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Banksia Beach, Australia

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Banksia Beach, Australia
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Moravec F.,Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic | Diggles B.K.,DigsFish Services Pty Ltd.
Folia Parasitologica | Year: 2014

Based on light and scanning electron microscopical studies, the following nine species of Philometridae (Nematoda: Dracunculoidea) are described from female worms parasitizing marine perciform fishes belonging to six families off the northern coast Australia (near Darwin): Philometra australiensis sp. n. from the swimbladder of the king threadfin Polydactylus macrochir (Günther) (Polynemidae); P. epinepheli Dewi et Palm, 2013 from the operculum of the orange-spotted grouper Epinephelus coioides (Hamilton) (Serranidae); Philometra johnii Moravec et Ali, 2013 from the gonad of the croaker Johnius sp. (Sciaenidae); P. macrochiri sp. n. from the sensory fin of P. macrochir; P. zabidii sp. n. from the ovary of the ninespine batfish Zabidius novemaculeatus (McCulloch) (Ephippidae); Philometra sp. 1 and Philometra sp. 2 from the ovary of the Spanish flag snapper Lutjanus carponotatus (Richardson) (Lutjanidae) and the silver grunt Pomadasys argenteus (Forsskål) (Haemulidae), respectively; Philometroides eleutheronemae Moravec et Manoharan, 2013 from the ovary of the fourfinger threadfin Eleutheronema tetradactylum (Shaw) (Polynemidae); and Spirophilometra endangae Dewi et Palm, 2013 from the pectoral fins of E. coioides. The new species P. australiensis is characterized mainly by the structure of the cephalic end, 14 minute cephalic papillae, absence of caudal projections and body length of gravid female (67 mm), P. macrochiri by the presence of a conspicuously large anterior oesophageal bulb, 14 very small cephalic papillae and the truncated posterior end of body without any caudal projections, whereas P. zabidii is characterized by the presence of distinct caudal projections, the number (14) and larger size and arrangement of cephalic papillae, a poorly developed anterior oesophageal inflation, the body length (114 mm) and the host family (Ephippidae). All above-mentioned species were recorded from Australian waters for the first time. © Institute of Parasitology, Biology Centre ASCR.


Moravec F.,Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic | Diggles B.K.,DigsFish Services Pty Ltd.
Systematic Parasitology | Year: 2014

Based on light and electron microscopical studies, two new gonad-infecting species of Philometra Costa, 1845 (Nematoda: Philometridae) are described from the ovary of marine perciform fishes off the northern coast of Australia (near Darwin): Philometra carangis n. sp. from the bluespotted trevally Caranx bucculentus Alleyne & Macleay (Carangidae) and P. carponotati n. sp. from the Spanish flag snapper Lutjanus carponotatus (Richardson) (Lutjanidae). Philometra carangis is mainly characterised by the length of the spicules (153-189 μm), the presence of a distinct dorsal protuberance consisting of two dorsolateral lamellar parts separated from each other by a smooth median field, a V-shaped mound on the male caudal extremity, a pair of large post-cloacal papillae and the body length of the males (3.22-4.15 mm). Philometra carponotati is distinguished from other congeneric species parasitising lutjanids by the length of the spicules and gubernaculum (225-252 and 99-117 μm, respectively), the absence of a dorsal protuberance on the distal lamellar part of the gubernaculum, the presence of a U-shaped mound on the male caudal extremity, a pair of large post-cloacal papillae and the body length of the male (3.74-4.31 mm). Besides the recently established Philometra zabidii Moravec & Diggles, 2014 (based on a single female), these two newly described nematodes are the only nominal gonad-infecting species of Philometra known to parasitise marine fishes in Australian waters. © 2014 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.


Three species of Euryhaliotrema Kritsky & Boeger, 2002 (Monogenoidea: Dactylogyridae) were collected from the gills of four golden snapper Lutjanus johnii (Bloch) (Lutjanidae) from the marine and brackish waters off Darwin, Northern Territory, Australia. Type-specimens of Ancyrocephalus johni Tripathi, 1959 apparently have not survived and the possibility existed that the species was based on specimens representing more than one species. Euryhaliotrema johni (Tripathi, 1959) (sensu Young, 1968) was redescribed and determined to most likely represent A. johni, originally described from the River Hooghly, Diamond Harbour, India. Two new species were described. Euryhaliotrema longibaculoides n. sp. was most similar to Euryhaliotrema longibaculum (Zhukov, 1976) Kritsky & Boeger, 2002 from Lutjanus spp. from the western Atlantic Ocean. It differed from E. longibaculum by having a male copulatory organ (MCO) with an elongate comparatively delicate shaft and a bulbous base (MCO U- or J-shaped with funnel-shaped base in E. longibaculum). Based on the comparative morphology of the haptoral sclerites, Euryhaliotrema lisae n. sp. was most similar to Euryhaliotrema cryptophallus Kritsky & Yang, 2012 from the gills of the mangrove red snapper Lutjanus argentimaculatus (Forsskål) from the South China Sea. Euryhaliotrema lisae differed from E. cryptophallus by having a copulatory complex with an obvious weakly sclerotised J-shaped MCO (MCO cryptic, delicate, and with a shaft comprising about one counterclockwise ring in E. cryptophallus). © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.


Moravec F.,Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic | Diggles B.,DigsFish Services Pty Ltd. | Barnes L.,Cardno | Macbeth W.,Cardno
Helminthologia (Poland) | Year: 2014

A new nematode species, Buckleyella ornata n. sp. (Philometridae), is described from female specimens found in the abdominal cavity (mesenteries) of the talang queenfish Scomberoides commersonnianus Lacepède (Carangidae, Perciformes) caught in Darwin Harbour, northern Australia. Based on light and scanning electron microscopical examination, the new species mainly differs from the only other congeneric species B. buckleyi Rasheed, 1963 in having a markedly shorter oesophagus (2.04–2.75 mm long), by the absence of a cephalic mound around the mouth aperture, by the presence of four submedian cephalic papillae of the inner circle, and by a somewhat different arrangement of cuticular ornamentations on the body surface. Three protruding oesophageal teeth and large, dome-shaped cephalic papillae of the external circle present in the smallest gravid female of B. ornata are atrophied in larger conspecific gravid females. Buckleyella ornata is the first known nominal species of a philometrid parasitizing carangid fishes in Australian waters. © 2014, Versita Warsaw and Springer-Verlag Wien.


Acanthocercodes n. g. (Diplectanidae) is proposed for Acanthocercodes bullardi n. sp. and three previously described species of Diplectanum all parasites of the gill lamellae of threadfins (Perciformes: Polynemidae). The new genus is characterised by species having peduncular spines composed of an anteriorly directed point and a flattened base from which an anterior root arises. Members of the genus lack auxiliary spinous or sucker-like structures in the haptor. Acanthocercodes bullardi n. sp. is described from the Atlantic threadfin, Polydactylus octonemus (Girard), in the Gulf of Mexico off Louisiana, USA. Diplectanum polynemus Tripathi, 1957 is redescribed and transferred to Acanthocercodes as A. polynemus (Tripathi, 1957) n. comb. based on specimens collected from the fourfinger threadfin, Eleutheronema tetradactylum (Shaw), from the mouth of the River Adelaide, Northern Territory, Australia. Diplectanum spinosum (Maillard & Vala, 1980) (= Pseudodiplectanum spinosum Maillard & Vala, 1980) and Diplectanum megacirrus (Maillard & Vala, 1980) (= Pseudodiplectanum megacirrus Maillard & Vala, 1980) from the lesser African threadfin, Galeoides decadactylus (Bloch), are transferred to Acanthocercodes as A. spinosum (Maillard & Vala, 1980) n. comb. and A. megacirrus (Maillard & Vala, 1980) n. comb., respectively. © 2015, Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.


Moravec F.,Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic | Diggles B.K.,DigsFish Services Pty Ltd.
Parasitology Research | Year: 2015

A new nematode species, Philometra barnesi sp. n. (Philometridae), is described from the ovary of the marine teleost Pomadasys argenteus (Fosskål) (Haemulidae) off the northern coast of Australia (near Darwin). The new species is characterized by short subequal spicules (84 and 87 μm long), a gubernaculum without a dorsal protuberance at its distal tip, the structure of male anterior and posterior body ends, the body lengths of males (1.67 mm) and gravid females (320–597 mm) and the structure of the oesophagus and caudal end of gravid females. Philometra barnesi is the sixth nominal gonad-infecting species of this genus recorded from marine fishes in Australian waters and the third species of philometrids described from fishes of the family Haemulidae. © 2015, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.


Cutmore S.C.,University of Queensland | Diggles B.K.,DigsFish Services Pty Ltd | Cribb T.H.,University of Queensland
Systematic Parasitology | Year: 2016

Four transversotrematid trematodes are reported from commercial teleost species in Australian waters. Transversotrema hunterae n. sp. is described from three species of Sillago Cuvier (Sillaginidae) from Moreton Bay, south-east Queensland. Molecular characterisation using ITS2 rDNA confirmed this stenoxenic specificity of Transversotrema hunterae n. sp., with identical sequence data from Sillago maculata Quoy & Gaimard, S. analis Whitley and S. ciliata Cuvier. Phylogenetic analysis, based on 28S rDNA data, demonstrates that T. hunterae n. sp. belongs to the ‘Transversotrema licinum clade’ and is most closely related to Transversotrema licinum Manter, 1970 and T. polynesiae Cribb, Adlard, Bray, Sasal & Cutmore, 2014, with the three species forming a well-supported clade in all analyses. We extend the known host and geographical ranges of three previously described Transversotrema species, T. licinum, T. elegans Hunter, Ingram, Adlard, Bray & Cribb, 2010 and T. espanola Hunter & Cribb, 2012. The new records represent significant range extensions for the three species and permit further examination of the patterns of biogeographical distribution in Australian waters. Host-specificity of Transversotrema species is examined, and the degree to which morphological analysis can inform taxonomic studies of this group is discussed. © 2016, Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.


Moravec F.,Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic | Diggles B.,DigsFish Services Pty Ltd
Parasitology Research | Year: 2015

A new nematode species, Philometra mirabilis sp. n. (Philometridae), is described based on a subgravid female specimen recovered from the ovary of the freshwater perciform fish Cichla mirianae Kullander and Ferreira (Cichlidae) in the Juruena River (Amazon River basin), State of Mato Grosso, Brazil. The new species is morphologically very different from congeners parasitizing fishes in South America, being mainly characterized by the markedly elongate, narrow body 171 mm long (maximum width/body length 1:598), the presence of three small cone-shaped oesophageal teeth protruding out of the mouth and an onion-shaped oesophageal inflation distinctly separated from the posterior part of the oesophagus, the relative length of the oesophagus, and the rounded posterior end of the body without any caudal projections. It is the third known valid species of Philometra Costa, 1845 parasitizing a freshwater fish in South America and the second species of this genus reported from fishes of the family Cichlidae. © 2015, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.


PubMed | DigsFish Services Pty Ltd. and Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Parasitology research | Year: 2015

A new nematode species, Philometra barnesi sp. n. (Philometridae), is described from the ovary of the marine teleost Pomadasys argenteus (Fosskl) (Haemulidae) off the northern coast of Australia (near Darwin). The new species is characterized by short subequal spicules (84 and 87m long), a gubernaculum without a dorsal protuberance at its distal tip, the structure of male anterior and posterior body ends, the body lengths of males (1.67mm) and gravid females (320-597mm) and the structure of the oesophagus and caudal end of gravid females. Philometra barnesi is the sixth nominal gonad-infecting species of this genus recorded from marine fishes in Australian waters and the third species of philometrids described from fishes of the family Haemulidae.


Diggles B.K.,DigsFish Services Pty Ltd
New Zealand Journal of Marine and Freshwater Research | Year: 2013

Sydney rock oysters (Saccostrea glomerata) were historically abundant throughout the intertidal and subtidal zones of the Pumicestone Passage. However, today subtidal oyster reefs are extinct, and loss of around 96% of the vertical zonation suitable for oyster habitation has occurred. European land use practices caused large increases in sediment flux into inshore regions by 1870. This may explain why subtidal oyster reefs declined after major flood events in the late nineteenth century, associated with infestations by spionid polychaete mudworms. Today, mortalities of S. glomerata in the region are associated with QX disease caused by Marteilia sydneyi. Increased virulence of M. sydneyi is likely due to a combination of increased abundance of intermediate hosts in habitat utilised by oysters, together with immunosuppression of the oysters. These processes are all driven by declining water quality derived from anthropogenic catchment development. Recently expanded marine park sanctuary zones fail to protect the ecosystem against continuing water quality decline. Rehabilitation of the ecosystem will require effective catchment management targeting reductions in nutrient and sediment loading, as well as restoration of oyster reefs using QX-resistant oysters. © 2013 The Royal Society of New Zealand.

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