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Gogebakan O.,German Institute of Human Nutrition | Kohl A.,German Institute of Human Nutrition | Osterhoff M.A.,German Institute of Human Nutrition | Van Baak M.A.,Maastricht University | And 10 more authors.

BACKGROUND-: We sought to separately examine the effects of either weight loss or diets varying in protein content and glycemic index without further changes in body weight on cardiovascular risk factors within the Diet, Obesity, and Genes study (DiOGenes). METHODS AND RESULTS-: DiOGenes is a pan-European controlled dietary intervention study in 932 overweight adults who first lost body weight on an 8-week low-calorie diet and were then randomized to 1 of 5 ad libitum diets for 26 weeks. The diets were either high or low protein or high or low glycemic index in 4 combinations or control. Weight loss (-11.23 kg; 95% confidence interval, -11.54 to -10.92; P<0.001) reduced high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (-1.15 mg/L; 95% confidence interval, -1.30 to -0.41; P<0.001), low- and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglycerides, and blood pressure. During the 26-week weight maintenance period in the intention-to-treat analysis, the further decrease of high-sensitivity C-reactive protein blood levels was -0.46 mg/L greater (95% confidence interval, -0.79 to -0.13) in the groups assigned to low-glycemic-index diets than in those on high-glycemic-index diets (P<0.001). Groups on low-protein diets achieved a -0.25 mg/L greater reduction in high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (95% confidence interval, -0.59 to -0.17) than those on high-protein diets (P<0.001), whereas lipid profiles and blood pressure were not differently affected. CONCLUSIONS-: This large-scale intervention study clearly separates weight loss from dietary composition-related effects. Low-glycemic-index carbohydrates and, to a lesser extent, low-protein intake may specifically reduce low-grade inflammation and associated comorbidities in overweight/obese adults. © 2011 American Heart Association, Inc. Source

Goyenechea E.,University of Navarra | Holst C.,Institute of Preventive Medicine | van Baak M.A.,Maastricht University | Saris W.H.M.,Maastricht University | And 9 more authors.
Diabetes/Metabolism Research and Reviews

Background: Dietary regimens providing different levels of protein and glycemic index (GI) foods when prescribed for weight management may also influence insulin sensitivity. Procedures and Outcomes: Overweight/obese adults in 8 European countries who lost ≥ 8% of initial body-weight (BW) after following a low calorie diet (LCD) were later randomly assigned with a 2x2 factorial design into 4 ad libitum dietary groups with two different protein content levels and dissimilar glycemic index, which were compared to a healthy reference diet. Specific markers assessing insulin resistance were measured. The LCD was initially applied to 932 adults and 773 were randomised to the 5 ad libitum diets. The 6-months programme was completed by 548 participants. The assignment to the Low Protein /High Glycemic Index diet induced a statistically higher HOMA-IR increase during the 6 months period as compared to the control. Contrariwise, the insulin response was lower in the High Protein/Low Glycemic Index diet after 60 and 90 min of an Oral Glucose Tolerance test subsequently carried out after the 6-months intervention. The Low Glycemic Index diets (either with high or low protein content) also lead to a decrease in fructosamine levels during the trial. Conclusion/Interpretation: After a weight loss period, an increase in the dietary protein proportions and a decrease in the consumption of foods with a high Glycemic Index within an ad libitum dietary intervention aiming to weight maintenance produced favorable effects on glycaemic control and insulin sensitivity in overweight/obese subjects. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Source

Wang P.,Maastricht University | Holst C.,Copenhagen University | Andersen M.R.,Copenhagen University | Astrup A.,Copenhagen University | And 14 more authors.

Background: Weight regain after weight loss is common. In the Diogenes dietary intervention study, high protein and low glycemic index (GI) diet improved weight maintenance. Objective: To identify blood predictors for weight change after weight loss following the dietary intervention within the Diogenes study. Design: Blood samples were collected at baseline and after 8-week low caloric diet-induced weight loss from 48 women who continued to lose weight and 48 women who regained weight during subsequent 6-month dietary intervention period with 4 diets varying in protein and GI levels. Thirty-one proteins and 3 steroid hormones were measured. Results: Angiotensin I converting enzyme (ACE) was the most important predictor. Its greater reduction during the 8-week weight loss was related to continued weight loss during the subsequent 6 months, identified by both Logistic Regression and Random Forests analyses. The prediction power of ACE was influenced by immunoproteins, particularly fibrinogen. Leptin, luteinizing hormone and some immunoproteins showed interactions with dietary protein level, while interleukin 8 showed interaction with GI level on the prediction of weight maintenance. A predictor panel of 15 variables enabled an optimal classification by Random Forests with an error rate of 24±1%. A logistic regression model with independent variables from 9 blood analytes had a prediction accuracy of 92%. Conclusions: A selected panel of blood proteins/steroids can predict the weight change after weight loss. ACE may play an important role in weight maintenance. The interactions of blood factors with dietary components are important for personalized dietary advice after weight loss. Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00390637. © 2011 Wang et al. Source

Bendtsen L.Q.,Copenhagen University | Lorenzen J.K.,Copenhagen University | Larsen T.M.,Copenhagen University | Van Baak M.,Maastricht University | And 11 more authors.
British Journal of Nutrition

Dairy products have previously been reported to be associated with beneficial effects on body weight and metabolic risk markers. Moreover, primary data from the Diet, Obesity and Genes (DiOGenes) study indicate a weight-maintaining effect of a high-protein-low-glycaemic index diet. The objective of the present study was to examine putative associations between consumption of dairy proteins and changes in body weight and metabolic risk markers after weight loss in obese and overweight adults. Results were based on secondary analyses of data obtained from overweight and obese adults who completed the DiOGenes study. The study consisted of an 8-week weight-loss phase and a 6-month weight-maintenance (WM) phase, where the subjects were given five different diets varying in protein content and glycaemic index. In the present study, data obtained from all the subjects were pooled. Dairy protein intake was estimated from 3 d dietary records at two time points (week 4 and week 26) during the WM phase. Body weight and metabolic risk markers were determined at baseline (week - 9 to - 11) and before and at the end of the WM phase (week 0 and week 26). Overall, no significant associations were found between consumption of dairy proteins and changes in body weight and metabolic risk markers. However, dairy protein intake tended to be negatively associated with body weight gain (P= 0·08; β = - 0·17), but this was not persistent when controlled for total protein intake, which indicates that dairy protein adds no additional effect to the effect of total protein. Therefore, the present study does not report that dairy proteins are more favourable than other proteins for body weight regulation. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Source

Papadaki A.,University of Bristol | Papadaki A.,University of Crete | Linardakis M.,University of Crete | Plada M.,University of Crete | And 13 more authors.

Objectives: We investigated the effects of weight loss and maintenance with diets that varied with regard to protein content and glycemic index (GI) on metabolic syndrome (MetSyn) status. Methods: Secondary analyses were performed within the Diet, Obesity and Genes (DiOGenes) study (2006-2008), a randomized controlled dietary intervention. Nine hundred and thirty-eight overweight and obese adults from eight European countries entered an 8-wk low-calorie-diet period. Seven hundred and seventy-three adults who lost at least 8% of their body weights were randomized to one of five ad libitum diets for 6 mo: 1) low-protein (LP)/low-GI (LGI); 2) LP/high-GI (HGI); 3) high-protein (HP)/LGI; 4) HP/HGI; and 5) control diet. MetSyn prevalence and a standardized MetSyn score were assessed at baseline, after the low-calorie diet, and after the intervention. Results: Weight loss among participants while on the low-calorie diet significantly reduced MetSyn prevalence (33.9% versus 15.9%; P < 0.001) and MetSyn score (-1.48 versus -4.45; P < 0.001). During weight maintenance, significant changes in MetSyn score were observed between the groups, with the highest increase detected in the LP/HGI group (P = 0.039, partial 2 = 0.023). Protein, GI, and their interaction did not have isolated effects on study outcomes. Conclusions: Neither protein nor GI affected MetSyn status in this sample of European overweight and obese adults. However, a diet with a combination of an increased protein-to-carbohydrate ratio with low-GI foods had beneficial effects on MetSyn factors. © 2014 Elsevier Inc. Source

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