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Moodley K.,University of KwaZulu - Natal | Botha J.,University of KwaZulu - Natal | Raidoo D.M.,dical Center | Naidoo S.,University of KwaZulu - Natal
Journal of the Neurological Sciences | Year: 2011

Expression of thyroid-stimulating hormone receptor (TSH-R) has been demonstrated in adipocytes, lymphocytes, bone, kidney, heart, intestine and rat brain. Immuno-reactive TSH-R has been localised in rat brain and human embryonic cerebral cortex but not in adult human brain. We designed a pilot study to determine whether anti-thyroid auto-antibodies immuno-localise in normal adult human cerebral cortex. Forensic samples from the frontal, motor, sensory, occipital, cingulate and parieto-occipito-temporal association cortices were obtained from five individuals who had died of trauma. Although there were no head injuries, the prior psychiatric history of patients was unknown. The tissues were probed with commercial antibodies against both human TSH-R and human thyroglobulin (TG). Anti-TSH-R IgG immuno-localised to cell bodies and axons of large neurones in all 6 regions of all 5 brains. The intensity and percentage of neurones labelled were similar in all tissue sections. TSH-R immuno-label was also observed in vascular endothelial cells in the cingulate gyrus. Although also found in all 5 brains and all six cortical regions, TG localised exclusively in vascular smooth muscle cells and not on neurones. Although limited by the small sample size and number of brain areas examined, this is the first study describing the presence of antigenic targets for anti-TSH-R IgG on human cortical neurons, and anti-TG IgG in cerebral vasculature. © 2010 Elsevier B.V.


Kuemmerle N.B.,Dartmouth Hitchcock Medical Center | Rysman E.,Catholic University of Leuven | Lombardo P.S.,Dartmouth Hitchcock Medical Center | Flanagan A.J.,Dartmouth Hitchcock Medical Center | And 14 more authors.
Molecular Cancer Therapeutics | Year: 2011

Many types of cancer cells require a supply of fatty acids (FA) for growth and survival, and interrupting de novo FA synthesis in model systems causes potent anticancer effects. We hypothesized that, in addition to synthesis, cancer cells may obtain preformed, diet-derived FA by uptake from the bloodstream. This would require hydrolytic release of FA from triglyceride in circulating lipoprotein particles by the secreted enzyme lipoprotein lipase (LPL), and the expression of CD36, the channel for cellular FA uptake. We find that selected breast cancer and sarcoma cells express and secrete active LPL, and all express CD36. We further show that LPL, in the presence of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins, accelerates the growth of these cells. Providing LPL to prostate cancer cells, which express low levels of the enzyme, did not augment growth, but did prevent the cytotoxic effect of FA synthesis inhibition. Moreover, LPL knockdown inhibited HeLa cell growth. In contrast to the cell lines, immunohistochemical analysis confirmed the presence of LPL and CD36 in the majority of breast, liposarcoma, and prostate tumor tissues examined (n = 181). These findings suggest that, in addition to de novo lipogenesis, cancer cells can use LPL and CD36 to acquire FA from the circulation by lipolysis, and this can fuel their growth. Interfering with dietary fat intake, lipolysis, and/or FA uptake will be necessary to target the requirement of cancer cells for FA. ©2011 AACR.


Han K.H.,University of Ulsan | Ryu J.W.,University of Ulsan | Lim K.-E.,Kyungpook National University | Lee S.-H.,University of Ulsan | And 5 more authors.
Bone | Year: 2014

Circulating osteoclast precursor cells highly express CX3C chemokine receptor 1 (CX3CR1), which is the only receptor for the unique CX3C membrane-anchored chemokine, fractalkine (CX3CL1). An irradiated murine model was used to evaluate the role of the CX3CL1-CX3CR1 axis in osteoclast recruitment and osteoclastogenesis. Ionizing radiation (IR) promoted the migration of circulating CD11b. + cells to irradiated bones and dose-dependently increased the number of differentiated osteoclasts in irradiated bones. Notably, CX3CL1 was dramatically upregulated in the vascular endothelium after IR. IR-induced production of CX3CL1 by skeletal vascular endothelium promoted chemoattraction of circulating CX3CR1. +/CD11b. + cells and triggered homing of these osteoclast precursor cells toward the bone remodeling surface, a specific site for osteoclast differentiation. CX3CL1 also increased the endothelium-derived expression of other chemokines including stromal cell-derived factor-1 (CXCL12) and macrophage inflammatory protein-2 (CXCL2) by activating the hypoxia-inducible factor-1 α pathway. These effects may further enhance osteoclastogenesis. A series of in vivo experiments confirmed that knockout of CX3CR1 in bone marrow-derived cells and functional inhibition of CX3CL1 using a specific neutralizing antibody significantly ameliorated osteoclastogenesis and prevented bone loss after IR. These results demonstrate that the de novo CX3CL1-CX3CR1 axis plays a pivotal role in osteoclast recruitment and subsequent bone resorption, and verify its therapeutic potential as a new target for anti-resorptive treatment. © 2014 Elsevier Inc.


Pitner N.D.,Medical College of Wisconsin | Fox C.A.,Medical College of Wisconsin | Riess M.L.,Medical College of Wisconsin | Riess M.L.,dical Center
F1000Research | Year: 2013

Journal clubs are an integral element of residency training. We report the successful implementation of a monthly structured journal club in our anesthesia residency program. Based on resident surveys before and one year after its start, the journal club led to a significantly higher confidence in how to critically appraise literature and present a manuscript. The journal club also improved the residents' ability to search the literature and their statistical knowledge, skills that are essential in the practice of evidence-based medicine. We describe key features that may aid other training programs in organizing a stimulating an educational and sustainable journal club. © 2013 Pitner ND et al.


Chien J.-Y.,National Taiwan University | Chien J.-Y.,National Taiwan University Hospital | Lai C.-C.,dical Center | Sheng W.-H.,National Taiwan University Hospital | And 2 more authors.
Emerging Infectious Diseases | Year: 2014

We analyzed samples from 13,652 patients who had respiratory cultures positive for mycobacteria in Taiwan during 2000-2012 and found that 56.9% were positive for nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM). Whereas annual prevalence of tuberculosis decreased during the study period, prevalence of NTM disease and colonization increased, particularly among older patients and male patients.

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