Arabidopsis thaliana possess 20 glutamate receptor-like genes (AtGLRs) in its genome which are involved in many functions including light signal transduction and calcium homeostasis. However, little is known about the physico-chemical, functional and structural properties of AtGLRs. In this study, glutamate receptor-like genes of A. thaliana have been studied in silico. Exon–intron structures revealed common origin of majority of these genes. The presence of several phosphorylation and myristoilation sites indicate the involvement of AtGLRs in various signaling processes. Gene ontology analysis showed the participation of AtGLRs in various biological processes including different stress responses. In two genes namely AT2G17260 and AT4G35290, presence of RAV1-A binding site motif in the promoter coupled with results from gene ontology annotation indicate their role in stomatal movement through abscisic acid signaling. Expression analysis showed differential expression of several tandemly arranged genes which indicates neo or sub-functionalization. Two genes namely AT5G48400 and AT5G48410 showed significantly more expression in response to Botrytis cinerea infection. Five of these genes have shown G-protein-coupled γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) receptor activity indicating a possible interaction between AtGLRs and GABA. Structurally, all of them were similar while differences were found regarding electrostatic surfaces as well as surface hydrophobicity. Results of this study provide a comprehensive reference regarding AtGLRs for further analysis regarding the structure, function, and evolution of the glutamate receptors in plants. © 2016 Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group

Jana P.K.,Institute Of Education P G For Women | Saha D.K.,Dinabandhu Mahavidyalaya | Sarkar D.,Howrah Zilla School
Journal of Earth System Science | Year: 2012

A critical analysis made on the long-term monthly, seasonal, yearly variation and annual cycle of total column ozone (TCO) concentration at New Delhi (29° N, 77° E), India and Halley Bay (76° S, 27° W), a British Antarctic Service Station reveals more decline in yearly mean ozone concentration at Halley Bay than at New Delhi from 1979 to 2005. The nature of variations of monthly mean TCO during the months of August and September was the most identical with that of yearly mean ozone values at New Delhi and Halley Bay, respectively, for the same period. Annual cycles of TCO over these stations are completely different for the above period. The effect of O3 depletion on night airglow emission of OH(8, 3) line at New Delhi and Halley Bay has been studied. Calculations based on chemical kinetics show that the airglow intensity of OH(8, 3) has also been affected due to the depletion of O3 concentration. The yearly variations and annual cycle of intensities of OH(8, 3) line for the above two stations are depicted and compared. It has been shown that the rate of decrease of intensity of OH(8, 3) line was comparatively more at Halley Bay due to dramatic decrease of Antarctic O3 concentration. © Indian Academy of Sciences.

Jana P.K.,Institute of Education PG for Women | Saha D.K.,Dinabandhu Mahavidyalaya | Sarkar D.,Howrah Zilla School
Journal of Earth System Science | Year: 2013

A critical analysis has been made on the contribution of CFC-11, CFC-12, CFC-113, CH3Cl, CH3Br, CCl4, CH3CCl3, HCFCs, halons, WMO (World Meteorological Organization) minor constituents, CH4, N2O and water vapour to the variation of total column ozone (TCO) concentration at the station in Srinagar (34°N, 74.8°E), India from 1992 to 2003. With the implementation of Montreal Protocol, though the concentrations of CFC-11, CFC-113, CH3Cl, CH3Br, CCl4 and CH3CCl3 had decreased, the concentrations of CFC-12, HCFCs, halons, WMO minor constituents, CH4, N2O and water vapour had increased, as a result of which TCO had risen from 1992 to 2003 at the above station. The nature of yearly variations of concentrations of the above ozone depleting substances and greenhouse gases as well as ozone has been presented. Possible explanations for build-up of TCO have also been offered. © Indian Academy of Sciences.

Mukherjee A.,Dinabandhu Mahavidyalaya
Molekuliarnaia biologiia | Year: 2015

Plants possess several neurotransmitters with well-known physiological roles. Currently only receptors for glutamate were reported to be found in plants, while receptors for acetylcholine, serotonin and GABA have not yet been reported. In animals, these neurotransmitters act via one class of ligand binding ion channels called Cys-loop receptors which play a major role in fast synaptic transmission. They show the presence of two domains namely Neurotransmitter-gated ion-channel ligand-binding domain (Pfam: PF02931) and Neurotransmitter-gated transmembrane domain (Pfam: PF02932). Cys-loop receptors are also known in prokaryotes. No cys-loop receptor has been characterized from plants yet. In this study, the Ensembl plants database was searched for proteins with these two domains in the sequenced plant genomes, what resulted in only one protein (LIC1) from the alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. BLAST and profile HMM searches against the pdb structure database showed that this protein is related to animal and prokaryotic cys-loop receptors, although the cysteine residues characteristic of the cys-loop are absent. Physico-chemical and sequence analysis indicate that LIC1 is an anionic receptor. A model of this protein was generated using homology modeling based on a nicotinic acetylcholine receptor of Torpedo marmorata. The characteristic extracellular domain (ECD) and transmembrane domain (TMD) are well structured but the intercellular region is poorly formed. This is the first report on a detailed characterization of a cys-loop receptor from the plant kingdom.

Chakraborty R.,Dinabandhu Mahavidyalaya | Bose K.,Vidyasagar University | Koziel S.,Polish Academy of Sciences
Rural and Remote Health | Year: 2011

Introduction: Body mass index (BMI) is widely accepted as one of the best indicators of nutritional status in adults. Mid-upper arm circumference (MUAC) is another anthropometric measure that has also been used to evaluate adult nutritional status. The objective of this study was to evaluate the use of MUAC as a simpler and reliable alternative to BMI. A suitable cut-off value was also proposed for identification of chronic energy deficiency (CED) in relation to self-reported illness among the adult Oraon males of Jharkhand state in India. Methods: The study was based on a cross-sectional survey involving 205 rural adult men belonging to the Oraon tribal group of Jharkand State in India. Height and weight were measured for each participant. The BMI was calculated as kg/m 2. The internationally accepted cut-off points of BMI and MUAC were utilised to determine nutritional status. An episode of illness was recorded for each subject if any working day was lost. Receiver operating characteristic curve analyses were undertaken to discover the most suitable values of MUAC both for CED and illness. Results: The MUAC values of 243 and 239 mm were identified as the best cut offs to identify CED (BMI <18.5) and illness, respectively. There were marked increases in both CED and illness prevalence rates at a MUAC level lower than 240 mm. Therefore, a MUAC value of close to 240 mm seemed appropriate as a simple and efficient cut-off point for the determination of undernutrition and higher rates of illness and loss of working days in adult Oraon males. Conclusion: Because MUAC is a much simpler measure than BMI, the use of MUAC 240 mm as a cut-off point is predicted to have considerable public health implications, especially with respect to primary health care related to CED and morbidity. © R Chakraborty, K Bose, S Koziel, 2011.

Plants produce many terpenoids including gibberellins and many commercially important secondary metabolites. The final steps of terpenoid production involve terpene synthase (TPS) enzymes. The origin of plant TPS is not known; searches for TPS showed their presence in all plant groups except algae. Although many plants have several genes in their genome that encode TPS enzymes, the bryophyte Physcomitrella patens (Hedw.) Bruch & Schimp. possesses only one bifunctional ent-kaurene synthase (PpCPS/KS), which produces both 16-hydroxykaurane and ent-kaurene (the precursor of gibberellins). This protein shares characteristics of two unifunctional TPS of higher plants - ent-copalyl diphosphate synthase (CPS) and ent-kaurene synthase (KS). Bifunctional TPS are also found in fungi. In this study, the bifunctional PpCPS/KS has been characterized by some bioinformatics tools. Comparative analysis of PpCPS/KS with some fungal and plant TPS as well as terpenoid-producing bacterial enzymes has been performed. The results indicate that bifunctional TPS came from fungi to bryophytes, probably by horizontal gene transfer and unifunctional TPS gradually evolved from bifunctional TPS in higher plants. © 2015 Société botanique de France.

Chakraborty R.,Dinabandhu Mahavidyalaya | Bose K.,Vidyasagar University
Malaysian Journal of Nutrition | Year: 2012

Introduction: Recent findings show a high incidence of stroke among slum dwellers in Kolkata, India. This cross-sectional study aimed to compare the association of different adiposity indices to blood pressure (BP) and hypertension (HT) among slum-dwelling Bengalee men in Kolkata. Methods: Measurements of height, weight, waist and hip-circumferences, biceps, triceps, subscapular and suprailiac skinfolds, systolic (SBP) and diastolic (DBP) of 470 men aged 18-60 years were taken. Body mass index (BMI), body adiposity index (BAI), percent body fat, waist-height (WHtR) and waist-hip ratios (WHR) were computed. The effect of adiposity values on HT was estimated by logistic regressions, while partial correlations and linear regressions analyses of SBP and DBP with each index were performed. Results: BMI had the strongest correlation with blood pressure. The newly proposed index, BAI, had significant but considerably lower correlations with both BP compared to BMI and central adiposity. Both BMI and WHtR explained DBP with equal efficacy. Abdominal obesity, measured by WC, showed the strongest association with risk of HT, independent of age and BMI. The predictive effect of abdominal adiposity on blood pressure (SBP and DBP) appeared to be modified by age-BMI interaction. Conclusion: BAI showed no advantage over other adiposity measures in the prediction of hypertension among the men in this study. Waist circumference was the best obesity measure to predict hypertension and may be preferred to BMI considering its simplicity of measurement. The simple measure of WC might help in easy screening of hypertension among the poor people in resource constrained settings such as those in urban slums.

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