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Dickinson, ND, United States

Dickinson State University is a four-year public university located in Dickinson, North Dakota, United States, and is a part of the North Dakota University System. It was founded in 1918 as Dickinson State College, and granted full university status in 1987. Wikipedia.

Lozano-Garcia B.,University of Cordoba, Spain | Parras-Alcantara L.,University of Cordoba, Spain | Brevik E.C.,Dickinson State University
Science of the Total Environment | Year: 2016

Soil organic carbon (SOC) plays a critical role in the global carbon (C) cycle, and C sequestration in forest soils can represent a C sink. A relevant question is how does SOC changes in space and time; consequently, the study of the influence of topographic aspect on SOC stocks (SOCS) is very important to build a complete understanding of the soil system. In this line, four topographic aspects, north (N), south (S), east (E) and west (W) were studied under two different plant communities; native forests (NF) and reforested areas (RF) in the Despeñaperros Natural Park (S Spain). Five soil profiles were sampled at each of six different sites, 2 sites for NF (N and E) and 4 sites for RF (N, S, E and W). Soil properties were studied at different depths using soil control sections (S1: 0-25cm; S2: 25-50cm; S3: 50-75cm). The results indicate that RF (N: 147.1Mgha-1; E: 137.3Mgha-1; W: 124.9Mgha-1 and S: 87.0Mgha-1) had increased total SOCS compared to NF (N: 110.4Mgha-1 and E: 80.9Mgha-1), and that SOCS in the N position were higher than in the other topographic aspects. Therefore, the results suggest that topographic aspect should be included in SOCS models and estimations at local and regional scales. © 2015 Elsevier B.V. Source

Brevik E.C.,Dickinson State University | Calzolari C.,CNR Institute for Biometeorology | Miller B.A.,Leibniz Center for Agricultural Landscape Research | Miller B.A.,Iowa State University | And 4 more authors.
Geoderma | Year: 2016

Soil mapping, classification, and pedologic modeling have been important drivers in the advancement of our understanding of soil from the earliest days of the scientific study of soils. Soil maps were desirable for purposes of land valuation for taxation, agronomic planning, and even in military operations. Soil mapping required classification systems that would allow communication of mapped information, classification systems required understanding of the soil system, and gaining that understanding included the creation of soil models. Therefore, advancement in one of these highly interrelated areas tended to lead to corresponding advances in the others, and these relationships persist into the modern era. Although many advances in our understanding of the soil system have been made since the late 1800s, when soil science blossomed into a scientific discipline in its own right, there are still many unanswered questions and additional needs in soil mapping, classification, and pedologic modeling. New technologies including GPS, GIS, remote sensing, on-site geophysical instrumentation (EMI, GPR, PXRF, etc.), and the development of statistical and geostatistical techniques have greatly increased our ability to collect, analyze, and predict spatial information related to soils, but linking all of this new information to soil properties and processes can still be a challenge and enhanced pedologic models are needed. The expansion of the use of soil knowledge to address issues beyond agronomic production, such as land use planning, environmental concerns, food security, energy security, water security, and human health, to name a few, requires new ways to communicate what we know about the soils we map as well as bringing forth research questions that were not widely considered in earlier soils studies. At present this information is communicated using dozens of national soil classification systems as well as WRB, but a more universal soil classification system would facilitate international communication of soils information. There are still many significant needs in the area of soil mapping, classification, and pedologic modeling going into the future. © 2015 Elsevier B.V.. Source

Doolittle J.A.,U.S. Department of Agriculture | Brevik E.C.,Dickinson State University
Geoderma | Year: 2014

Electromagnetic induction (EMI) has been used to characterize the spatial variability of soil properties since the late 1970s. Initially used to assess soil salinity, the use of EMI in soil studies has expanded to include: mapping soil types; characterizing soil water content and flow patterns; assessing variations in soil texture, compaction, organic matter content, and pH; and determining the depth to subsurface horizons, stratigraphic layers or bedrock, among other uses. In all cases the soil property being investigated must influence soil apparent electrical conductivity (ECa) either directly or indirectly for EMI techniques to be effective. An increasing number and diversity of EMI sensors have been developed in response to users' needs and the availability of allied technologies, which have greatly improved the functionality of these tools. EMI investigations provide several benefits for soil studies. The large amount of georeferenced data that can be rapidly and inexpensively collected with EMI provides more complete characterization of the spatial variations in soil properties than traditional sampling techniques. In addition, compared to traditional soil survey methods, EMI can more effectively characterize diffuse soil boundaries and identify areas of dissimilar soils within mapped soil units, giving soil scientists greater confidence when collecting spatial soil information. EMI techniques do have limitations; results are site-specific and can vary depending on the complex interactions among multiple and variable soil properties. Despite this, EMI techniques are increasingly being used to investigate the spatial variability of soil properties at field and landscape scales. © 2014 Elsevier B.V. Source

Kaye D.H.,Dickinson State University
Science and Justice | Year: 2010

In the long run, the NRC report can only have a salutary effect on forensic science. Although the report is not exhaustive in its review of the relevant literature and the law, and although broad constituencies may never embrace its most radical proposals, the report exposes the soft underbelly of a range of technologies, the organizational problems with the institutions that generate forensic science evidence, and the timidity of the courts in pushing for better science. Even if the full promise of the report is not realized, its publication ultimately should strengthen the good in a system of law and science that has its fair share of the good, the bad, and the ugly. Source

Brevik E.C.,Dickinson State University
Physics and Chemistry of the Earth | Year: 2010

Many influential individuals involved in the early US soil survey program were trained as geologists rather than as agronomists or soil scientists. Several geology departments served as pipelines for students interested in a career in soil survey. This paper looks at the professional history of two early mentors of these geologists turned soil surveyors and some of the students they sent on to the US soil survey and other soil science careers. Collier Cobb sent over 10 students to the soil survey starting in 1900 when US soil survey was in its infancy, including individuals of note such as Hugh H. Bennett, George N. Coffey, Williamson E. Hearn, and Thomas D. Rice. Allen D. Hole worked on soil surveys for the state of Indiana and sent over a dozen students on to US soil survey careers between 1911 and 1937, including Mark Baldwin and James Thorp. Francis Hole and Ralph McCracken, other students of Allen Hole, also went on to have distinguished soil science careers. These mentors and students clearly show the close ties that existed between soil science and geology in the United States during the early 1900s. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. Source

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