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State College, PA, United States

Dickinson College is a private, residential liberal arts college in Carlisle, Pennsylvania, United States. Founded in 1773 as Carlisle Grammar School, Dickinson was chartered September 9, 1783, six days after the signing of the Treaty of Paris, making it the first college to be founded after the formation of the United States. Dickinson was founded by Benjamin Rush, a signer of the United States Declaration of Independence. It was originally named "John and Mary's College" in honor of John Dickinson, a signer of the Constitution who was later the President of Pennsylvania, and his wife Mary Norris Dickinson. They donated much of their extensive personal libraries to the new college. Dickinson College is the 16th-oldest college in the United States.With over 240 full-time faculty members and an enrollment of nearly 2,400 students, Dickinson has been recognized for its innovative curriculum and international education programs. For example, Dickinson sponsors 12 study centers in other countries. Its approach to global education has received national recognition from the American Council on Education and NAFSA: Association of International Educators. The college was among six institutions profiled in depth in 2003 by NAFSA for "Outstanding Campus Internationalization." In 2010, Dickinson received The Climate Leadership Award from the organization Second Nature for “innovative and advanced leadership in education for sustainability….” Dickinson receives approximately 6,000 applications for its 600 spaces. In 2013, Dickinson's endowment stood at $400 million, which is among the highest in the nation. In addition to offering either a bachelor of arts or bachelor of science degree in 22 disciplinary majors and 20 interdisciplinary majors, Dickinson offers an engineering option through its 3:2 program, which consists of three years at Dickinson and two years at an engineering school of Columbia University, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, or Case Western Reserve University. Upon successful completion of both portions of the program, students receive the B.S. degree from Dickinson in their chosen field and the B.S. in engineering from the engineering school.Dickinson College is not to be confused with the Dickinson School of Law. The Law School abuts the college campus but, since it was chartered as an independent institution in 1890, it has not been affiliated with the college. In 2000 the Law School merged with the Pennsylvania State University. Wikipedia.

Lewis K.T.,Dickinson College | Eracleous M.,Pennsylvania State University | Storchi-Bergmann T.,Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul
Astrophysical Journal, Supplement Series | Year: 2010

An increasing number of active galactic nuclei (AGNs) exhibit broad, double-peaked Balmer emission lines, which represent some of the best evidence for the existence of relatively large-scale accretion disks in AGNs. A set of 20 double-peaked emitters have been monitored for nearly a decade in order to observe long-term variations in the profiles of the double-peaked Balmer lines. Variations generally occur on timescales of years, and are attributed to physical changes in the accretion disk. Here we characterize the variability of a subset of seven double-peaked emitters in a model independent way. We find that variability is caused primarily by the presence of one or more discrete "lumps" of excess emission; over a timescale of a year (and sometimes less) these lumps change in amplitude and shape, but the projected velocity of these lumps changes over much longer timescales (several years). We also find that all of the objects exhibit red peaks that are stronger than the blue peak at some epochs and/or blueshifts in the overall profile, contrary to the expectations for a simple, circular accretion disk model, thus emphasizing the need for asymmetries in the accretion disk. Comparisons with two simple models, an elliptical accretion disk and a circular disk with a spiral arm, are unable to reproduce all aspects of the observed variability, although both account for some of the observed behaviors. Three of the seven objects have robust estimates of the black hole masses. For these objects the observed variability timescale is consistent with the expected precession timescale for a spiral arm, but incompatible with that of an elliptical accretion disk. We suggest that with the simple modification of allowing the spiral arm to be fragmented, many of the observed variability patterns could be reproduced. © 2010. The American Astronomical Society. All rights reserved.

Arnold T.,Dickinson College
PloS one | Year: 2012

Rising atmospheric CO(2) often triggers the production of plant phenolics, including many that serve as herbivore deterrents, digestion reducers, antimicrobials, or ultraviolet sunscreens. Such responses are predicted by popular models of plant defense, especially resource availability models which link carbon availability to phenolic biosynthesis. CO(2) availability is also increasing in the oceans, where anthropogenic emissions cause ocean acidification, decreasing seawater pH and shifting the carbonate system towards further CO(2) enrichment. Such conditions tend to increase seagrass productivity but may also increase rates of grazing on these marine plants. Here we show that high CO(2) / low pH conditions of OA decrease, rather than increase, concentrations of phenolic protective substances in seagrasses and eurysaline marine plants. We observed a loss of simple and polymeric phenolics in the seagrass Cymodocea nodosa near a volcanic CO(2) vent on the Island of Vulcano, Italy, where pH values decreased from 8.1 to 7.3 and pCO(2) concentrations increased ten-fold. We observed similar responses in two estuarine species, Ruppia maritima and Potamogeton perfoliatus, in in situ Free-Ocean-Carbon-Enrichment experiments conducted in tributaries of the Chesapeake Bay, USA. These responses are strikingly different than those exhibited by terrestrial plants. The loss of phenolic substances may explain the higher-than-usual rates of grazing observed near undersea CO(2) vents and suggests that ocean acidification may alter coastal carbon fluxes by affecting rates of decomposition, grazing, and disease. Our observations temper recent predictions that seagrasses would necessarily be "winners" in a high CO(2) world.

Erfle S.E.,Dickinson College
Measurement in Physical Education and Exercise Science | Year: 2014

This article examines the proclivity and performance attributes of focal students across time and activities using data from 9,345 students. Three systematic focal behavior partitions are examined: Across activities, across time, and across activities and time. A students performance is focal if it ends in 0 or 5 for push-ups and 0 for curl-ups. Chi-square tests confirm that individual focal outcomes and systematic focal outcomes occur more frequently than random processes would suggest. In each instance, the only cell that is less populated than random processes would suggest is the one that exhibits no systematic focal behavior and the cell that exhibits the greatest deviation from expected is the full focal cell. Focal students outperform their peers on three activities at two assessments. Students with two-systematically focal outcomes have superior performance to students with no systematic focal outcomes but inferior performance to those with three or four focal outcomes. © Copyright © Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.

Howard G.J.,Dickinson College
Chemosphere | Year: 2014

Decisions on chemical substitution are made rapidly and by many stakeholders; these decisions may have a direct impact on consumer exposures, and, when a hazard exists, to consumer risks. Flame retardants (FRs) represent particular challenges, including very high production volumes, designed-in persistence, and often direct consumer exposure. Newer FR products, as with other industrial chemicals, typically lack data on hazard and exposure, and in many cases even basic information on structure and use in products is unknown. Chemical alternatives assessment (CAA) provides a hazard-focused approach to distinguishing between possible substitutions; variations on this process are used by several government and numerous corporate entities. By grouping chemicals according to functional use, some information on exposure potential can be inferred, allowing for decisions based on those hazard properties that are most distinguishing. This approach can help prevent the "regrettable substitution" of one chemical with another of equal, or even higher, risk. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.

Crouch R.D.,Dickinson College
Tetrahedron | Year: 2013

Reactions, which permit the selective deprotection of one silyl-protected alcohol in the presence of another are reviewed. This review covers examples reported in the literature from mid-2004 through 2011. Examples are categorized by the type of silyl ether, that is, deprotected in the presence of the type of silyl ether that remains intact. A complete listing of examples is provided in tabular form at the end of the manuscript. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

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