Dila, Ethiopia
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Tadesse M.,Dilla University | Tadesse T.,University of Gondar
Tropical Doctor | Year: 2010

Accidental needlestick injuries sustained by health-care workers are a common occupational hazard and a public health issue in health-care settings. An analytical cross-sectional study was conducted and 30.9% of health-care workers had experienced at least one needlestick injury in the previous year.


Ketema H.,Dilla University | Yimer F.,Hawassa University
Soil and Tillage Research | Year: 2014

With the objectives of assessing variations in selected soil properties, two tillage types: agroforestry based conservation tillage (AFCST) and maize based conventional tillage (MCVT) under three age categories (5, 10 and 15-years) were selected in Chichu and Haroresa Kebels, Dilla Zuria, Ethiopia. A total of 48 composite soil samples (4 replication×2 tillage types×3 age categories×2 soil depth layers: 0-10cm and 10-20cm) were collected to analyze texture and soil organic carbon (SOC%). Addational undisturbed core samples were also collected to determine soil bulk density (gcm-3). Water infiltration capacity was also measured in the field using double ring infiltrometer. The results showed that clay and sand textural fractions significantly varied (p<0.001, p=0.002, respectively) with age of land management. Soil bulk density, soil moisture content (SMC), total porosity (Pt) and soil organic carbon (SOC) varied significantly with tillage types (p<0.001) and soil depth (p<0.001). Water infiltration (rate and cumulative) significantly varied (p<0.001) with tillage types: higher in the AFCST than in the MCVT. Lower soil bulk density, higher soil organic carbon (SOC) and soil moisture content (SMC) were observed in the top 0-10cm soil layer under the AFCST than in the MCVT. Soil bulk density and soil moisture content (SMC) increased while total porosity (Pt) and soil organic carbon (SOC) decreased with soil depth in both tillage types. Improvement in the soil properties under AFCST was due to higher soil organic matter (SOM) input and less soil disturbance. Thus, reducing the frequency of soil disturbance through application of conservation tillage would help to improve the soil quality. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.


Tesfa S.,Max Planck Institute for the Physics of Complex Systems | Tesfa S.,Dilla University
Physical Review A - Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Physics | Year: 2010

A detailed derivation of the master equation and the corresponding time evolution of the cavity radiation of a coherent beat laser when the atoms are initially prepared in a partial coherent superposition is presented. It turns out that the quantum features and intensity of the cavity radiation are considerably modified by the phase fluctuation arising due to the practical incapability of preparing atoms in the intended perfect coherent superposition. New terms having opposite signs than the contribution of the driving radiation emerged in the master equation. This can be taken as an indication of a competing effect between the two in the manifestation of the nonclassical features. This, on the other hand, means that there is a chance to regain the quantum properties that might have been lost due to faulty preparation in engineering the driving mechanism and vice versa. In light of this, quite remarkably, the cavity radiation is shown to exhibit nonclassical features including two-mode squeezing and entanglement when there is no driving and when the atoms are initially prepared in a partial maximum atomic coherence superposition, contrary to earlier predictions for the case of perfect coherence. © 2010 The American Physical Society.


Tesfa S.,Max Planck Institute for the Physics of Complex Systems | Tesfa S.,Dilla University
Physical Review A - Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Physics | Year: 2011

A detailed analysis of the dynamics of the cavity radiation of a coherently pumped correlated emission laser is presented. The phase fluctuation and dephasing are found to affect the time evolution of the two-mode squeezing and intensity significantly. The intensity and degree of the two-mode squeezing increase at early stages of the process with time, but this trend changes rapidly afterwards. It is also shown that they increase with phase fluctuation and dephasing in the strong driving limit; however, the situation appears to be opposite in the weak driving limit. This essentially suggests that the phase fluctuation and dephasing weaken the coherence induced by a strong driving mechanism so that the spontaneous emission gets a chance. Moreover, the degree of two-mode squeezing turns out to increase with the rate of injection of the atoms into the cavity only at early stages, whereas the mean photon number increases throughout the lasing process. The other important aspect of the phase fluctuation, in this regard, is the relaxation of the time at which the maximum squeezing is manifested as well as the time in which the radiation remains in a squeezed state. © 2011 American Physical Society.


Tesfa S.,Max Planck Institute for the Physics of Complex Systems | Tesfa S.,Dilla University
Physical Review A - Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Physics | Year: 2011

A detailed derivation of the master equation of the cavity radiation of a coherently prepared Y-shaped four-level correlated emission laser is presented. The outline of the procedures that can be employed in analytically solving the stochastic differential equations and the rate equations of various correlations are also provided. It is shown that coherently preparing the atoms in the upper two energy levels and the lower level initially can lead to a genuine continuous-variable tripartite entanglement. Moreover, preparing the atoms in the coherent superposition, other than the possible maximum or minimum, of the upper two energy levels, leaving the lower level unpopulated, may lead to a similar observation. With the possibility of the atom at the intermediate energy level to take three different transition roots guided by the induced coherence, this system, in general, is found to encompass versatile options for practical utilization. In particular, coupling at least one of the dipole forbidden transitions by an external radiation is expected to enhance the degree of detectable entanglement.


Woldemedhin B.,Dilla University | Wabe N.T.,Jimma University
North American Journal of Medical Sciences | Year: 2012

Background: Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) has markedly decreased the morbidity and mortality due to HIV disease. However, toxicities, comorbidity, pregnancy, and treatment failure, among others, would result in frequent initial HAART regimen change. Aim: The study was designed to assess the causes of initial highly active antiretroviral therapeutic regimen changes among patients on HAART. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted using a retrospective institution-based study, by reviewing the patient information sheet and physician diagnosis cards. Patient cards that showed a change in the initial treatment regimen were assessed and analyzed, to identify the common reason that resulted in a change from the initial treatment regimen. The data was analyzed using SPSS version 16.0. Results: A total of 340 patient cards were assessed. The majority of the patients (69.29%) were females. The most common first regimen, before the first switch, was stavudine / lamivudine / nevirapine (D4T/3TC/NVP) (54.70%) and stavudine / lamivudine / Efavirenz (D4T/3TC/EFV) (20.88%). The main reasons for modification were toxicity, comorbidity, pregnancy, and treatment failure. The main types of toxicities observed were peripheral neuropathy (36.52%), rash (17.83%), and anemia (17.39%). Conclusion: Toxicity was the main reason for the modification of initial HAART among the study population. Efavirenz-based regimens had the lowest hazard for change relatively, except in pregnancy-related cases.


Ligani S.,P.A. College | Hussen A.,Dilla University
Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology | Year: 2014

In this study, the levels of DDT and its metabolite residues were determined in chewable parts of Catha edulis plants grown in the southern part of Ethiopia. The levels of p,p′-DDT and p,p′-DDE were found to be in the range of 10.8-19.7 and 3.5-18.6 μg/kg, respectively. These data revealed that the residue being detected is from recent applications. The estimated daily intake of total DDT from C. edulis consumption was calculated to be in the range between 0.0278 and 0.0747 μg/kg, which is significantly lower than the FAO/WHO guideline. However, this may not guarantee safety, as the application of DDT extends to vegetables as well. Even though the use of DDT was banned in Ethiopia for agriculture purposes, detectable levels are still being observed. The results of the study necessitate the need for awareness creation among the people in the community. © 2014 Springer Science+Business Media New York.


Jirata T.J.,Dilla University
Journal of Intergenerational Relationships | Year: 2015

The rapidly growing globalization that embodies new technologies has greatly characterized intergenerational difference by fostering change and hindering continuity of values and traditions. However, the effects of cultural change on intergenerational continuity and change in less technologically developed societies have not been documented adequately. This article presents change and continuity between adults and children in conceptualization of the “child” in the context of the Guji people of Ethiopia. It discusses how the meaning of “child” is variable across synchronic generations among the Guji people and how this variability reflects discontinuities and continuities in intergenerational transmission of local knowledge. The difference between adults and children in their knowledge of generational structure is observed as a ground for their divergence in conceptualization of the “child.” Accordingly, for adults, one’s position in generational structure is a basis for identifying somebody as a child. However, for children, one’s level of physical maturity is a basis for defining somebody as a child. The data on which this article is based are drawn from 10 months of ethnographic fieldwork among the Guji people. © 2015 Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.


BACKGROUND: About 60% of new HIV infections occur in HIV sero-discordant couples as 30% of married HIV positives have negative spouse. Although HIV-discordant couples are at 10% annual risk of acquiring HIV infection and large number of new HIV infections occur in stable partnerships, most HIV prevention programs focus on reducing casual sexual partners, condom use, and increasing fidelity among married partners. The purpose is assessment of sero-discordance among couples and associated factors.METHODS: The study was facility based cross sectional survey of couples who tested for HIV in 2011 and lived together at least 1 year period. The sample size was 154 couples (308 individuals) and necessary ethical issues were considered.RESULTS: Among 152 couples (304 individuals) who received VCT, HIV sero-prevalence in this study was found to be 11(3.6%). The prevalence in females 8(5.3%) was higher than that in males 3(2.0%). Of all participants, 9(3.0%) were found to be sero-discordant, 2(0.7%) concordant positive and 293(96.4%) concordant negative. Of all couples 9(5.9%) were found to be sero-discordant, 2(1.3%) concordant positive and 141(92.8%) concordant negative. Of the 9 sero-discordant couples, the 7(4.6%) prevalence in females was higher than 2(1.3%) in males. And, among 9 discordant couples, 5 of them were premarital sex partner and the rest 4 were married couples. Premarital couples were significantly discordant than married couples, AOR=1.68; 95%CI (1.36- 5.40). HIV discordance was also significantly associated with having number of two or more sexual partners than one sexual partner AOR=4.06; 95%CI (2.41-10.13).CONCLUSION: The study indicated high prevalence of HIV discordance and increased risk of vulnerability. Therefore, couples should be aware of their own and their partners' sero-status before and after engagement. Again, the following risk reduction methods were recommended: education of discordant couples on 100% correct condom use, and if condom breaks, or if they forget to use, Post-Exposure Prophylaxis must be established; for those who are not volunteer to use condom and/or have a child, early initiation of ART to positive partner.


Worako A.W.,Dilla University
Journal of Urban and Environmental Engineering | Year: 2015

Lake Hawassa is one of the Major Ethiopian Rift Valley Lakes which is situated in southern regional state, which has a closed basin system and receives water from only Tikurwuha River and runoff from the catchment. Quality of the lake water is vital for the surrounding community for proper and safe use of the lake. The present study was designed to examine the physicochemical and biological water quality suitability for multiple purposes and to determine trophic state index of the lake for a period of three months from December to February, 2011/12. Water samples were collected from the lake on monthly basis and analyzed for all water quality parameters by using standard methods. Data analysis was performed by descriptive, multivariate analysis (MANOVA) and Tukey-Kramer test. The overall water quality parameters analytical results have been observed as pH (7.5), TDS (450.1), temp.(21.23°C), DO (17.85), turbidity (8.44 NTU), COD (48.73), BOD5 (117), Fˉ (12.8), NO3ˉ (5.27), PO4 3- (1.12), NO2ˉ (0.04), TN (5.42), TP (0.37), Clˉ (30.84), Mn (0.09), Zn(0.19), Na+(331), Chlorophyll-a(25.45μg/L), TC(11,883MPN/100ml) and FC (99.67MPN/100ml) and units for others in mg/L. On the other hand, the value of indices for irrigation water quality was SAR (12.2-16), SSP (83.77-84.34%), MAR (93.83-95.37%) and KR (5.71-7.18). The values of the whole analyzed parameters have shown significant variation in site (P<0.05). As irrigation water quality mainly focuses on the indices of SAR and EC/TDS, the lake water is in good condition for the purpose. The values of trace heavy metals were under permissible limits for multiple aspects. On average, the trophic state index of the Lake Hawassa was hypereutrophic (TSI = 72.6), as Carlson value category. In general, the lake water is not suitable for drinking, recreational and irrigation of some raw consuming crops but it is suitable for aquatic life. © 2015, JUEE Press. All rights reserved.

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