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Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-FP | Phase: NMP-2007-2.1-2 | Award Amount: 4.74M | Year: 2008

The aim of this project is to develop high density defect-free ultra-thin sealing coatings with excellent barrier properties and improved corrosion resistance. Their successful functioning will be provided by the synergy of the coating perfect morphology and its complex structural design, which can be tailored at the nanoscale. The study will be focused on development of novel nanostructured coating systems, such as nanoscale multilayers, mixed and composite coatings. These impermeable sealing layers must be able to block the ion exchange between the substrate material and an aggressive environment, thus offering an efficient protection against corrosion over a long term. The coatings will be deposited by four alternative vapour deposition techniques, Filtered Cathodic Arc Deposition (FCAD), High Power Impulse Magnetron Sputtering (HIPIMS), Atomic Layer Deposition (ALD) and Plasma Enhanced Atomic layer Deposition (PEALD)). These techniques possess a unique advantage offering the deposition of highly conformal and uniform films of high density, free of defects. The technological objective of the project is to demonstrate the feasibility of corrosion protection by FCAD, HIPIMS and ALD techniques on an industrial scale. To fulfil this objective, a complete industrial process for the multi-stage surface treatment, including cleaning, pre-treatment, coating deposition, must be defined. All techniques will be evaluated in terms of technical effectiveness, production costs, environmental impact and safety, and the most suitable technique(s) will be selected for further development on a large scale for the applications in some targeted industrial sectors. The applications, tested within this project, concern high precision mechanical parts (bearings), aerospace components (break systems) and gas handling components. The coating application in the decorative and biomedical domains will be assessed.

Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-FP | Phase: NMP-2009-2.1-1 | Award Amount: 3.82M | Year: 2010

The RODIN-project, which seamlessly integrates experimental, industrial and theoretical work, is organized around the concept of suspended single-and few-layer graphene nanostructures and annealed diamond-like carbon films. These structures are ideal for accessing and engineering the intrinsic material properties of graphene. In particular we will focus on engineering and measuring the mechanical and electromechanical properties. This will be done through sculpting of the suspended structures to desired shapes as well as using thermal post-processing methods. Initially, the graphene will be obtained using standard prototype techniques such as exfoliation and plasma assisted chemical vapor deposition. The main goal of the project, one that requires going beyond the current state of the art in multiple areas and has rapid and substantial industrial impact, is the fabrication and demonstration of a tunable graphene resonator with electronic readout. The performance of a mechanical resonator depends sensitively on materials quality, which makes it an ideal test application for a materials-oriented project.

Diaz B.,École Nationale Supérieure de Chimie de Paris | Swiatowska J.,École Nationale Supérieure de Chimie de Paris | Maurice V.,École Nationale Supérieure de Chimie de Paris | Seyeux A.,École Nationale Supérieure de Chimie de Paris | And 5 more authors.
Electrochimica Acta | Year: 2013

A comparative study by Time-of-Flight Secondary Ions Mass Spectrometry and X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy, i-E polarization curves and Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy of the corrosion protection of low alloy steel by 50 nm thick tantalum oxide coatings prepared by low temperature Atomic Layer Deposition (ALD) and Filtered Cathodic Arc Deposition (FCAD) is reported. The data evidence the presence of a spurious oxide layer mostly consisting of iron grown by transient thermal oxidation at the ALD film/substrate interface in the initial stages of deposition and its suppression by pre-treatment in the FCAD process. Carbonaceous contamination (organic and carbidic) resulting from incomplete removal of the organic precursor is the major cause of the poorer sealing properties of the ALD film. No coating dissolution is demonstrated in neutral or acid 0.2 M NaCl solutions. In acid solution localized corrosion by pitting proceeds faster with the ALD than with the FCAD coating. The roles of the pre-existing channel defects exposing the substrate surface and of the spurious interfacial oxide promoting coating breakdown and/or delamination are emphasized. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

Koskinen J.,University of Helsinki | Tapper U.,VTT Technical Research Center of Finland | Andersson P.,VTT Technical Research Center of Finland | Varjus S.,VTT Technical Research Center of Finland | And 3 more authors.
Surface and Coatings Technology | Year: 2010

It has been demonstrated that tetrahedral amorphous carbon (ta-C) films provide excellent wear and friction properties in dry sliding. Recently the applications of ta-C coatings in lubricated conditions have become more important. The use of carbon coatings aims at reducing the wear and coefficient of friction under minimum lubrication and without hazardous lubricant additives. For optimum tribological performance, a modification of the ta-C coated surfaces is required. The present paper describes an innovative method of coated surface texturing, by which nanometer and micrometer size pores are processed by various methods. Particle masking was used for processing micrometer size pores and for controlling the coating growth conditions in order to produce nanometer size pores in the ta-C surface. The masking by particles yielded a pore geometry which varied from complex shaped channels to small individual pores. The texturing was performed by distributing metallic powder particles on the surface or by direct chemical deposition of metal particles on the substrate in prior to pulsed vacuum arc deposition. The tribological characterization was carried out by applying reciprocating friction tests with controlled lubricant replenishment, in order to simulate metal forming processes. The friction reducing effect, which was observed in the tribological tests, indicated a microlubrication effect of the textured coating surfaces. © 2010 Elsevier B.V.

Paris P.,University of Tartu | Aints M.,University of Tartu | Hakola A.,VTT Technical Research Center of Finland | Kiisk M.,University of Tartu | And 6 more authors.
Fusion Engineering and Design | Year: 2011

The paper deals with the development of the laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) into an in situ method for studying of erosion/deposition processes at the first walls of fusion reactors. Because of fluctuations in the signal-to-background ratio of single-shot LIBS spectra, an averaging procedure has been used to reliably determine depth profiles of different elements at the surface, including that of deuterium. In the present study the averaging was carried out over LIBS spectra recorded from different sites of the studied sample. The set up allowed the characterization of nth laser shot by spectra recorded from N different sites. Deuterium-doped and Al-coated Ti samples were tested. The required ablation was produced by a UV (λ = 248 nm) laser. LIBS results for the depth profiles of D, Al, and Ti were compared with the data obtained by three different ion-beam techniques. Comparison of the averaged intensity of elemental spectral lines of an element versus laser shot number curves with depth profiles obtained by other methods showed a good qualitative match. © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-TP | Phase: NMP-2009-4.0-5 | Award Amount: 4.61M | Year: 2010

Intelligent and Customized Tooling (IC2) addresses the need for new technology and organizational models for the tooling industry. By developing a technological foundation and organizational models for intelligent tooling systems customized for users needs, the European tooling industry can increase competitiveness trough knowledge intensive tooling and increased customer value. IC2 will be a multidisciplinary research with hybrid manufacturing, coatings and tribology control, surface embedded sensors and new organizational models. IC2 will combine state-of-the-art additive and subtractive processes into a hybrid manufacturing cell. Such a cell will typically integrate the precision and performance of high-speed milling, grinding and/or polishing with the geometrical freedom of Additive Manufacturing Technology for the production of tooling inserts, cores, channels and cavities. Advanced coating technologies will be used to create intelligent surfaces featuring embedded sensors, high wear resistance and excellent friction properties control. These new technologies utilized trough new organizational models will allow the tool-ing industry to be more versatile and demand driven with symbiotic relations to the tool users. IC2 will have a large SME participation and substantial demonstrator activates in addition to cutting edge RTD activities. The results of IC2 is expected to be a new concept for Knowledge Intensive Tooling for the benefit of European manufacturing competiveness. The impact of IC2 knowledge intensive tooling will be substantial reduced time-to-marked, process tact times and tooling/manufacturing costs. The new technology enables new business models with full tool life cycle service and enhanced high value tools for the manufacturing industry. The Hybrid manufacturing enables rapid and high quality tool maintenance, while the sensors enables remote tool and process condition monitoring.

Diaz B.,Chimie Paristech | Diaz B.,University Pierre and Marie Curie | Swiatowska J.,Chimie Paristech | Swiatowska J.,University Pierre and Marie Curie | And 12 more authors.
Surface and Coatings Technology | Year: 2012

Combined analysis by Time-of-Flight Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry (ToF-SIMS), X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS), polarization curves and Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS) of the relation between chemical architecture of thin (10 and 50nm) chromium and tantalum oxide coatings grown by filtered cathodic arc deposition (FCAD) on carbon steel and their corrosion protection properties is reported. Pre-etching in the deposition process allows reducing the substrate native oxide layer to traces of iron oxide. A carbidic interlayer is then formed by reaction between the first deposited metallic particles and the residual carbon surface contamination of the alloy. The bulk coatings mostly consist of Cr 2O 3 or Ta 2O 5 with no in-depth variation of the stoichiometry. Surface and bulk of the coatings are contaminated by hydroxyl and organic groups. The 50nm coating has a relatively large porosity assigned to a columnar growth preventing good sealing at grain boundaries. The duplex structure (Ta/Ta-C) of the carbidic interlayer promotes a less defective growth of tantalum oxide than the single Cr-C interlayer for chromium oxide, thereby improving the sealing properties. The dielectric constants suggest poor insulating properties in line with a defective and porous nanostructure of the coatings. No dissolution was observed for both oxide nanocoatings in neutral 0.2M NaCl. Penetration of the electrolyte and access to the interface with the carbon steel surface cause the dissolution of the Cr-C interlayer, but not that of the Ta/Ta-C interlayer, and a more rapid initiation of localized corrosion. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.

Aakkula J.,Aalto University | Jokinen J.,Aalto University | Saarela O.,Aalto University | Tervakangas S.,DIARC Technology Inc.
International Journal of Adhesion and Adhesives | Year: 2016

The stability and durability of DIARC vacuum plasma surface treatment was tested for structural bonding with elastic-plastic steel wedge test specimens. In the treatment nanostructured DIARC Bindo coating is deposited on the substrates in a vacuum chamber. The DIARC-treated surface is ready for bonding and does not require any additional treatments, chemicals or primers containing hazardous CrVI chromium. The tests were performed at hot and wet exposure. Virtual Crack Closure Technique (VCCT) was successfully used in the design of test specimens and in the analyses of the results. Five-year-old DIARC coating performed equally with the freshly-bonded DIARC specimens. The results were also comparable with the best results achieved with existing grit-blast silane and grit-blast Sol-Gel primer methods with aluminium and titanium. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Oksanen J.,Aalto University | Hakala T.J.,VTT Technical Research Center of Finland | Tervakangas S.,DIARC Technology Inc. | Laakso P.,VTT Technical Research Center of Finland | And 3 more authors.
Tribology International | Year: 2014

The possibility of enhancing the tribological properties of ta-C at elevated temperature (250 C) by laser surface texturing and burnished WS 2 addition were investigated. Laser texturing was applied prior to ta-C coating process. Samples were tribologically tested at room temperature and elevated (250 C) temperature using pin-on-disc. WS2 addition increased remarkably the wear life of ta-C at 250 C and low COF values (0.01-0.02) were achieved. Laser surface texturing (LST) increased the wear life of WS2/ta-C surfaces by more than two times compared to non-textured surface. The LST dimples functioned as solid lubricant reservoirs and improved the wear life of the initial WS2 layer. This was noticed to be related to wear mechanism with raised position dimples and partly oxidized WS2.© 2013 Published by Elsevier Ltd.

Tomi M.,Aalto University | Isacsson A.,Chalmers University of Technology | Oksanen M.,Aalto University | Lyashenko D.,Aalto University | And 4 more authors.
Nanoscale | Year: 2015

We have developed capacitively-transduced nanomechanical resonators using sp2-rich diamond-like carbon (DLC) thin films as conducting membranes. The electrically conducting DLC films were grown by physical vapor deposition at a temperature of 500 °C. Characterizing the resonant response, we find a larger than expected frequency tuning that we attribute to the membrane being buckled upwards, away from the bottom electrode. The possibility of using buckled resonators to increase frequency tuning can be of advantage in rf applications such as tunable GHz filters and voltage-controlled oscillators. © 2015 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

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