Diamond Bar, CA, United States
Diamond Bar, CA, United States

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Farnum G.A.,Michigan State University | Wang C.Y.,Diamond Bar High School | Supkowski R.M.,King's College | Laduca R.L.,Michigan State University
Inorganica Chimica Acta | Year: 2011

Hydrothermal reaction of a d10 configuration divalent metal precursor with flexible-arm aromatic ortho-dicarboxylates and a bis(pyridyl)piperazine-type neutral co-ligand has generated four coordination polymers, some with rare topologies. {[Cd(hmph)(4-bpmp)1.5] ·4H2O}n (1, hmph = homophthalate, 4-bpmp = bis(4-pyridylmethyl)piperazine) manifests a new 3-fold interpenetrated uninodal 5-connected 3-D net with a very simple 4466 topology, different from the usual sqp 5-connected topology. [Cd2(hmph) 2(4-bpfp)]n (2, 4-bpfp = bis(4-pyridylformyl)piperazine) displays a rare 4,5-connected binodal tcs net with (446 2)(4466) topology. [Zn2(1,2-phda) 2(4-bpmp)(H2O)2]n (3, 1,2-phda = 1,2-phenylenediacetate) possesses an uncommon 3,4-connected binodal 2-D layer with (426)(42638) (V2O5 prototype) topology. [Zn2(hmph)2(4-bpfp)]n (4) has a decorated (4,4) grid topology with embedded [Zn2(OCO) 4] paddlewheel clusters. All materials exhibit ligand-centered fluorescent behavior. Thermal degradation behavior of the 3-D network materials is reported. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.


Farnum G.A.,Michigan State University | Lucas J.S.,Michigan State University | Wang C.Y.,Diamond Bar High School | LaDuca R.L.,Michigan State University
Inorganica Chimica Acta | Year: 2011

Hydrothermal synthesis has afforded five d10 configuration divalent metal diphenate coordination polymers containing pyridyl-piperazine type ligands, which were structurally characterized by single-crystal X-ray diffraction. {[Cd(diphenate)(3-bpmp)(H2O)]·0.5H 2O}n (1, 3-bpmp = bis(3-pyridylmethyl)piperazine) has a double layer topology. Its perchlorate-containing analog {[Cd 3(diphenate)4(H23-bpmp)(H3-bpmp)(H 2O)2](ClO4)·7H2O} n (2) possesses a very rare 4-connected 658 dmp topology based on anionic trinuclear nodes. {[Cd(diphenate)(4-bpfp)]·H 2O}n (3, 4-bpfp = bis(4-pyridylformyl)piperazine) manifests a non-interpenetrated diamondoid lattice, while the related compound [Cd(diphenate)(4-bpmp)(H2O)]n (4, 4-bpmp = bis(4-pyridylmethyl)piperazine) has a simple (4,4) grid topology. {[Zn(diphenate)(4-bpmp)]·0.5H2O}n (5) displays a 2-fold interpenetrated diamondoid lattice. Luminescent properties of these materials are also reported. © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


Pochodylo A.L.,Michigan State University | Wang C.Y.,Diamond Bar High School | Laduca R.L.,Michigan State University
Inorganica Chimica Acta | Year: 2011

Hydrothermal synthesis has afforded divalent cadmium coordination polymers containing isophthalate (ip) or 5-methylisophthalate (mip) dicarboxylate ligands and bis(4-pyridylformyl)piperazine (4-bpfp) or bis(4-pyridylmethyl) homopiperazine (4-bpmh) tethers. {[Cd2(ip)2(H 2O)2(4-bpfp)]·7H2O}n (1) displays a (4,4) grid topology based on {Cd2O2} dimeric clusters, along with "infinite" water molecule tapes with rare T4(0)A(1) classification. {[Cd(mip)(H2O)(4-bpfp)]·3H 2O}n (2) also exhibits (4,4) grid layers but with 2D + 2D → 3D mutual inclined interpenetration instead of parallel stacking. [Cd4(ip)4(4-bpmh)2]n (3) has tetrameric {Cd4(ip)4} cluster units linked by ip and 4-bpmh ligands into a unique self-penetrated 3,5,5,5-connected tetranodal net with (4.82)(436285)(4 46482)(4.5648) topology. {[Cd2(mip)2(H2O)2(4-bpmh)] ·2H2O}n (4) possesses a structure similar to that of 1, without the aggregated water molecule tapes. All four materials emit visible light upon ultraviolet excitation, ascribed to ligand-based electronic transitions. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Rogers C.M.,Michigan State University | Wang C.Y.,Diamond Bar High School | Farnum G.A.,Michigan State University | Laduca R.L.,Michigan State University
Inorganica Chimica Acta | Year: 2013

Hydrothermal reaction of a metal nitrate salt, homophthalic acid (H 2hmph), and a long-spanning dipyridyl ligand bearing a central piperazine moiety afforded three new divalent metal homophthalate coordination polymers, which were structurally characterized by single-crystal X-ray diffraction. [Zn2(hmph)2(3-bpmp)]n (1, 3-bpmp = bis(3-pyridylmethyl)piperazine) exhibits a 2D (4,4) grid topology formed from the 3-bpmp linkage of [Zn2(hmph)2]n 1D chains featuring{Zn2(OCO)4} paddlewheel clusters. {[Co(H 2O)4(4-bpfp)][Co(hmph)2(4-bpfp)]·6H 2O}n (2, 4-bpfp = bis(4-pyridylformyl)piperazine) possesses alternating anionic [Co(hmph)2(4-bpfp)]n 2n- and cationic [Co(H2O) 4(4-bpfp)]n2n+ chains. [Ni(hmph)(4-bpfp)(H2O)]n (3) manifests [Ni(H 2O)(hmph)]n chains formed through anti-syn carboxylate bridging. In turn these are connected into a (4,4) grid via tethering 4-bpfp ligands. Variable temperature magnetic susceptibility data indicates weak ferromagnetic superexchange along the embedded [Ni(OCO)]n chain subunits (g = 2.272(4), J = 0.25(1) cm-1). The d10 derivative 1 undergoes ligand-centered blue-violet luminescence upon exposure to ultraviolet light (λmax = 417 nm). Thermal decomposition behavior is also explored. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Wu L.,Diamond Bar High School | Wu P.,Cypress College
2013 International Conference on Computer Graphics, Visualization, Computer Vision, and Game Technology, VisioGame 2013 | Year: 2013

Hiding encrypted text in an image file can possibly be a feasible solution to smalloffice-home-office (SOHO) and personal use for data and file transmission across digital networks. In this paper, the authors propose a simple, low-cost, but efficient algorithm to (a) convert a text (short or lengthy) to a byte array with a simple encryption mechanism, (b) append the byte array to an existing image file as hidden content without changing the original viewable image, and (c) retrieve and decode the encrypted text with a reverse algorithm and required keys. The authors also discuss the algorithm with Windows application created based on the proposed algorithm. © 2014. The authors - Published by Atlantis Press.


Wang C.Y.,Diamond Bar High School | Wilseck Z.M.,Michigan State University | Supkowski R.M.,King's College | Laduca R.L.,Michigan State University
CrystEngComm | Year: 2011

Hydrothermal reaction of divalent metal salts, phthalic acid (H 2pht), and bis(4-pyridylformyl)piperazine (bpfp) has afforded two-dimensional (2-D) and three-dimensional (3-D) dual-ligand coordination polymers. Their topologies are influenced by the coordination environment of the metal, binding mode of the pht ligands, and ligation of bpfp formyl groups. {[Co(pht)(bpfp)(H2O)2]·H2O}n (1) displays acentric (4,4) grid layers. [Cu2(pht) 2(bpfp)(H2O)2]n (2) exhibits binding of bpfp formyl oxygen atoms and a simple but previously unreported 4,4-connected binodal layer structure with (4.648)2(4 264) topology. [Cd2(pht)2(bpfp) (H2O)2]n (3) manifests a 3-D structure built from the bpfp pillaring of [Cd(pht)(H2O)]n layer motifs. A 4,5-connected binodal net with rare (4462)(4 466) tcs topology can be invoked for 3. Employment of the bpfp ligand affords topologies very different from those seen in many other divalent metal phthalate coordination polymers, including the heretofore unrecognized uninodal 6-connected 3-D self-penetrated 5106 47 topology in [Co(Hpht)2(bpy)]n (bpy = 4,4′-bipyridine). Dehydration and thermal properties of 1-3 are also discussed, along with the luminescent behavior of 3. © 2011 The Royal Society of Chemistry.


Wang C.Y.,Diamond Bar High School | Wilseck Z.M.,Michigan State University | Laduca R.L.,Michigan State University
Inorganic Chemistry | Year: 2011

Divalent metal coordination polymers containing terephthalate (tere) and bis(4-pyridylformyl)piperazine (bpfp) show diverse and interesting two-dimensional (2D) interpenetrated, three-dimensional (3D) self-penetrated, or one-dimensional (1D) polyrotaxane topological features. Isostructural {[M(tere)(bpfp)(H2O)2]•4H2O}n phases (1, Zn; 2, Co) exhibit mutually inclined 2D + 2D → 3D interpenetration of gridlike layers. {[Cd4(tere)4(bpfp) 3(H2O)2]•8H2O}n (3) possesses a novel 3,4,8-connected trinodal self-penetrated network with (4.62)2(426168710 3)(4264)2 topology. [Zn 2Cl2(tere)(bpfp)2]n (4) is the first example of a 1D + 1D → 1D polyrotaxane coordination polymer, to the best of our knowledge. Metal coordination geometry plays a crucial role in dictating the overall dimensionality in this system. Thermal decomposition behavior and luminescent properties of the d10 configuration metal derivatives are also presented herein. © 2011 American Chemical Society.


Wang C.Y.,Diamond Bar High School | Laduca R.L.,Michigan State University
Journal of Molecular Structure | Year: 2010

Hydrothermal synthesis has generated divalent cadmium coordination polymers containing phenylenediacetate (phda) and bis(4-pyridylformyl)piperazine (bpfp) ligands, in which the position of the pendant acetate arms plays a very significant role in structure direction during self-assembly. [Cd(1,2-Hphda)2(4-bpfp)]n (1) exhibits 2-D polymeric layers with embedded anti-syn bridged [Cd(OCO)2]n ribbons. {[Cd(1,3-phda)(4-bpfp)(H2O)]2}n (2) has crystallographically independent (4,4) grids with different carboxylate binding modes, engaged in parallel interpenetration. {[Cd(1,4-phda)(4-bpfp)(H 2O)]}n (3) manifests acentric 1-D chains with an uncommon 4-connected 33425 topology instilled by the mismatch in ligand length. Luminescent properties of all phases are also reported. © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


Farnum G.A.,Michigan State University | Wang C.Y.,Diamond Bar High School | Gandolfo C.M.,Michigan State University | LaDuca R.L.,Michigan State University
Journal of Molecular Structure | Year: 2011

Hydrothermal synthesis has generated oxoanion-free divalent cadmium 1,4-phenylenedipropionate (phdp) coordination polymers containing either bis(4-pyridylmethyl)piperazine (bpmp) or bis(4-pyridylformyl)piperazine (bpfp) ligands. The coordination environment at cadmium appears to dictate the overall dimensionality of the resulting coordination polymer crystal structure. {[Cd(phdp)(bpfp)(H2O)]·4H2O}n (1) possesses pentagonal bipyramidal coordination at cadmium with trans pyridyl donors and displays a simple 2-D (4,4) grid network. {[Cd(phdp)(bpmp)] ·5H2O}n (2) exhibits distorted octahedral coordination with cis pyridyl donors, resulting in a 3-D 3-fold interpenetrated diamondoid network. Both 1 and 2 show visible-light luminescence upon ultraviolet excitation, with the emission maximum depending on the nature of the dipyridyl coligand. © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


Chiou B.,Diamond Bar High School | Yang R.-Y.,National Pingtung University of Science and Technology | Chuang H.-J.,Nanmat Technology Co. | Chu C.-J.,Nanmat Technology Co.
Journal of the Chinese Chemical Society | Year: 2013

In this paper, effects of ethylene glycol (EG) and indium tin oxide (ITO) solution on the morphology, porosity, and roughness of TiO2 film prepared by sol-gel process were investigated and discussed. Initially, the addition of EG were used to control the viscosity of the solution and it was found to increase the pore size of TiO2 film. The various TiO 2 films were investigated and characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) and then assembled to dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC) to measure the photoelectric conversion efficiency. The optimum efficiencies of 1.32% with Jsc and V oc of 2.99 mA/cm2 and 0.80 V, respectively, were obtained by the TiO2 film prepared from a solution containing 20 wt% EG. © 2013 The Chemical Society Located in Taipei & Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

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