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PubMed | DIATHEVA s.r.l., Urbino University, Laboratory of Immunology and Biology of Metastasis, National Health Research Institute and 2 more.
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Clinical cancer research : an official journal of the American Association for Cancer Research | Year: 2015

The paucity of new drugs for the treatment of Ewing sarcoma (EWS) limits the cure of these patients. CD99 has a strong membranous expression in EWS cells and, being also necessary for tumor survival, is a suitable target to aim at. In this article, we described a novel human monospecific bivalent single-chain fragment variable diabody (dAbd C7) directed against CD99 of potential clinical application.In vitro and in vivo evaluation of cell death and of the molecular mechanisms triggered by anti-CD99 agents were performed alone or in combination with doxorubicin to demonstrate efficacy and selectivity of the new dAbd C7.The dAbd C7 induced rapid and massive EWS cell death through Mdm2 degradation and p53 reactivation. Mdm2 overexpression as well as silencing of p53 in p53wt EWS cells decreased CD99-induced EWS cell death, whereas treatment with nutlin-3 enhanced it. Furthermore, cell death was associated with induction of p21, bax, and mitochondrial depolarization together with substantial inhibition of tumor cell proliferation. Combined treatment of anti-CD99 dAbd C7 with doxorubicin was additive both in vitro and in vivo against EWS xenografts. Normal mesenchymal stem cells showed no p53 activation and were resistant to cell death, unless transformed by EWS-FLI, the oncogenic driver of EWS.These results indicate that dAbd C7 is a suitable candidate tool to target CD99 in patients with EWS able to spare normal stem cells from death as it needs an aberrant genetic context for the efficient delivery of CD99-triggered cell death.


Moricoli D.,Diatheva S.r.l | Laguardia M.E.,Diatheva S.r.l | Carbonella D.C.,Diatheva S.r.l | Balducci M.C.,Diatheva S.r.l | And 6 more authors.
Protein Expression and Purification | Year: 2014

The CEACAM1 cell adhesion molecule has recently received considerable interest as a tumour target antigen since its re-expression often occurs in the advanced stages of multiple malignancies including malignant melanoma, non-small cell lung cancer and other types of solid tumors. In this study, we describe the expression-purification and characterization of the new single chain variable fragment (scFv) antibody named DIATHIS1, that recognizes the N-terminal IgV-like domain present in CEACAM1. Three validation batches show that the production process is robust and reproducible. The scFv DIATHIS1 is formulated as a naturally occurring mixture of monomer and dimer. The antibody is biophysically stable at low temperature (-80 C), different concentrations and remains biologically active for at least 24 months. The thermal stability of scFv DIATHIS1 at 37 C shows important features for its activity in vivo. The dimer behaves as a reservoir converting slowly into monomer. The monomer and dimer forms of scFv DIATHIS1 were isolated and characterized, showing high reactivity for CEACAM1. This new composition of antibody could have advantageous pharmacokinetics parameters over conventional scFv for in vivo applications. © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.


Amagliani G.,Urbino University | Omiccioli E.,Diatheva srl | Brandi G.,Urbino University | Bruce I.J.,University of Kent | Magnani M.,Urbino University
Food Microbiology | Year: 2010

Seafood could become a source of bacterial pathogens by exposure to contaminated water or through processing practices, thus representing a public health hazard. Conventional culture-based analytical methods take several days to be completed, while the molecular rapid identification of bacterial pathogens is crucial for effective disease control. The developed application consist of a multiplex magnetic capture hybridisation (mMCH) assay for the simultaneous isolation of Salmonella spp. and Listeria monocytogenes DNA from seafood, using paramagnetic amino-modified nanoparticles with capture oligonucleotides, and a triplex Real-Time PCR with an Internal Amplification Control (IAC), in accordance with ISO 22174. The detection probability was 100% with 10 genome equivalents of each target species co-amplified in the same reaction. The complete molecular procedure was tested on raw and smoked salmon fillets artificially contaminated with known amounts of one or both target bacteria (1-103cfu/g), directly or after culture enrichment, and compared for equivalence with the standard methods. Results revealed a complete agreement between the two approaches, with a sensitivity of 1cfu/g, in enriched samples, and higher sensitivity (102-103cfu/g) of the molecular method in samples examined before culture enrichment. The proposed procedure was also able to identify a natural contamination by L. monocytogenes in smoked salmon with a considerable shortening of time. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.


Fiori V.,Diatheva srl | Magnani M.,Urbino University | Cianfriglia M.,Instituto Superiore Of Sanita
Annali dell'Istituto Superiore di Sanita | Year: 2012

Background: In this review, we focus our discussion on one class of carcinoembryonic antigen-related cell adhesion molecules, Carcinoembryonic antigen-related cell adhesion molecules 1 (CEACAM1). This has been observed in several malignant transformations to be subjected to complex mechanisms of modulation and dysregulation. Aims: Restoration of CEACAM1 expression in tumor cell lines often abolishes their oncogenicity in vivo, and therefore, this adhesion molecule has been regarded as a tumor suppressor. In contrast, de novo expression of CEACAM1 is found with the progression of malignancy and metastatic spread in a large array of cancer tissues which include melanoma, Non Small Cell Lung Carcinoma (NSCLC) as well as bladder, prostate, thyroid, breast, colon and gastric carcinomas. Discussion: We report and discuss the most significant findings confirming at immunohistochemical and clinical level the correlation between poor prognosis and expression of CEACAM1 on the cell surface of tumors.


PubMed | Urbino University, Diatheva srl and Instituto Superiore Of Sanita
Type: | Journal: Plasmid | Year: 2017

Plasmids are the main vectors of resistance and virulence genes in Enterobacteriaceae and plasmid typing is essential for the analysis of evolution, epidemiology and spread of antibacterial resistance. The PCR-Based Replicon Typing (PBRT), developed by Carattoli et al. in 2005, was an efficient method for plasmid identification and typing in Enterobacteriaceae. The 2005 PBRT scheme detected 18 replicons in 8 PCR reactions. Recently, the identification of novel replicons and plasmid types requested an update of the PBRT scheme. A commercial PBRT-KIT was devised for the identification of 28 different replicons in 8 multiplex PCRs. Here we report sensitivity and specificity of the PBRT-KIT carried out in comparison with the 2005 PBRT. The analysis of plasmid content was performed on forty-two enterobacterial strains from different sources, containing different replicon content. The 2005 PBRT identified replicons in 76.2% of the strains. The PBRT-KIT detected replicons in 100% of the analyzed strains, demonstrating increasing sensitivity and specificity of the commercial test with respect to the former 2005 PBRT scheme.


PubMed | Urbino University, Instituto Superiore Of Sanita, Instituto Ortopedico Rizzoli and Diatheva S.R.L
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Applied microbiology and biotechnology | Year: 2016

Ewings sarcoma (EWS) is the second most common primary bone tumor in pediatric patients characterized by over expression of CD99. Current management consists in extensive chemotherapy in addition to surgical resection and/or radiation. Recent improvements in treatment are still overshadowed by severe side effects such as toxicity and risk of secondary malignancies; therefore, more effective strategies are urgently needed. The goal of this work was to develop a rapid, inexpensive, and up-scalable process of a novel human bivalent single-chain fragment variable diabody (C7 dAbd) directed against CD99, as a new therapeutic approach for EWS. We first investigated different Escherichia coli constructs of C7 dAbd in small-scale studies. Starting from 60% soluble fraction, we obtained a yield of 25mg C7 dAbd per liter of bacterial culture with the construct containing pelB signal sequence. In contrast, a low recovery of C7 dAbd was achieved starting from periplasmic inclusion bodies. In order to maximize the yield of C7 dAbd, large-scale fermentation was optimized. We obtained from 75% soluble fraction 35mg C7 dAbd per L of cell culture grown in a synthetic media containing 3g/L of vegetable peptone and 1g/L of yeast extract. Furthermore, we demonstrated the better efficacy of the cell lysis by homogenization versus periplasmic extraction, in reducing endotoxin level of the C7 dAbd. For gram-scale purification, a direct aligned two-step chromatography cascade based on binding selectivity was developed. Finally, we recovered C7 dAbd with low residual process-related impurities, excellent reactivity, and apoptotic ability against EWS cells.


Quaranta M.G.,Instituto Superiore Of Sanita | Vincentini O.,Instituto Superiore Of Sanita | Felli C.,Instituto Superiore Of Sanita | Spadaro F.,Instituto Superiore Of Sanita | And 4 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2011

Background: The mucosal tissues play a central role in the transmission of HIV-1 infection as well as in the pathogenesis of AIDS. Despite several clinical studies reported intestinal dysfunction during HIV infection, the mechanisms underlying HIV-induced impairments of mucosal epithelial barrier are still unclear. It has been postulated that HIV-1 alters enterocytic function and HIV-1 proteins have been detected in several cell types of the intestinal mucosa. In the present study, we analyzed the effect of the accessory HIV-1 Nef protein on human epithelial cell line. Methodology/Principal Findings: We used unstimulated or IFN-γ-stimulated Caco-2 cells, as a model for homeostatic and inflamed gastrointestinal tracts, respectively. We investigated the effect of exogenous recombinant Nef on monolayer integrity analyzing its uptake, transepithelial electrical resistance, permeability to FITC-dextran and the expression of tight junction proteins. Moreover, we measured the induction of proinflammatory mediators. Exogenous Nef was taken up by Caco-2 cells, increased intestinal epithelial permeability and upset the IFN-γ-induced reduction of transepitelial resistance, interfering with tight junction protein expression. Moreover, Nef inhibited IFN-γ-induced apoptosis and up-regulated TNF-α, IL-6 and MIP-3α production by Caco-2 cells while down-regulated IL-10 production. The simultaneous exposure of Caco-2 cells to Nef and IFN-γ did not affect cytokine secretion respect to untreated cells. Finally, we found that Nef counteracted the IFN-γ induced arachidonic acid cascade. Conclusion/Significance: Our findings suggest that exogenous Nef, perturbing the IFN-γ-induced impairment of intestinal epithelial cells, could prolong cell survival, thus allowing for accumulation of viral particles. Our results may improve the understanding of AIDS pathogenesis, supporting the discovery of new therapeutic interventions. © 2011 Quaranta et al.


Patent
Diatheva S.R.L. and Instituto Superiore Of Sanita | Date: 2012-12-21

An anti-CEA scFv having an uncleaved Pel B leader sequence is surprisingly stable and is highly specific for CEA and CEACAM1.


The CEACAM1 cell adhesion molecule has recently received considerable interest as a tumour target antigen since its re-expression often occurs in the advanced stages of multiple malignancies including malignant melanoma, non-small cell lung cancer and other types of solid tumors. In this study, we describe the expression-purification and characterization of the new single chain variable fragment (scFv) antibody named DIATHIS1, that recognizes the N-terminal IgV-like domain present in CEACAM1. Three validation batches show that the production process is robust and reproducible. The scFv DIATHIS1 is formulated as a naturally occurring mixture of monomer and dimer. The antibody is biophysically stable at low temperature (-80C), different concentrations and remains biologically active for at least 24months. The thermal stability of scFv DIATHIS1 at 37C shows important features for its activity in vivo. The dimer behaves as a reservoir converting slowly into monomer. The monomer and dimer forms of scFv DIATHIS1 were isolated and characterized, showing high reactivity for CEACAM1. This new composition of antibody could have advantageous pharmacokinetics parameters over conventional scFv for in vivo applications.


PubMed | Diatheva srl
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Annali dell'Istituto superiore di sanita | Year: 2012

In this review, we focus our discussion on one class of carcinoembryonic antigen- related cell adhesion molecules, Carcinoembryonic antigen-related cell adhesion molecules 1 (CEACAM1). This has been observed in several malignant transformations to be subjected to complex mechanisms of modulation and dysregulation.Restoration of CEACAM1 expression in tumor cell lines often abolishes their oncogenicity in vivo, and therefore, this adhesion molecule has been regarded as a tumor suppressor. In contrast, de novo expression of CEACAM1 is found with the progression of malignancy and metastatic spread in a large array of cancer tissues which include melanoma, Non Small Cell Lung Carcinoma (NSCLC) as well as bladder, prostate, thyroid, breast, colon and gastric carcinomas.We report and discuss the most significant findings confirming at immunohistochemical and clinical level the correlation between poor prognosis and expression of CEACAM1 on the cell surface of tumors.

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