San Martin R.,Duke University |
San Martin R.,Diego Portales University |
Appelbaum L.G.,Duke University |
Huettel S.A.,Duke University |
Woldorff M.G.,Duke University
Cerebral Cortex | Year: 2016
Adaptive choice behavior depends critically on identifying and learning from outcome-predicting cues. We hypothesized that attention may be preferentially directed toward certain outcome-predicting cues. We studied this possibility by analyzing event-related potential (ERP) responses in humans during a probabilistic decision-making task. Participants viewed pairs of outcome-predicting visual cues and then chose to wager either a small (i.e., loss-minimizing) or large (i.e., gain-maximizing) amount of money. The cues were bilaterally presented, which allowed us to extract the relative neural responses to each cue by using a contralateral-versus-ipsilateral ERP contrast. We found an early lateralized ERP response, whose features matched the attention-shift-related N2pc component and whose amplitude scaled with the learned reward-predicting value of the cues as predicted by an attention-for-reward model. Consistently, we found a double dissociation involving the N2pc. Across participants, gain-maximization positively correlated with the N2pc amplitude to the most reliable gain-predicting cue, suggesting an attentional bias toward such cues. Conversely, loss-minimization was negatively correlated with the N2pc amplitude to the most reliable loss-predicting cue, suggesting an attentional avoidance toward such stimuli. These results indicate that learned stimulus-reward associations can influence rapid attention allocation, and that differences in this process are associated with individual differences in economic decision-making performance. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved.
Gleichgerrcht E.,University of Buenos Aires |
Gleichgerrcht E.,Diego Portales University |
Decety J.,University of Chicago
Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience | Year: 2014
Background: Medical practitioners such as physicians are continuously exposed to the suffering and the distress of patients. Understanding the way pain perception relates to empathetic dispositions and professional quality of life can contribute to the development of strategies aimed at protecting health professionals from burnout and compassion fatigue. In the present study we investigate the way individual dispositions relate to behavioral measures of pain sensitivity, empathy, and professional quality of life. Methods: A secure Web-based series of self-report measures and a behavioral task were administered to 1,199 board-certified physicians. Additionally, surveys were used to obtain measures of demographic and professional background; dispositional empathy (empathic concern, personal distress, and perspective taking); positive (compassion satisfaction) and negative (burnout and secondary traumatic stress) aspects of their professional life. In the behavioral task, participants were asked to watch a series of video clips of patients experiencing different levels of pain and provide ratings of pain intensity and induced personal distress. Results: Perceived pain intensity was significantly lower among more experienced physicians but similar across specialty fields with varying demands of emotional stress. Watching videos of patients in pain, however, elicited more personal distress among physicians in highly demanding medical fields, despite comparable empathy dispositions with other fields. The pain of male patients was perceived as less intense than the pain of female patients, and this effect was more marked for female physicians. The effect of dispositional empathy on pain perception and induced personal distress was different for each sub-component, with perspective taking and empathic concern (EC) being predictive of the behavioral outcomes. Physicians who experience both compassion satisfaction and fatigue perceive more pain and suffer more personal distress from it than those who only suffer the negative aspects of professional quality of life. Conclusions: Professional experience seems to desensitize physicians to the pain of others without necessarily helping them down-regulate their own personal distress. Pain perception is also related with specific aspects of empathy and varies depending on context, as is the case with the gender of their patients. Minimum levels of empathy appear necessary to benefit from the positive aspects of professional quality of life in medicine. © 2014 Gleichgerrcht and Decety.
Tironi M.,University of Chile |
Farias I.,Diego Portales University
Geoforum | Year: 2014
This paper engages in a critical assessment of environmental management as a way of rethinking our co-habitation with earthly powers. Focusing on the post-disaster reconstruction of Constitución, a Chilean costal city severely damaged by the 2010 tsunami, we argue that environmental management theory has not fully recognised that, sometimes, we humans confront excessive forces that cannot be not diplomatically managed or assumed as manageable objects that will readily accept our invitation to compose a common world.Thinking with Sloterdijk's notions of atmosphere and immunisation, this paper proposes a theoretical programme to re-frame post-disaster environmental management as the creation of life-enabling membranes to contain, isolate and immunise human existence from indifferent forces such as tsunamis. More specifically, we follow the technopolitical controversies around the design of an anti-tsunami park in Constitución to draw attention towards two crucial moments of this process: the definition of the park's composition and the debate around the park's fallibility. We argue that these moments point to a type of environmental management engaged in the articulation of an immunising atmosphere to secure an interior for human dwelling. Moreover, these two moments specify empirical challenges not fully developed in Sloterdijk's atmospheric philosophy: the rearrangement of science, politics and materials that is brought along in the process of erecting an immunological membrane; and the bioeconomy of life (and death) that emerges upon the possibility of an immunitary breakdown. In the concluding section we turn to the ecological and ethical challenges opened up by an atmospheric approach to environmental management. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd.
Santibanez C.,Diego Portales University
Journal of Pragmatics | Year: 2017
According to a growing literature in many fields of the social sciences and humanities defending the mind-modularity thesis, the brain is composed of mutually inconsistent modules that contain contradictory beliefs. What consequences could this view have on persuasive behaviour? In order to sketch an answer, first the family of concepts of what is called generalized deception is discussed; then, this discussion is applied to the problem of the social influence bias to observe both how the mind works strategically wrong and what kind of argumentative moves are used within this mental design in a controversial social context. © 2017 Elsevier B.V.
Kottow M.,Diego Portales University
Journal of Medical Ethics | Year: 2010
Conflicts of interest are receiving increased attention in medical research, clinical practice and education. Criticism of, and penalties for, conflicts of interest have been insufficiently discussed and have been applied without adequate conceptual backing. Genuine conflicts of interest are situations in which alternative courses of action are ethically equivalent, decision-making being less a matter of moral deliberation than of personal weighing of interest. In contrast, situations usually thought of as conflicts of interest are mostly temptations to follow an attractive but undue option that causes harm by failing to uphold well-entrenched ethical standards. Examples of moral quandaries that pose as ethically neutral conflicts of interest are healthcare providers enticed to favour certain products; patients being referred to non-therapeutic trials entailing risks and non-optimal healthcare; industry-supported scientists failing to deliver unbiased research results and reports or participating in ghost-writing; and sponsored educators who praise their supporters beyond objective evidence. All these are moral blemishes, where integrity gives way to material incentives at the cost of provoking risky and harm-producing situations, thus constituting false conflicts of interest when they are in fact ethical misdemeanours. Disclosure has been the most widely recommended response to avoid the concealment of conflicting and ethically suspect interests. Regulations regarding disclosure reveal a utilitarian stance that shows more concern for the magnitude of support or sponsorship than for the underlying ethical transgression. Education and oversight should directly address and help correct the moral attitude towards undue influence of inducements and marketing strategies falsely posing as conflicts of interest.
Ibanez A.,University of Buenos Aires |
Ibanez A.,Diego Portales University |
Manes F.,University of Buenos Aires |
Neurology | Year: 2012
The significance of social situations is commonly context-embedded. Although the role of context has been extensively studied in basic sensory processing or simple stimulus-response settings, its relevance for social cognition is unknown. We propose the social context network model (SCNM), a fronto-insular-temporal network responsible for processing social contextual effects. The SCNM may 1) update the context and use it to make predictions, 2) coordinate internal and external milieus, and 3) consolidate context-target associative learning. We suggest the behavioral variant of frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD) as a specific disorder in which the reported deficits in social cognition (e.g., facial recognition, empathy, decisionmaking, figurative language, theory of mind) can be described as context impairments due to deficits in the SCNM. Disruption of orbitofrontal-amygdala circuit, as well as the frontal, temporal, and insular atrophy in bVFTD, suggests a relationship between context-sensitive social cognition and SCNM. In considering context as an intrinsic part of social cognition, we highlight the need for a situated cognition approach in social cognition research as opposed to an abstract, universal, and decontextualized approach. The assessment of context-dependent social cognition paradigms, the SCNM, and their possible application to neuropsychiatric disorders may provide new insight into bvFTD and other related frontal disorders. Copyright © 2012 by AAN Enterprises, Inc.
Paulina Martinez G.,Diego Portales University
Revista Chilena de Infectologia | Year: 2011
Objective: To characterize the epidemiology of human hydatidosis in Chile. Material: Data from the Mandatory Disease Notification System (2001-2009), hospital discharges (2001-2008), Deaths (2001-2008) and Years of Potential Life Lost (2001-2008) were analyzed. Results: The average incidence, according to the mandatory notification data, was 1.9 cases per 100,000 inhabitants (men 51.4%). Median age was 38 years. Hospital discharge rate for the period was 6.3 discharges per 100,000 inhabitants. The main diagnosis corresponded to B67.9 (Echinococcosis, other and unspecified). The average mortality rate was 0.2 deaths per 100,000 inhabitants. The level of education of fatalities was mainly basic. There was a loss of 3.349 years of life due to the premature death of 235 people. Conclusions: The incidence rates of cases reported, hospital discharges and mortality tend to decrease. There is a noteworthy discrepancy between reported cases and hospital discharges, which suggests underreporting. Improvement of the notification system and additional prevalence studies are required.
Pizarro Obaid F.,Diego Portales University
International Journal of Psychoanalysis | Year: 2012
The publication of Otto Rank's The Trauma of Birth (1924) gave rise to an intense debate within the secret Committee and confronted Freud with one of his most beloved disciples. After analyzing the letters that the Professor exchanged with his closest collaborators and reviewing the works he published during this period, it is clear that anxiety was a crucial element among the topics in dispute. His reflections linked to the signal anxiety concept allowed Freud to refute Rank's thesis that defined birth trauma as the paradigmatic key to understanding neurosis, and, in turn, was a way of confirming the validity of the concepts of Oedipus complex, repression and castration in the conceptualization of anxiety. The reasons for the modifications of anxiety theory in the mid-1920s cannot be reduced, as Freud would affirm officially in his work of 1926, to the detection of internal contradictions in his theory or to the desire to establish a metapsychological version of the problem, for they gain their essential impulse from the debate with Rank. © 2012 Institute of Psychoanalysis.
News Article | September 22, 2016
Researchers have looked at a famous sliver of sky with new eyes, revealing clues about galaxies' star-forming potential over time and verifying the early "golden age" of rapid star formation. Using the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA), an enormous radio telescope in Chile, an international team of astronomers has pinpointed star-forming gas interspersed among the ancient galaxies of the Hubble Ultra Deep Field — a region first observed in detail by the Hubble Space Telescope. Although researchers have examined the region at radio wavelengths before, this is the most detailed and sharpest view, and it lets researchers see how star-forming potential has changed over the universe's life span. The findings were announced today (Sept. 22) at the Half a Decade of ALMA conference in Palm Springs, California. [Watch: ALMA Probe Of Hubble Ultra Deep Field Is 'Deeper and Sharper'] In 2004, when researchers first examined the Hubble Ultra Deep Field, a tiny fraction of the sky (700 times smaller than the moon as viewed from Earth) by the constellation Fornax, they found an astonishing abundance of glittering galaxies stashed away in the seemingly insignificant spot. Since then, scientists have used the Hubble Space Telescope and other observatories to return to that location again and again, examining the distant galaxies to learn more about them. One benefit of peering so deep in space is that it's equivalent to looking deep into the universe's past — the more distant a galaxy, the earlier in the universe's lifetime its light was emitted toward Earth.The farthest galaxies in the Hubble Ultra Deep Field date back to near the universe's beginning more than 13 billion years ago. With this new search, researchers focused on everything visible in a region of space, called a "blind search," rather than examining a particular feature. "We conducted the first fully blind, three-dimensional search for cool gas in the early universe," Chris Carilli, an astronomer with the National Radio Astronomy Observatory in New Mexico and a member of the research team, said in a statement. "Through this, we discovered a population of galaxies that is not clearly evident in any other deep surveys of the sky." ALMA, which senses longer wavelengths of light than Hubble does, picked up galaxies with large clouds of cold dust and gas, which are hotbeds for star formation. Rather than the stars that already exist, like Hubble sees, the ALMA survey revealed areas with the potential to develop stars in the future. Along with the announcement of the observations at today's conference, the results are described in seven scientific papers in accepted for publication in The Astrophysical Journal. In particular, the observations focused on the gas carbon monoxide, which often appears in regions with good star-forming conditions, researchers said in the statement. The team was able to assemble two types of data gathered by ALMA. One type revealed the distance — and, therefore, age — of the observed patches — to plot the prevalence of star-forming gas from 2 billion years after the Big Bang until now. "These newly detected carbon-monoxide-rich galaxies represent a substantial contribution to the star-formation history of the universe," Roberto Decarli, an astronomer at the Max Planck Institute for Astronomy in Heidelberg, Germany, and a member of the research team, said in the statement. "With ALMA, we have opened a pathway for studying the early formation and assembly of galaxies in the Hubble Ultra Deep Field." The farther away — and further back in time — researchers looked, the richer the resources were for star formation, confirming that the universe's early days were a "golden age" for star formation. "The new ALMA results imply a rapidly rising gas content in galaxies with increasing look-back time," Manuel Aravena, an astronomer at the Diego Portales University in Chile who was also on the research team, said in the statement. "This increasing gas content is likely the root cause for the remarkable increase in star formation rates during the peak epoch of galaxy formation, some 10 billion years ago." The new results came from a 40-hour span of observation time, and covered about one-sixth of the Hubble Ultra Deep Field. An additional 150 hours are approved for researchers to survey an even larger area with ALMA. Email Sarah Lewin at firstname.lastname@example.org or follow her @SarahExplains. Follow us @Spacedotcom, Facebook and Google+. Original article on Space.com. Copyright 2016 SPACE.com, a Purch company. All rights reserved. This material may not be published, broadcast, rewritten or redistributed.
News Article | January 27, 2016
The brightest-known galaxy is blasting gas out into space — and providing astronomers with a rare glimpse of how extreme galaxies evolve. Known as W2246-0526, the galaxy is as bright as 350 trillion Suns and is powered by a supermassive black hole at its heart. A team led by Tanio Díaz-Santos at Diego Portales University in Santiago, Chile, used the high-resolution Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array in Chile to study carbon ions rushing outwards from the galaxy. The gas races out at speeds of about 2 million kilometres an hour, violently illuminating the surrounding space. W2246-0526 might be spewing out much of its energy, and could become more tame in the future.