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Hosseinpour M.,University Putra Malaysia | Abdul A.B.,University Putra Malaysia | Rahman H.S.,University Putra Malaysia | Rahman H.S.,University of Sulaimani | And 6 more authors.
Journal of Nanomaterials | Year: 2014

This study investigated the anticancer effect of zerumbone (ZER) and zerumbone-loaded nanostructured lipid carrier (ZER-NLC) on the human mammary gland adenocarcinoma (MDA-MB-231) cell line. The effect of ZER and ZER-NLC on MDA-MB-231 cells was determined via electron and fluorescent microscopy and flow cytometry using the Annexin V, cell cycle, and Tdt-mediated dUTP nick-end labeling assays. We demonstrated that ZER and ZER-NLC significantly suppressed the proliferation of MDA-MB-231 cells with an ICof 5.96 ± 0.13 and 6.01 ± 0.11 g/mL, respectively. ZER and ZER-NLC arrested MDA-MB-231 cell cycle at the G2/M phase. The induction of apoptosis by ZER and ZER-NLC was via the intrinsic pathway through the release of cytochrome c and activation of caspase-3 and caspase-9. The treatments also caused the downregulation of antiapoptotic Bcl-2, Bcl-xL proteins, and proliferating cell nuclear protein and upregulation of proapoptotic Bax protein. Therefore, loading of ZER into NLC did not compromise the anticancer effects of ZER on MDA-MB-231 cells. In conclusion, ZER-NLC, which increased the bioavailability of ZER, is an effective agent in the treatment of cancers. © 2014 Mahnaz Hosseinpour et al.


Rahman H.S.,University Putra Malaysia | Rahman H.S.,University of Kurdistan | Rasedee A.,University Putra Malaysia | Othman H.H.,University Putra Malaysia | And 10 more authors.
BioMed Research International | Year: 2014

Zerumbone- (ZER-) loaded nanostructure lipid carrier (NLC) (ZER-NLC) prepared for its antileukemia effect in vitro was evaluated for its toxicological effects by observing changes in the liver, kidney, spleen, lung, heart, and brain tissues, serum biochemical parameters, total haemogram, and bone marrow stem cells. The acute toxicity study for ZER-NLC was conducted by orally treating BALB/c mice with a single dose with either water, olive oil, ZER, NLC, or ZER-NLC for 14 days. The animals were observed for clinical and behavioral abnormalities, toxicological symptoms, feed consumption, and gross appearance. The liver, kidney, heart, lung, spleen, and brain tissues were assessed histologically. Total haemogram was counted by hemocytometry and microhematocrit reader. Bone marrow examination in terms of cellular morphology was done by Wright staining with bone marrow smear. Furthermore, serum biochemical parameters were determined spectrophotometrically. Grossly all treated mice, their investigated tissues, serum biochemical parameters, total haemogram, and bone marrow were normal. At oral doses of 100 and 200 mg/kg ZER-NLC there was no sign of toxicity or mortality in BALB/c mice. This study suggests that the 50% lethal dose (LD of ZER-NLC is higher than 200 mg/kg, thus, safe by oral administration. © 2014 Heshu Sulaiman Rahman et al.


Rahman H.S.,University Putra Malaysia | Rahman H.S.,University of Sulaimany | Rasedee A.,University Putra Malaysia | How C.W.,University Putra Malaysia | And 14 more authors.
International Journal of Nanomedicine | Year: 2015

Cancer nanotherapy is progressing rapidly with the introduction of many innovative drug delivery systems to replace conventional therapy. Although the antitumor activity of zerumbone (ZER) has been reported, there has been no information available on the effect of ZER-loaded nanostructured lipid carrier (NLC) (ZER-NLC) on murine leukemia cells. In this study, the in vitro and in vivo effects of ZER-NLC on murine leukemia induced with WEHI-3B cells were investigated. The results from 3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide, Hoechst 33342, Annexin V, cell cycle, and caspase activity assays showed that the growth of leukemia cells in vitro was inhibited by ZER-NLC. In addition, outcomes of histopathology, transmission electron microscopy, and Tdt-mediated dUTP nick-end labeling analyses revealed that the number of leukemia cells in the spleen of BALB/c leukemia mice significantly decreased after 4 weeks of oral treatment with various doses of ZER-NLC. Western blotting and reverse-transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction assays confirmed the antileukemia effects of ZER-NLC. In conclusion, ZER-NLC was shown to induce a mitochondrial-dependent apoptotic pathway in murine leukemia. Loading of ZER in NLC did not compromise the anticancer effect of the compound, suggesting ZER-NLC as a promising and effective delivery system for treatment of cancers. © 2015 Rahman et al.


Rahman H.S.,University Putra Malaysia | Rasedee A.,University Putra Malaysia | Chartrand M.S.,DigiCare Behavioral Research | Othman H.H.,University Putra Malaysia | And 2 more authors.
Natural Product Communications | Year: 2014

This investigation determined the anticancer properties of zerumbone (ZER) on the human T-cell (Jurkat) line using the MTT assay, microscopic evaluations, flow cytometric analyses, and caspase activity estimations. The results showed that ZER is selectively cytotoxic to Jurkat cells in a dose and time-dependent manner with IC50of 11.9 ± 0.2, 8.6 ± 0.5 and 5.4 ± 0.4 μg/mL at 24, 48 and 72 hours of treatment, respectively. ZER did not produce an adverse effect on normal human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). ZER is not as cytotoxic as doxorubicin, which imposed an inhibitory effect on Jurkat cells with IC50of 2.1 ± 0.2, 1.8 ± 0.15, 1.5 ± 0.07 μg/mL after 24, 48 and 72 hours treatment, respectively. ZER significantly (P<0.05) arrested Jurkat cells at the G2/M phase of the cell cycle. The antiproliferative effect of ZER on Jurkat cells was through the apoptotic intrinsic pathway via the activation of caspase-3 and -9. The results showed that ZER can be further developed into a safe chemotherapeutic compound for the treatment of cancers, especially leukemia. © 2014, Natural Product Incorporation. All rights reserved.


Namvar F.,University Putra Malaysia | Namvar F.,Islamic Azad University at Mashhad | Rahman H.S.,University Putra Malaysia | Rahman H.S.,University of Sulaimani | And 6 more authors.
Journal of Nanomaterials | Year: 2015

Gold nanoparticles were grown on Sargassum muticum water extract (S-GNPs) using the green biosynthetic approach. The nanoparticles were characterized using UV-visible spectroscopy, zeta potential, and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The resulting S-GNPs were spherical and crystalline with a size of <10 nm. The in vitro anticancer activity was demonstrated in human leukemia cell lines. The cancer cells were treated with different concentrations of S-GNPs, and calorimetric (MTT) assay used for the cytotoxicity test, which resulted in an IC50 value of 4.22 ± 1.12, 5.71 ± 1.4, 6.55 ± 0.9, and 7.29 ± 1.7 g/mL for each of the K562, HL-60, Jurkat, and CEM-ss cells, respectively. Thus, the K562 was selected for the next experiments. Furthermore, apoptosis induction was confirmed by Hoechst 33342, annexin V staining, and caspase-3/-9 activity tests. The cell cycle analysis exhibited a significant increase in the accumulation of S-GNPs treated cells at the sub-G1 phase, demonstrating the induction of apoptosis by S-GNPs. The nature of the inhibition of cancer cell growth by S-GNPs could open the way for further research in the design of green synthesis therapeutic agents, particularly in nanomedicine, for the treatment of cancer. © 2015 Farideh Namvar et al.

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