Diet and Obesity Research

Cambridge, United Kingdom

Diet and Obesity Research

Cambridge, United Kingdom
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Lewis H.B.,Diet and Obesity Research | Ahern A.L.,Diet and Obesity Research | Solis-Trapala I.,Diet and Obesity Research | Walker C.G.,Diet and Obesity Research | And 3 more authors.
Obesity | Year: 2015

Objective Larger portion sizes (PS) are associated with greater energy intake (EI), but little evidence exists on the appetitive effects of PS reduction. This study investigated the impact of reducing breakfast PS on subsequent EI, postprandial gastrointestinal hormone responses, and appetite ratings. Methods In a randomized crossover design (n-=-33 adults; mean BMI 29 kg/m2), a compulsory breakfast was based on 25% of gender-specific estimated daily energy requirements; PS was reduced by 20% and 40%. EI was measured at an ad libitum lunch (240 min) and snack (360 min) and by weighed diet diaries until bed. Blood was sampled until lunch in 20 participants. Appetite ratings were measured using visual analogue scales. Results EI at lunch (control: 2,930-±-203; 20% reduction: 2,853-±-198; 40% reduction: 2,911-±-179 kJ) and over the whole day except breakfast (control: 7,374-±-361; 20% reduction: 7,566-±-468; 40% reduction: 7,413-±-417 kJ) did not differ. Postprandial PYY, GLP-1, GIP, insulin, and fullness profiles were lower and hunger, desire to eat, and prospective consumption higher following 40% reduction compared to control. Appetite ratings profiles, but not hormone concentrations, were associated with subsequent EI. Conclusions Smaller portions at breakfast led to reductions in gastrointestinal hormone secretion but did not affect subsequent energy intake, suggesting small reductions in portion size may be a useful strategy to constrain EI. © 2015 The Obesity Society.


Johns D.J.,Diet and Obesity Research | Lindroos A.-K.,National Food Administration | Jebb S.A.,University of Oxford | Sjostrom L.,Gothenburg University | And 3 more authors.
Obesity | Year: 2015

Objective The longitudinal associations between a dietary pattern (DP) and cardiometabolic risk factors and cardiovascular disease (CVD) incidence were investigated in a cohort of adults with severe obesity. Methods The analysis included 2,037 individuals with severe obesity (>34 and >38 kg/m2 for men and women, respectively) from the Swedish Obese Subjects study repeatedly followed up for 10 years. Reduced rank regression was used to identify a DP characterized by dietary energy density, saturated fat intake, and fiber density. Mixed models examined relationships between repeated measures of DP z-scores and cardiometabolic risk factors. Cox proportional hazards models assessed relationships between DP scores and CVD incidence. Results An energy-dense, high-saturated-fat, and low-fiber DP was derived. A one-unit increase in the DP z-score between follow-ups was associated with an increase in weight [β (SE)] (1.71-±-0.10 kg), waist circumference (1.49-±-0.07 cm), BMI (0.60-±-0.34 kg/m2), serum cholesterol (0.06-±-0.01 mmol/l), and serum insulin (1.22-±-0.17 mmol/l; all P-<-0.0001), as well as in serum triglycerides (0.05-±-0.02 mmol/l; P-<-0.05), systolic blood pressure (1.05-±-0.27 mmHg; P-<-0.001), and diastolic blood pressure (0.55-±-0.16 mmHg; P-<-0.05). No significant association was observed between repeated measures of the DP z-scores and CVD incidence (HR-=-0.96; 95% CI-=-0.83-1.12). Conclusions An energy-dense, high-saturated-fat, and low-fiber DP was longitudinally associated with increases in cardiometabolic risk factors in severe obesity but not with CVD incidence. © 2014 The Obesity Society.


PubMed | University of Cambridge and Diet and Obesity Research
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Obesity (Silver Spring, Md.) | Year: 2015

Larger portion sizes (PS) are associated with greater energy intake (EI), but little evidence exists on the appetitive effects of PS reduction. This study investigated the impact of reducing breakfast PS on subsequent EI, postprandial gastrointestinal hormone responses, and appetite ratings.In a randomized crossover design (n=33 adults; mean BMI 29 kg/m(2) ), a compulsory breakfast was based on 25% of gender-specific estimated daily energy requirements; PS was reduced by 20% and 40%. EI was measured at an ad libitum lunch (240 min) and snack (360 min) and by weighed diet diaries until bed. Blood was sampled until lunch in 20 participants. Appetite ratings were measured using visual analogue scales.EI at lunch (control: 2,930203; 20% reduction: 2,853198; 40% reduction: 2,911179 kJ) and over the whole day except breakfast (control: 7,374361; 20% reduction: 7,566468; 40% reduction: 7,413417 kJ) did not differ. Postprandial PYY, GLP-1, GIP, insulin, and fullness profiles were lower and hunger, desire to eat, and prospective consumption higher following 40% reduction compared to control. Appetite ratings profiles, but not hormone concentrations, were associated with subsequent EI.Smaller portions at breakfast led to reductions in gastrointestinal hormone secretion but did not affect subsequent energy intake, suggesting small reductions in portion size may be a useful strategy to constrain EI.


PubMed | Diet and Obesity Research
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Obesity (Silver Spring, Md.) | Year: 2015

The longitudinal associations between a dietary pattern (DP) and cardiometabolic risk factors and cardiovascular disease (CVD) incidence were investigated in a cohort of adults with severe obesity.The analysis included 2,037 individuals with severe obesity (>34 and >38 kg/m(2) for men and women, respectively) from the Swedish Obese Subjects study repeatedly followed up for 10 years. Reduced rank regression was used to identify a DP characterized by dietary energy density, saturated fat intake, and fiber density. Mixed models examined relationships between repeated measures of DP z-scores and cardiometabolic risk factors. Cox proportional hazards models assessed relationships between DP scores and CVD incidence.An energy-dense, high-saturated-fat, and low-fiber DP was derived. A one-unit increase in the DP z-score between follow-ups was associated with an increase in weight [ (SE)] (1.710.10 kg), waist circumference (1.490.07 cm), BMI (0.600.34 kg/m2), serum cholesterol (0.060.01 mmol/l), and serum insulin (1.220.17 mmol/l; all P<0.0001), as well as in serum triglycerides (0.050.02 mmol/l; P<0.05), systolic blood pressure (1.050.27 mmHg; P<0.001), and diastolic blood pressure (0.550.16 mmHg; P<0.05). No significant association was observed between repeated measures of the DP z-scores and CVD incidence (HR=0.96; 95% CI=0.83-1.12).An energy-dense, high-saturated-fat, and low-fiber DP was longitudinally associated with increases in cardiometabolic risk factors in severe obesity but not with CVD incidence.

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