State College, PA, United States
State College, PA, United States

Dickinson College is a private, residential liberal arts college in Carlisle, Pennsylvania, United States. Founded in 1773 as Carlisle Grammar School, Dickinson was chartered September 9, 1783, six days after the signing of the Treaty of Paris, making it the first college to be founded after the formation of the United States. Dickinson was founded by Benjamin Rush, a signer of the United States Declaration of Independence. It was originally named "John and Mary's College" in honor of John Dickinson, a signer of the Constitution who was later the President of Pennsylvania, and his wife Mary Norris Dickinson. They donated much of their extensive personal libraries to the new college. Dickinson College is the 16th-oldest college in the United States.With over 240 full-time faculty members and an enrollment of nearly 2,400 students, Dickinson has been recognized for its innovative curriculum and international education programs. For example, Dickinson sponsors 12 study centers in other countries. Its approach to global education has received national recognition from the American Council on Education and NAFSA: Association of International Educators. The college was among six institutions profiled in depth in 2003 by NAFSA for "Outstanding Campus Internationalization." In 2010, Dickinson received The Climate Leadership Award from the organization Second Nature for “innovative and advanced leadership in education for sustainability….” Dickinson receives approximately 6,000 applications for its 600 spaces. In 2013, Dickinson's endowment stood at $400 million, which is among the highest in the nation. In addition to offering either a bachelor of arts or bachelor of science degree in 22 disciplinary majors and 20 interdisciplinary majors, Dickinson offers an engineering option through its 3:2 program, which consists of three years at Dickinson and two years at an engineering school of Columbia University, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, or Case Western Reserve University. Upon successful completion of both portions of the program, students receive the B.S. degree from Dickinson in their chosen field and the B.S. in engineering from the engineering school.Dickinson College is not to be confused with the Dickinson School of Law. The Law School abuts the college campus but, since it was chartered as an independent institution in 1890, it has not been affiliated with the college. In 2000 the Law School merged with the Pennsylvania State University. Wikipedia.

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(PRLEAP.COM) May 5, 2017 - When asked about her series elusively titled "999" Amanda shares this, "My art is an expression of my journey towards inner peace and acceptance. I'm very interested in what emotions look like. The series title '999' came to me as an idea about self determination and bold energy and that vision has held this series together while I traveled around the world on a journey of self discovery and connection during the past year. Then I would come home to my studio to record the experiences and unravel the mysteries with my medium of oil paint. My mantra while working this series was 'Resist Nothing.'"In this new series of paintings, Saint Claire's talent forces us immediately to engage with her unique style of embracing colors, line, and texture and for those who chose to go deeper, to experience the universal messages that unite us as humans.In this series Saint Claire employs the traditional mediums of oil and charcoal on wooden panels in creating the unconventional. Not quite pure abstraction but also lacking in traditional conveyances of rendering, Saint Claire seems to defy labels and that obviously delights her. As is the case with many artists, her work is informed by the world around her, except Amanda's world during this year has been spent not only in San Diego's beautiful North County but also in Western Pennsylvania, Northern and Central California, Southern Florida, Singapore, Cambodia, Malaysia, Nepal, and India.Amanda Saint Claire was born outside of Pittsburgh, PA in the small blighted steel town of Aliquippa. The first in her family to attend college she graduated with a B.A. from Dickinson College and went on to earn her J.D. from Tulane School of Law, New Orleans, LA in 1998.Saint Claire studied abroad in Germany, Poland, and Greece in High School, College and Law School and always considered herself a citizen of the world and she continued to live across the globe after joining the U.S. Navy as a JAGC officer and marrying her husband, a scientist currently on active duty serving currently on assignment in Cambodia with the U.S. Navy. The family landed in Del Mar, CA in 2014 and at that time Amanda left her law practice and focused full time on her children and the development of her art practice. She plans to keep her studio here to create a stable base for her 3 children but she is often found in an airport exploring her world and connecting with friends and family on nearly every corner of the globe.In addition to exhibiting in art galleries in local and national shows, Saint Claire's award winning artwork is on display at a revolving Solo Show entitled "Innovate" at the Innovation Center in San Diego and an international advertising agency in Southern California and she is included in the artist gallery in the new Diane Culhane book entitled "If you Can Doodle You Can Paint" available in bookstores in May. Saint Claire is a member of the LA Art Association and the Oceanside Museum Artist Alliance.Saint Claire loves to collaborate with other artists and this show is no exception. Amanda will be joined by the very talented artists Paul Kauffman and Terri Rippee as they explore their individual and collective experiences with color in their divergent mediums. Kauffman in mixed media and Rippee with fine art photography.The art exhibit entitled Conversations with Color will be on view from May 26, 2017 – July 8, 2017 with an opening celebration scheduled for Friday, May 26th 5:30 to 8:00 pm and an Artist Reception and a live painting demonstration on June 3rd at 5:00 to 8:00 pm at the Bonita Art Museum, 4355 Bonita Road, Bonita CA 91902.For more information about the artist or the upcoming show findAmanda Saint Claire Fine Art Studio at

Arnold T.,Dickinson College
PloS one | Year: 2012

Rising atmospheric CO(2) often triggers the production of plant phenolics, including many that serve as herbivore deterrents, digestion reducers, antimicrobials, or ultraviolet sunscreens. Such responses are predicted by popular models of plant defense, especially resource availability models which link carbon availability to phenolic biosynthesis. CO(2) availability is also increasing in the oceans, where anthropogenic emissions cause ocean acidification, decreasing seawater pH and shifting the carbonate system towards further CO(2) enrichment. Such conditions tend to increase seagrass productivity but may also increase rates of grazing on these marine plants. Here we show that high CO(2) / low pH conditions of OA decrease, rather than increase, concentrations of phenolic protective substances in seagrasses and eurysaline marine plants. We observed a loss of simple and polymeric phenolics in the seagrass Cymodocea nodosa near a volcanic CO(2) vent on the Island of Vulcano, Italy, where pH values decreased from 8.1 to 7.3 and pCO(2) concentrations increased ten-fold. We observed similar responses in two estuarine species, Ruppia maritima and Potamogeton perfoliatus, in in situ Free-Ocean-Carbon-Enrichment experiments conducted in tributaries of the Chesapeake Bay, USA. These responses are strikingly different than those exhibited by terrestrial plants. The loss of phenolic substances may explain the higher-than-usual rates of grazing observed near undersea CO(2) vents and suggests that ocean acidification may alter coastal carbon fluxes by affecting rates of decomposition, grazing, and disease. Our observations temper recent predictions that seagrasses would necessarily be "winners" in a high CO(2) world.

Crouch R.D.,Dickinson College
Tetrahedron | Year: 2013

Reactions, which permit the selective deprotection of one silyl-protected alcohol in the presence of another are reviewed. This review covers examples reported in the literature from mid-2004 through 2011. Examples are categorized by the type of silyl ether, that is, deprotected in the presence of the type of silyl ether that remains intact. A complete listing of examples is provided in tabular form at the end of the manuscript. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Agency: NSF | Branch: Standard Grant | Program: | Phase: TUES-Type 2 Project | Award Amount: 370.28K | Year: 2011

The LivePhoto Physics Group is creating and evaluating the use of a series of Interactive Video Vignettes - short single-topic video expositions that incorporate experimental measurement and analysis activities. These web-based vignettes are being developed as exercises to supplement textbook reading and/or serve as pre-lecture or pre-laboratory activities. Each vignette combines narration, a real-world video segment, and video analysis tools to enable students to master concepts while learning how to collect and analyze data. The video analysis methods can range from simply viewing the spacing between lines on a video frame to applying sophisticated data collection and analysis techniques. By providing an interactive experience outside the classroom, students are able to confront common conceptual difficulties and learn how scientific knowledge is constructed through observation and experimentation. Since Interactive Video Vignettes represent a new genre of learning materials, this group is conducting research on the impact of vignette use on student learning and attitudes. One focus is to identify efficient course management techniques that motivate students to use vignettes productively with a minimum of instructor time.

Interactive Video Vignettes are to serve as a model for other STEM web developers as they create interactive materials involving student use of real-world observations in many venues. These include supplements to classroom work, laboratory experiences, on-line courses, and hands-on science museum experiences. In addition, the project is developing new methods for automated collection of data about how students interact with web-based materials. Such data can assist other developers in automating and streamlining their educational research techniques while engaged in formative and summative research on how students can most profitably interact with web-based materials. These techniques provide new tools for research on how different student populations acquire the conceptual, mathematical, and epistemological knowledge that is essential for understanding science.

Agency: NSF | Branch: Standard Grant | Program: | Phase: PETROLOGY AND GEOCHEMISTRY | Award Amount: 25.00K | Year: 2013

This RAPID award funds a prompt response to the ongoing, massive eruption of Tolbachik volcano, central Kamchatka, Russia, which started with little warning on November 27, 2012, after 36 years of quiescence. Within two days of the eruption onset the lava flows had already traveled nearly 10 km, covering an area of ~14 km2. The eruption has formed a series of cinder cones that feed lava flows, which at the time of this writing extend for nearly 20 km over the barren slopes of the volcano down into snow-covered forests. The investigators will join an international team of volcanologists who are monitoring the ongoing activity, and will focus on two important aspects of the eruption: (1) interaction of lava with snow and ice, and (2) temporal variations of the composition of erupted lavas and their crystal cargo.

Both of these topics are timely for improving our understanding of volcanic eruptions. Gaining a more quantitative understanding of how lava flows interact with snow and ice is critical for assessing hazards at snow and ice covered volcanoes and for improving our ability to recognize ancient deposits formed by lava-snow interactions. Few if any quantitative studies have been attempted in the field to quantify heat transfer from lava to snow or ice; this requires direct field measurements at the front of an active lava flow propagating through the snow/ice-dominating environment. While these conditions are highly ephemeral, they are now present at Tolbachik as the eruption began after much of the surrounding landscape had been covered by seasonal snow, which has created a unique opportunity to measure heat transfer between lava and snow/ice and provide more accurate constraints for experimental and theoretical modeling of their interaction. Having a better understanding of how lava flows rapidly melt snow and ice is important for identifying hazardous areas around snow and ice-covered volcanoes such as Mt. Rainier in the Cascades. Similarly, collection of lava and ash samples during and immediately after their eruption is important because: (i) their juvenile origin can be established unequivocally and (ii) their time of eruption is known precisely. These characteristics are critical for using a series of erupted products to observe compositional trends in the eruptive sequence and to identify magma processes that triggered and currently drive the eruption at Tolbachik. This RAPID award will allow sampling of the eruptive products before they are buried by ash or later lava flows.

Agency: NSF | Branch: Continuing grant | Program: | Phase: PETROLOGY AND GEOCHEMISTRY | Award Amount: 161.57K | Year: 2012

As recently witnessed during the 2010 Eyjafjallajokull eruption in Iceland, interactions between lava and ice can have devastating local and global implications. However, because these eruptions most frequently occur in remote, hard-to-access places, we do not fully understand many of the processes that can produce glaciovolcanic hazards from rapidly melting ice, such as floods and mudflows. In order to better understand the role of lava flow formation during eruptions within and beneath ice, we propose to study one of the products of subglacial eruptions, called pillow lavas. Although pillow lavas are one of the most common types of lavas on the ocean floor, which covers about 70 percent of Earths surface, their formation beneath ice is relatively unstudied. We are going to work in two areas with exceptionally well-exposed examples of glaciovolcanic pillow lavas in Iceland and British Columbia, Canada. Our work will help other scientists to better understand how heat is transferred from lava to water and ice during glaciovolcanic eruptions, which may lead to better methods for predicting the sizes of floods resulting from lava-ice interactions. Through our research, we will also have a better understanding of how to use pillow lavas from ancient deposits to unravel mysteries related to ice-age global climate. Finally, we hope that our data will also be useful for better understanding of the formation of the Earths ocean floors, which may be important for future mineral and energy resources.

The main goals of this research are to use pillow lavas covering a range of basaltic compositions for testing hypotheses about the formation of subglacial pillow mounds, including models for lava transport within a growing pillow-dominated volcano and the potential for sudden transitions between explosive versus effusive eruption styles. Specifically we will address the following questions:
i) Is the initiation of pillow lava emplacement preceded by an explosive phase?
ii) How is lava distributed along and across the ridge structure?
iii) What are effusion rates during subglacial, pillow-dominated eruptions?
iv) Are multiple eruptive centers active along a fissure segment during a single eruptive episode?

We will pursue answers to these questions by using modern field and analytical techniques to document the three-dimensional structure, stratigraphy and geochemistry of two different pillow ridges with exceptional exposures: (1) open-pit rock quarries along a single fissure segment on the Reykjanes Peninsula in southwestern Iceland and (2) the crest of Pillow Ridge in northern British Columbia. Both locations have similar lithofacies, including a specific stratigraphic sequence of vitric tuff-breccia cut by dikes that feed pillow lava flows emplaced immediately above the tuff-breccias (TDP lithofacies association). We have established a broad-based research team, comprising US, Icelandic and Canadian scientists working in full collaboration with the PIs, to build a comprehensive database of subglacial pillow characteristics for comparison to pillow lavas produced in other environments and potentially to revise existing models for the construction of the pillow-dominated parts of subglacial volcanoes.

Agency: NSF | Branch: Continuing grant | Program: | Phase: Cellular Dynamics and Function | Award Amount: 256.86K | Year: 2014

Cell division is a fundamental process for virtually all living systems. The generation of two identical daughter cells requires not only that each cell receives an equal complement of genetic material (DNA) but also that the other contents of the cell be divided equally. The process of physically separating the two daughter cells is known as cytokinesis, and this process involves a contractile ring that physically constricts the cell and splits it in two. Cytokinesis utilizes many of the same same mechanisms that are used to regulate cell shape change during migration. Cell shape is dependent on a dynamic structure (the cytoskeleton) that is comprised primarily of the protein actin, and whose behavior is regulated by a number of small signaling molecules. Several conflicting models have been proposed to explain how these small molecules interact to control the cytoskeleton, but the explanatory power of these models has not been clearly established. This project will investigate the regulation of the cytoskeleton by these small signaling molecules and help to clarify the mechanisms by which they function.This research will provide training and educational opportunities for undergraduate and graduate students, with a concerted effort to recruit underrepresented minorities including Native American Indian and Hispanic students. Outreach into high schools will also be performed with the intent to generate in students a long-term interest in science.

In this project, a toolbox of molecular and pharmacological reagents will be combined with biophysical measurements and high-resolution light and electron microscopy to examine how the G proteins Rho, Rac, and Cdc42 coordinate cytokinesis-related shape change in large embryonic cells. Aims 1 and 2 will use a combination of live cell imaging and biophysical analyses to determine what elements of Rac and Cdc42 signaling antagonize Rho-dependent cytokinesis. Aim 3 will take advantage of a unique preparation of the contractile ring to both define its 3D structure and determine how the different elements of Rho signaling contribute to its assembly and function. The results of these studies will advance knowledge in the field of animal cell division research by extending our understanding of the precise 3D architecture of actin and myosin II in the contractile ring that drives cytokinesis.

Agency: NSF | Branch: Continuing grant | Program: | Phase: GEOBIOLOGY & LOW TEMP GEOCHEM | Award Amount: 94.85K | Year: 2013

The process of mechanical and chemical decomposition of volcanic rocks at the Earths surface (i.e., weathering) regulates the global carbon cycle, releases nutrients to ecosystems, and sculpts landscapes. Despite its fundamental importance, we still lack effective tools and key observations to quantify the weathering rates of volcanic rocks and to understand how they respond to changes in climate and tectonic regime. During weathering, rock fragments in soils commonly form weathering rinds. These rinds can provide an ideal long-term record to help understand the controls of chemical weathering. Investigators propose to combine a novel U-series isotopic technique with bulk chemical, petrographic, and electron microprobe analyses to quantify formation rates of weathering rinds on the tropical volcanic Basse-Terre Island of French Guadeloupe. By comparing weathering rinds from a single watershed, they will understand the controls on weathering rind formation at the micro-scale through processes including dissolution, formation of new phases, and development of porosity. In addition, the field setting at Basse-Terre Island provides a superb natural laboratory with large environmental variables, allowing them to study rind formation along steep gradients of precipitation, bedrock ages and relief at large watershed scale. The combined analysis of weathering rinds will provide a novel and fundamental method to directly determine chemical weathering rates. This will be of broad interests to scientists worldwide studying the Critical Zone or Earths surface layer extending from the top of the vegetative canopy to the base of groundwater. For example, such an approach provides a direct means to understand the controls on chemical weathering across different spatial scales. The gained insights will also help to understand how changes in precipitation affect mineral dissolution and reaction surfaces in rinds and soils, and how these processes control river chemistry over long time scales.

This project brings together resources and expertise from the U.S., France, and UK. Graduate and undergraduate students at Univ. of Texas at El Paso (UTEP), one of the largest Ph.D.-granting Hispanic Serving Institutes in the U.S., and Dickinson College, an undergraduate-only liberal arts college in Pennsylvania will conduct research at an international Critical Zone research site (Guadeloupe, France) and in research facilities at Pennsylvania State University, Institut de Physique du Globe de Paris, Univ. of Strasbourg, and Univ. of Bristol. This importance is highlighted for UTEP and Dickinson College where the students are rarely exposed to such opportunities at international levels. This project will also support one early career faculty (PI Ma) at UTEP. Educational and outreach activities at UTEP and Dickson College, in collaboration with the NSF funded Pathways and STEP Scholars, as well as Earth Science Day at UTEP, will expose local high school students and general public in the rapidly growing and diverse El Paso region to cutting edge Critical Zone research topics (water, soils, and environments). The project will attract future STEM students who wish to study and solve emerging environmental problems facing the local community.

Levels of CO2 in the air are now about 40% higher than they were 200 years ago at the start of the Industrial Revolution. At least 1/3 of excess CO2 production has been absorbed by the ocean, making it more acidic as the CO2 forms carbonic acid. Understanding the likely impact of this increasing ocean acidification (OA) on marine animals and ecosystems is complicated by the fact that other features of the environment are also expected to change appreciably (e.g., seawater temperatures will increase and food availability and nutritional value may decline), by the fact that stresses experienced in early development can have lasting effects, and because the molecular mechanisms of the responses are poorly understood. This study examines how OA under different environmental conditions will impact the development, dispersal, and metamorphosis of the marine snail Crepidula fornicata, a common species native to the eastern U.S. that has now become established in the Pacific Northwest, Europe, and elsewhere. This study will include: 1) the impact of OA on relative rates of tissue and shell growth in larvae; 2) long-term impact of larval exposure to OA on the survival and growth of juveniles; 3) influence of OA on gene expression patterns in both larvae and juveniles; 4) impact of OA on time until metamorphosis and on the ability to metamorphose in response to environmental inducers; 5) effect of elevated temperature on responses to OA; 6) impact of larval diet on vulnerability to OA; and 7) impact of OA on larval swimming ability and settlement behavior. The study species is native to the East coast of the United States but has now become an important invasive in many other parts of the world. The results will have important implications for understanding the continued spread of this species. In addition, the work includes opportunities for graduate and undergraduate student training, outreach to high school teachers and development of new classroom exercises.

Molluscan larvae are expected to be especially susceptible to the effects of ocean acidification (OA) in the coming years, due to their thinly calcified shells. In addition, water temperatures are expected to amplify some impacts of OA. Some effects, such as potentially reduced growth rates, reduced shell thickness, and altered dispersal capability are likely to be immediate, while others (latent effects) may appear only later in development, well after metamorphosis has taken place. In addition, OA--with or without ocean warming--may alter larval behavior and physiology in ways that affect the timing of metamorphosis and the fitness of juveniles,thus altering dispersal potential and vulnerability to predators. OA may also alter the abundance and nutritional quality of phytoplankton. We will investigate the consequences of OA under different environmental scenarios for larvae of the marine gastropod Crepidula fornicata, an easily cultured species that is receiving increasing attention both as a general model for lophotrochozoan development and as an ecologically significant invader in benthic subtidal communities. Our study will include: 1) impact of OA on rates of larval tissue and shell growth; 2) latent effects of larval exposure to OA on juvenile survival and growth; 3) effect of elevated temperature on responses to OA; 4) influence of elevated OA on larval and juvenile gene expression; 5) impact of OA on the development of competence for metamorphosis; 6) impact of OA on the response of competent larvae to a variety of metamorphic inducers; 7) impact of larval diet quality on vulnerability to OA, both in the larval stages and following metamorphosis (latent effects); and 8) impact of OA on larval swimming and settlement behaviors, and the neural correlates of those behaviors.

Agency: NSF | Branch: Standard Grant | Program: | Phase: Chemistry of Life Processes | Award Amount: 217.58K | Year: 2014

With this award, the Chemistry of Life Processes Program in the Division of Chemistry is funding Professor Rebecca Connor of Dickinson College to investigate how stress affects individual cells in tissues and organs. It is thought that one way cells protect themselves against environmental stresses such as toxins is through a process known as the heat shock response. This project is investigating how certain stress-inducing molecules interact with proteins involved in the heat shock response. It is known that the bodys ability to make use of this protective system decreases with age, so the work is also giving deeper insight into how the cellular aging process occurs. This work is having a broader impact on the understanding of basic biological processes that help to maintain good health. Knowledge gained from this work will be useful for a number of fields, including toxicology. The work is having a further broad impact on the training of the next generation of scientists through the many undergraduates at this institution who are participating in the research project.

In this project, studies are being carried out to determine how parthenolide and similar electrophilic molecules chemically affect the cellular heat shock response system (HSR) of cells through covalent modification of the chaperone proteins Hsp70 and Hsp90 and the transcription factor, Hsf1. Peptide enrichment of affinity tagged parthenolide derivatives combined with MALDI-TOF/TOF analysis identifies covalently-adducted amino acids. Mutation of these residues as well as covalent adduction sites previously published in the literature are being used in combination with kinetic binding, protein refolding, co-immunoprecipitation and electrophoretic shift assays to build a complete picture of the effect of modification on heat shock protein (Hsp) function. Both the identification of specific amino acid residues involved in the activation of the heat shock protein response by electrophilic molecules and the quantification of the specific effects on binding affinity, chaperone activity and DNA binding of the Hsps found in the heat shock complex are helping clarify how the heat shock response is controlled. The sensor mechanisms of the heat shock complex are important for the cellular response to environmental toxins and other molecules, as well as cellular senescence.

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