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Bechaux C.,ANSES | Zetlaoui M.,University Paris - Sud | Tressou J.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research | Leblanc J.-C.,ANSES | And 2 more authors.
Food and Chemical Toxicology | Year: 2013

The identification of the major associations of pesticides to which the population is exposed is the first step for the risk assessment of mixtures. Moreover, the interpretation of the mixtures through the individuals' diet and the characterization of potentially high-risk populations constitute a useful tool for risk management. This paper proposes a method based on Non-Negative Matrix Factorization which allows the identification of the major mixtures to which the French population is exposed and the connection between this exposure and the diet. Exposure data of the French population are provided by the Second French Total Diet Study. The NMF is implemented on consumption data to extract consumption systems which are combined with the residue levels to link dietary behavior with exposure to mixtures of pesticides. A clustering of the individuals is achieved in order to highlight clusters of individuals with similar exposure to pesticides/consumption habits. The model provides 6 main consumption systems, 6 associated mixtures of pesticides and the description of the population which is most exposed to each mixture. Two different ways to estimate the matrix providing the mixtures of pesticides to which the population is exposed are suggested. Their advantages in different contexts of risk assessment are discussed. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

Nougadere A.,ANSES French Agency for Food | Merlo M.,ANSES French Agency for Food | Heraud F.,Dietary and Chemical Monitoring Unit | Rety J.,ANSES French Agency for Food | And 5 more authors.
Food Control | Year: 2014

The French system for monitoring dietary exposure to pesticide residues and its scoring method are presented. This system aims both to assess acute and chronic risks to the general population and to identify food commodities and pesticides that need to be better monitored and/or regulated thanks to 6 priority levels. The method combines four chronic and acute dietary risk indicators based on the results of the most recent national monitoring programmes and maximum residue levels, in connection with individual and national food consumption data. The probability of exceeding the toxicological reference values was estimated for children and adults, for 522 pesticides and their metabolites. Food contributors were detailed and a minimum number of samples to be taken per food was proposed. The majority of the pesticides (87%) was scored at the lowest priority level 1. For pesticides classified in levels 2 to 5, there is a need to refine the assessment. The monitoring should also be extended to include newly authorised substances in levels 2 to 4. Carbendazim, dimethoate, dithiocarbamates and imazalil merit particular attention as they scored at level 6 and are frequently quantified in fruits and vegetables, meaning that risk managers should take corrective measures in order to ensure consumer safety. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

Carnevale C.,University of Brescia | Finzi G.,University of Brescia | Pisoni E.,University of Brescia | Volta M.,University of Brescia | And 6 more authors.
Environmental Modelling and Software | Year: 2012

In this paper, the Integrated Assessment of air quality is dealt with at regional scale. First the paper describes the main challenges to tackle current air pollution control, including economic aspects. Then it proposes a novel approach to manage the problem, presenting its mathematical formalization and describing its practical implementation into the Regional Integrated Assessment Tool (RIAT). The main features of the software system are described and some preliminary results on a domain in Northern Italy are illustrated. The novel features in RIAT are then compared to the state-of-the-art in integrated assessment of air quality, for example the ability to handle nonlinearities (instead of the usual linear approach) and the multi-objective framework (alternative to cost-effectiveness and scenario analysis). Then the lessons learned during the RIAT implementation are discussed, focusing on the locality, flexibility and openness of the tool. Finally the areas for further development of air quality integrated assessment are highlighted, with a focus on sensitivity analysis, structural and non technical measures, and the application of parallel computing concepts. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

Ferrari P.,International Agency for Research on Cancer IARC | Arcella D.,Dietary and Chemical Monitoring Unit | Heraud F.,Dietary and Chemical Monitoring Unit | Cappe S.,Dietary and Chemical Monitoring Unit | Fabiansson S.,Dietary and Chemical Monitoring Unit
Food Additives and Contaminants - Part A Chemistry, Analysis, Control, Exposure and Risk Assessment | Year: 2013

Exposure assessment constitutes an important step in any risk assessment of potentially harmful substances present in food. The European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) first assessed dietary exposure to cadmium in Europe using a deterministic framework, resulting in mean values of exposure in the range of health-based guidance values. Since then, the characterisation of foods has been refined to better match occurrence and consumption data, and a new strategy to handle left-censoring in occurrence data was devised. A probabilistic assessment was performed and compared with deterministic estimates, using occurrence values at the European level and consumption data from 14 national dietary surveys. Mean estimates in the probabilistic assessment ranged from 1.38 (95% CI = 1.35-1.44) to 2.08 (1.99-2.23) μg kg-1 bodyweight (bw) week-1 across the different surveys, which were less than 10% lower than deterministic (middle bound) mean values that ranged from 1.50 to 2.20 μg kg-1 bw week-1. Probabilistic 95th percentile estimates of dietary exposure ranged from 2.65 (2.57-2.72) to 4.99 (4.62-5.38) μg kg-1 bw week-1, which were, with the exception of one survey, between 3% and 17% higher than middle-bound deterministic estimates. Overall, the proportion of subjects exceeding the tolerable weekly intake of 2.5 μg kg-1 bw ranged from 14.8% (13.6-16.0%) to 31.2% (29.7-32.5%) according to the probabilistic assessment. The results of this work indicate that mean values of dietary exposure to cadmium in the European population were of similar magnitude using determinist or probabilistic assessments. For higher exposure levels, probabilistic estimates were almost consistently larger than deterministic counterparts, thus reflecting the impact of using the full distribution of occurrence values to determine exposure levels. It is considered prudent to use probabilistic methodology should exposure estimates be close to or exceeding health-based guidance values. © 2013 Copyright Taylor & Francis.

Sand S.,Dietary and Chemical Monitoring Unit | Sand S.,National Food Agency | Heraud F.,Dietary and Chemical Monitoring Unit | Arcella D.,Dietary and Chemical Monitoring Unit
Food and Chemical Toxicology | Year: 2013

A typical EFSA approach to assess dietary exposure is to combine data from national consumption surveys with chemical occurrence data that have been pooled across the EU Member States (pooled approach). This approach was compared to the case where occurrence data were stratified by country and used for food categories where national data were abundant (semi-pooled approach), using cadmium as a case study. Some differences in estimated dietary exposure were observed between the pooled and semi-pooled approach. They were explained by differences, between the national and the European occurrence data, with respect to (1) contamination values and (2) sample proportions of food items classified in the food categories the assessment was based on. The latter aspect highlighted the sensitivity of the approach of directly aggregating monitoring data into food categories. Both the pooled and semi-pooled approach tended to be conservative relative to approaches used at national level. This appears to be attributed to differences in the way the available occurrence data is aggregated. Refinement of the studied methodologies would include a better separation of the food items with high concentration from those with low concentration. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

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