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Topak E.,Sony | Hasch J.,Robert Bosch GmbH | Wagner C.,DICE GmbH | Zwick T.,Karlsruhe Institute of Technology
IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques | Year: 2013

A novel beam-steering approach is presented based on the superposition of two squinted antenna beams. The two antenna beams are realized by exciting the opposite feeds of a dual-fed array antenna. A change in phase difference and amplitude ratio between the input signals, possibly using only one phase shifter and one variable gain amplifier, steers the main beam in different directions. Additionally, sum and difference patterns can be obtained using this concept, allowing for a monopulse operation with a broad peak or a deep null at broadside. Using this approach, beam nulls can also be steered toward interference directions, while keeping the shape and direction of the main beam unchanged. To verify the concept, a 77-GHz demonstrator using a linear patch array antenna and monolithic microwave integrated circuit in-phase/quadrature modulators has been designed and fabricated. The measurement results show a beam-scanning range of 16° , well in accord with the simulation results. © 1963-2012 IEEE.

Feger R.,Johannes Kepler University | Pfeffer C.,Johannes Kepler University | Scheiblhofer W.,Johannes Kepler University | Schmid C.M.,Johannes Kepler University | And 2 more authors.
IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques | Year: 2013

In this paper, a radar system for local positioning applications is presented. The system consists of frequency modulated continuous-wave (FMCW) stations operating in W-band that are loosely coupled using time-delayed ramp start signals. A centralized signal processing approach allows to relax the required synchronization accuracy between the stations and further leads to a cancellation of phase noise and phase distortions caused by imperfect FMCW ramps. All stations are equipped with an antenna array and multiple receivers. Thus, a signal processing approach is developed in this work that combines the positive effects from the centralized processing with the information from the antenna array in a digital-beamforming based approach to improve the multipath robustness of the overall system. The developed theory is confirmed in measurements carried out with a prototype system consisting of two stations. Various measurements in multipath environments confirm the improved robustness leading to a worst-case root-mean-square position error of 15 mm under strong multipath conditions which were simulated inside an anechoic chamber. © 1963-2012 IEEE.

Pfeffer C.,Johannes Kepler University | Feger R.,Johannes Kepler University | Wagner C.,DICE GmbH | Stelzer A.,Johannes Kepler University
IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques | Year: 2013

In this paper, a prototype automotive radar sensor is presented that is capable of generating simultaneously multiple transmit (TX) beams. The system is based on a four-channel 77-GHz frequency-modulated continuous-wave (FMCW) radar system. The number of beams, their radiated power, steering angle, and beam pattern can be changed adaptively. This is achieved by the utilization of orthogonal waveforms applied to different beams in combination with digital beamforming on the receive side. Key components are vector modulators in the TX path controlled by digital-to-analog converters. The performance of the system is shown in measurements focused on beam pattern, signal-to-noise ratio, and susceptibility in case of interfering targets at cross-range. Measurement results are discussed and compared to theory and simulations. Furthermore, crest factor minimization of the vector modulator's control signals is introduced and used to increase the achievable TX power, which will be also shown in measurements. © 1963-2012 IEEE.

Jahn M.,Johannes Kepler University | Feger R.,Johannes Kepler University | Wagner C.,DICE GmbH | Tong Z.,Johannes Kepler University | Stelzer A.,Johannes Kepler University
IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques | Year: 2012

This paper presents a multi-channel frequency-modulated continuous-wave (FMCW) radar sensor operating in the frequency range from 91 to 97 GHz. The millimeter-wave radar sensor utilizes an SiGe chipset comprising a single signal-generation chip and multiple monostatic transceiver (TRX) chips, which are based on a 200-GHz f T HBT technology. The front end is built on an RF soft substrate in chip-on-board technology and employs a nonuniformly distributed antenna array to improve the angular resolution. The synthesis of ten virtual antennas achieved by a multiple-input multiple-output technique allows the virtual array aperture to be maximized. The fundamental-wave voltage-controlled oscillator achieves a single-sideband phase noise of -88 dBc/Hz at 1-MHz offset frequency. The TX provides a saturated output power of 6.5 dBm, and the mixer within the TRX achieves a gain and a double sideband noise figure of 11.5 and 12 dB, respectively. Possible applications include radar sensing for range and angle detection, material characterization, and imaging. © 2006 IEEE.

Fischer A.,Johannes Kepler University | Stelzer A.,Johannes Kepler University | Maurer L.,DICE GmbH
International Journal of Microwave and Wireless Technologies | Year: 2012

A 77-GHz-directional folded dipole antenna integrated in an embedded wafer level ball grid array package is presented. For the characterization of the antenna, a frequency multiplier is embedded, which scales the 4.25-GHz input signal up to 76.5 GHz and allows the use of a commercial signal source. The antenna structure is manufactured at the metallic layer, in the fan-out area of the package, and is directly connected to the monolithically integrated transceiver. The gain of the antenna is about 7 dBi, measured over a large bandwidth of about 8 GHz. The combination of the frequency multiplier with a 77-GHz transceiver and the on-package antenna is a promising approach for a system-in-package to future radar modules for automotive radar applications. Such a module avoids 77-GHz transitions to the printed circuit board and hence simplifies the design and manufacturing of the radar sensor significantly. Copyright © 2012 Cambridge University Press and the European Microwave Association.

Valkama M.,Tampere University of Technology | Springer A.,Johannes Kepler University | Hueber G.,DICE GmbH
ISCAS 2010 - 2010 IEEE International Symposium on Circuits and Systems: Nano-Bio Circuit Fabrics and Systems | Year: 2010

Building compact and low-cost yet flexible and reconfigurable radios for future wireless systems is generally a challenging task. On one hand, the needs for flexibility and re-configurability prevent using dedicated hardware particularly designed and optimized for only a single application or part of the radio spectrum. And on the other hand, to keep the overall size and cost of the radio equipment feasible, especially in multi-antenna multi-radio scenarios, the cost and size of individual radios are strongly limited. As a result, various imperfections and impairments are expected to take place in the used radio transceivers, especially in the radio frequency (RF) analog electronics. Good examples of such imperfections are, e.g., mirror-frequency interference due to I/Q imbalance, non-linear distortion due to mixer and amplifier nonlinearities, timing jitter and non-linearities in sampling and analog-to-digital (A/D) converter circuits, and oscillator phase noise. These impairments, if not properly understood and taken into account, can easily become a limiting factor to the quality and performance of the radio device and thereon of the whole wireless link. This is even more so, when more complex and more sensitive high-order modulated wideband communications waveforms are being deployed in the future systems. This article gives an overview of the essential RF impairments in modern radio communication context. Furthermore, different conceptual alternatives for reducing the effects of RF impairments in radio transmitters and receivers utilizing digital signal processing are described. ©2010 IEEE.

Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP | Phase: ICT-2011.3.1 | Award Amount: 12.28M | Year: 2012

DOTSEVEN is a 3.5 year IP proposal for a very ambitious R&D project targeting the development of Silicon Germanium (SiGe) Heterojunction Bipolar Transistor (HBT) technologies with cut-off frequencies (fmax) of around 700 GHz. Special attention will be paid to clearly demonstrate the capabilities and benefits of this technology with benchmark circuits and advanced system applications in the 0.1 to 1 THz range like THz imaging and sensing, wireless Gb/s communications and millimeter-wave radar.\nFor a given lithography node, HBTs provide much higher cut-off frequencies compared to CMOS transistors while offering higher power density and better analog performance. SiGe HBT technology and SiGe HBT enhanced CMOS (SiGe BiCMOS) are key enablers for demanding mm-wave systems requiring more than a few Watts of RF output power (which limits the applicability of even very advanced CMOS) and also offer high integration levels at low cost which precludes expensive and less integrated III-V solutions.\n10 out of the 12 DOTSEVEN participants were already partnering in the predecessor FP7 project DOTFIVE which succeeded for the first time to push fmax of SiGe HBTs (at room temperature) into the 500 GHz region thus setting a new world-wide benchmark. Triggered by the impressive DOTFIVE results, several activities in the rest of the world already have started to catch up or even surpass our achievements.\nThe main objective of the highly qualified and motivated DOTSEVEN consortium is therefore to significantly expand the successful work of DOTFIVE, to further strengthen Europes leading edge position in SiGe HBT technology and modeling as well as SiGe enabled mm-wave applications and to stay significantly ahead of non-European competition. A powerful and success-proven consortium has been set-up to achieve these goals. It consists of 5 industrial partners (including 3 SMEs) and 9 well distinguished academic research institutes spread all over Europe.

Maurer L.,DICE GmbH | Haider G.,DICE GmbH | Knapp H.,Infineon Technologies
2011 IEEE 9th International New Circuits and Systems Conference, NEWCAS 2011 | Year: 2011

Radar sensors operating in the 76-81 GHz range are considered key for Advanced Driver Assistance Systems (ADAS) like adaptive cruise control (ACC), collision mitigation and avoidance systems (CMS) or lane change assist (LCA). These applications are the next wave in automotive safety systems and have thus generated increased interest in lower-cost solutions especially for the mm-wave front-end (FE) section. Today, most of the radar sensors in this frequency range use GaAs based FEs. These multi-chip GaAs FEs are a main cost driver in current radar sensors due to their low integration level. The step towards monolithic microwave integrated circuits (MMIC) based on a 200 GHz ft silicon-germanium (SiGe) technology integrating all needed RF building blocks (mixers, VCOs, dividers, buffers, PAs) on an single die does not only lead to cost reductions but also benefits the testability of these MMICs. This is especially important in the light of upcoming functional safety standards like ASIL-D and ISO26262. © 2011 IEEE.

Laemmle B.,Friedrich - Alexander - University, Erlangen - Nuremberg | Vinci G.,Friedrich - Alexander - University, Erlangen - Nuremberg | Maurer L.,DICE GmbH | Weigel R.,Friedrich - Alexander - University, Erlangen - Nuremberg | Koelpin A.,Friedrich - Alexander - University, Erlangen - Nuremberg
IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits | Year: 2012

In this paper an integrated six-port receiver front-end for angle-of-arrival detection of 77-GHz signals is presented. Applications of the circuit are direction finding, automotive radar calibration, or high precision industrial radar. The measurement principle is based on passive superposition of two incident signals and power detection. The circuit features two input amplifiers, a broadband passive six-port network, and four power detectors. The integrated circuit has a power consumption of 95 mW with 5 V supply voltage. It is fabricated in a 200-GHz f T SiGe bipolar technology and occupies only 1028×1128 m 2. The circuit operates in a 3-dB bandwidth from 75 GHz to 84 GHz and has a responsivity of 152 kV/W at 80 GHz. A simple calibration method is proposed and all calibration parameters are calculated for different frequency values. © 2012 IEEE.

Brandstatter S.,DICE GmbH | Huemer M.,Klagenfurt University
International System on Chip Conference | Year: 2011

This paper focuses on the design, implementation and benchmarking of a core for cycle accurate multithreaded processing in hard real-time systems-on-chip. The reason to force this development is the increasing number of system-on-chip applications which require hard real-time or even cycle accurate execution of parallel tasks. Benchmarks show that the core presented in this work overcomes these barriers by implementing a well defined instruction set and an execution pipeline which allows fine-grain temporal multithreading. © 2011 IEEE.

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