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Santiago, Chile

Diego Portales University is one of the first private universities founded in Chile and is named after the Chilean statesman Diego Portales.UDP has campuses in the Barrio Universitario de Santiago Wikipedia.

Background: Hydatidosis as a worldwide zoonosis with a high socio-economic impact in Chile and other countries for which it is a notifiable human disease in our country. Objective: To characterize death rates by hydatidosis and whether there are differences according to the region of residence. Material: A descriptive analysis using Data System Deaths (2000-2010) was performed. Results: The total number of deaths was 293 (56% male). The mortality rate changed from 0.16 in 2000 to 0.11 in 2010 per 100.000 inhabitants. The main diagnosis corresponded to B67.9 (Echinococcosis, other and unspecified). Most fatal cases had a basic level of education and the Araucanía Region had the highest mortality rate. There was a loss of life of 5022.04 years by the premature death of 293 people, with a ratio of 0.31 PYLL years lost per 1000 inhabitants. In the Araucanía Region this ratio increased to 1.03 PYLL years lost per 1000 inhabitants. Conclusions: The mortality rate tends to decrease, however this trend might mask regional differences. It should be noted that deaths caused by hydatidosis are preventable deaths and therefore unjust. Finally, the mortality analysis is important to better understand the burden of the disease and evaluate the effectiveness of public health interventions. Source

Kottow M.,Diego Portales University
Journal of Medical Ethics

Conflicts of interest are receiving increased attention in medical research, clinical practice and education. Criticism of, and penalties for, conflicts of interest have been insufficiently discussed and have been applied without adequate conceptual backing. Genuine conflicts of interest are situations in which alternative courses of action are ethically equivalent, decision-making being less a matter of moral deliberation than of personal weighing of interest. In contrast, situations usually thought of as conflicts of interest are mostly temptations to follow an attractive but undue option that causes harm by failing to uphold well-entrenched ethical standards. Examples of moral quandaries that pose as ethically neutral conflicts of interest are healthcare providers enticed to favour certain products; patients being referred to non-therapeutic trials entailing risks and non-optimal healthcare; industry-supported scientists failing to deliver unbiased research results and reports or participating in ghost-writing; and sponsored educators who praise their supporters beyond objective evidence. All these are moral blemishes, where integrity gives way to material incentives at the cost of provoking risky and harm-producing situations, thus constituting false conflicts of interest when they are in fact ethical misdemeanours. Disclosure has been the most widely recommended response to avoid the concealment of conflicting and ethically suspect interests. Regulations regarding disclosure reveal a utilitarian stance that shows more concern for the magnitude of support or sponsorship than for the underlying ethical transgression. Education and oversight should directly address and help correct the moral attitude towards undue influence of inducements and marketing strategies falsely posing as conflicts of interest. Source

Objective: To characterize the epidemiology of human hydatidosis in Chile. Material: Data from the Mandatory Disease Notification System (2001-2009), hospital discharges (2001-2008), Deaths (2001-2008) and Years of Potential Life Lost (2001-2008) were analyzed. Results: The average incidence, according to the mandatory notification data, was 1.9 cases per 100,000 inhabitants (men 51.4%). Median age was 38 years. Hospital discharge rate for the period was 6.3 discharges per 100,000 inhabitants. The main diagnosis corresponded to B67.9 (Echinococcosis, other and unspecified). The average mortality rate was 0.2 deaths per 100,000 inhabitants. The level of education of fatalities was mainly basic. There was a loss of 3.349 years of life due to the premature death of 235 people. Conclusions: The incidence rates of cases reported, hospital discharges and mortality tend to decrease. There is a noteworthy discrepancy between reported cases and hospital discharges, which suggests underreporting. Improvement of the notification system and additional prevalence studies are required. Source

Calvo E.,Diego Portales University | Sarkisian N.,Boston College | Tamborini C.R.,Office of Retirement Policy
Journals of Gerontology - Series B Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences

Objectives. This article explores the effects of the timing of retirement on subjective physical and emotional health. Using panel data from the Health and Retirement Study (HRS), we test 4 theory-based hypotheses about these effects - that retirements maximize health when they happen earlier, later, anytime, or on time.Method. We employ fixed and random effects regression models with instrumental variables to estimate the short- and long-term causal effects of retirement timing on self-reported health and depressive symptoms.Results. Early retirements - those occurring prior to traditional and legal retirement age - dampen health.Discussion. Workers who begin their retirement transition before cultural and institutional timetables experience the worst health outcomes; this finding offers partial support to the psychosocial-materialist approach that emphasizes the benefits of retiring later. Continued employment after traditionally expected retirement age, however, offers no health benefits. In combination, these findings offer some support for the cultural- institutional approach but suggest that we need to modify our understanding of how cultural-institutional forces operate. Retiring too early can be problematic but no disadvantages are associated with late retirements. Raising the retirement age, therefore, could potentially reduce subjective health of retirees by expanding the group of those whose retirements would be considered early. © 2012 The Author. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. Source

Leon A.,Diego Portales University
Computer Physics Communications

We present a model based on determinist cellular automata architecture for studying systems with frustrated interactions that present elemental excitations, such as magnetic monopoles. This model is especially designed to be applied for systems with components that have energy levels much higher than kT. This would imply that for these systems thermal fluctuations are negligible and they can be analyzed under the supposition that the dynamic is produced at zero temperature. This category includes artificial magnetic spin ice systems and donor and recipient electrical charge molecular systems. The dynamics of these systems can be simulated in real time with this model, with a minimum of computational requirements. It can be an excellent complement to Monte Carlo methods and in some cases can even replace them directly. In this report, we show the designed structure and some interesting results obtained in studying the dynamics of emergent magnetic monopoles in artificial spin ice systems and excitations in graphane molecular arrays. © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. Source

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