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New Orleans, LA, United States

Dillard University is a private, historically black liberal arts college in New Orleans, Louisiana, United States. Founded in 1930 incorporating earlier institutions that went back to 1869, it is affiliated with the United Church of Christ and the United Methodist Church.The campus is near Gentilly Boulevard and the London Avenue Canal, established in the 1930s. Wikipedia.

Lesen A.E.,Dillard University | Juhl A.R.,Lamont Doherty Earth Observatory | Anderson O.R.,Lamont Doherty Earth Observatory
Aquatic Microbial Ecology | Year: 2010

The present study is the first to simultaneously document the contributions of bacteria, heterotrophic flagellates, ciliates, and naked, planktonic amebas to the carbon (C) budget of an estuarine water column, and is also the first study of protistan bacterivory in the lower Hudson River Estuary (HRE). Observations were collected at a single near-shore location between June 2006 and May 2009. Bacterial counts and biomass varied approximately 1 order of magnitude on different dates, but were comparable to previous studies of the HRE and other estuaries. Of the 3 heterotrophic protist groups enumerated, heterotrophic nanoflagellates were the least variable and generally had the highest biomass (on average equaling 38% of the bacterial biomass). Counts and biomasses of ciliates and amebas were highly variable, ranging over at least 3 orders of magnitude between sampling dates. Much of the variability in ameba abundance was consistent with previous observations of seasonality. Ciliate biomass averaged 8%, and ameba biomass averaged 15% of the bacterial biomass. Thus, at this location, the importance of amebas as micropredators may be comparable to that of the ciliates, a group generally receiving greater research attention. Ameba ingestion rates could not be measured directly but 3 indirect approaches for calculating ingestion rates produced mean values ranging from 1.2 to 2.5 ng C d-1 ng-1 ameba biomass. Each approach demonstrated that ameba C consumption at the study location was highly variable, but was at times high relative to the bacterial standing stock. Taken together, these data suggest that amebas may be more common and of greater importance in estuarine C-fluxes than generally appreciated. © Inter-Research 2010.

Wang G.,University of New Orleans | Yang H.,University of New Orleans | Cheuk S.,University of New Orleans | Coleman S.,Dillard University
Beilstein Journal of Organic Chemistry | Year: 2011

Low molecular weight gelators are an important class of molecules. The supramolecular gels formed by carbohydrate derived low molecular weight gelators are interesting soft materials that show great potential for many applications. Previously, we have synthesized a series of methyl 4,6-O-benzylidene-α-D- glucopyranoside derivatives and found that several of them are good gelators for water, aqueous mixtures of DMSO, or aqueous mixtures of ethanol. The gelation efficiency of these glycolipid derivatives is dependent upon the structures of their acyl chains. In order to understand the influence of the anomeric position of the sugar headgroup towards self-assembly, we synthesized a series of 1-deoxyglucose analogs, and examined their gelation properties in several solvents. Several long chain esters, including diacetylene containing esters, and aryl esters exhibited gelation in ethanol, aqueous ethanol, or aqueous DMSO. The synthesis and characterization of these novel analogs are reported.

Lesen A.E.,Dillard University | Lipps J.H.,University of California at Berkeley
Quaternary Research | Year: 2011

In this study we compare the foraminifera of modern South San Francisco Bay with fossils from sediments of a previous estuary at 125. ka to provide a basis for interpreting the impact of natural and human change on the benthic ecosystem. All the species found in the Pleistocene sediments of this study are estuarine and/or shallow-water species occurring commonly in San Francisco Bay today, except for the introduced foraminifer Trochammina hadai, a native of Japan that was not found in samples taken in San Francisco Bay before 1983. The biodiversity and species composition of the fossil and modern assemblages before the introduction of T. hadai are nearly identical, suggesting that the environmental and physical changes in the 125,000-year-old and modern estuaries have not had a significant effect on the meiofauna of the Bay. In contrast, modern anthropogenic change in the form of species introductions has impacted the modern foraminiferal assemblage: T. hadai began to dominate the modern assemblage a decade after its introduction. Similar to the recorded impacts of introductions of marine metazoan invertebrate species, the dominance of T. hadai changed species proportions in the post-1980s foraminiferal assemblage, however no known extinctions in the native foraminiferal fauna occurred. © 2011 University of Washington.

The problem of hypertension among African-Americans is one of the major areas of health disparities. The American Heart Association (2009) noted that the prevalence of hypertension among African-Americans is perhaps among the highest in the world and this is particularly so among African-American women (44.0%). The purpose of this study was to determine how therapeutic chair massage and patient teaching in diaphragmatic breathing affected African-American women's blood pressure, stress, and anxiety levels over one week or six weeks time periods. A Modified Stress, Coping, and Adaptation Model (Roy, 1976; Lazarus, 1966), Descriptives, T-tests, Pearson Product Moment Correlations, Multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA), and Multivariate analysis of variance with covariate (MANCOVA) were used. Descriptive statistics indicated a significance for decreased systolic blood pressure levels for the one week post massage intervention measurement with p = .01, diastolic blood pressure level significance for the same group p = .02, significance for this group's State Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) Y2 Scale score p = .01, and Roy's Largest Root p = .03.

Agency: NSF | Branch: Continuing grant | Program: | Phase: SCIENCE, TECH & SOCIETY | Award Amount: 213.87K | Year: 2013


The Principal Investigator (PI) will address questions that have arisen as a result of a shift by the scientific community towards engaging with complex problems that span two or more distinct realm; in this case, the issue is climate change, which spans environmental and social realms. Key questions to be addressed concern the challenges faced by scientists engaged in work on this problem, and the character of the associated shift in the norms within the scientific community. The PI will address these questions by focusing on several carefully chosen case studies of scientists and organizations at the leading edge of these transformations. The PI will use multiple methods in doing so, including in-depth, semi-structured oral history interviews with scientists, and archival research into the development of their organizations and research projects. The results of this project will be an oral history website and a monograph of case studies to document this transformative period in science.

Intellectual Merit

The proposed work will contribute to the growing body of research into science and civic engagement by documenting stories of scientists themselves. In investigating how current scientific issues (such as climate change) are engendering a shift in science practice, this project will also increase our understanding of how the scientific problems of an age influence the evolution of scientific social and institutional norms, and how (in turn) those norms affect the way scientific problems are studied. The information and products gained from this research will be instructive to other scientists, to sociologists of science and to STS scholars.

Broader Impacts :

This project will serve to inform policy at academic institutions and to guide efforts to train a new generation of scientists who plan to engage in work that addresses the scientific and social complexities of climate change. Additionally, the proposed work will enhance our understanding of how to facilitate communication between scientists, policy makers, community members and other stakeholders, which could in turn improve research and policy effectiveness. The site of this work is a historically black college liberal arts college in New Orleans, and undergraduates are included in the research plan as research assistants, meaning that this project will contribute to the training of underrepresented minority students in science and social science research and encourage underrepresented minority students to pursue graduate training in those fields. The oral history website, housed at the work site, will serve to provide a deeper understanding to the New Orleans community, particularly communities of color, about the science of climate change and about science in general.

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