The English terms dialogic and dialogism often refer to the concept used by the Russian philosopher Mikhail Bakhtin in his work of literary theory, The Dialogic Imagination. Bakhtin contrasts the dialogic and the "monologic" work of literature. The dialogic work carries on a continual dialogue with other works of literature and other authors. It does not merely answer, correct, silence, or extend a previous work, but informs and is continually informed by the previous work. Dialogic literature is in communication with multiple works. This is not merely a matter of influence, for the dialogue extends in both directions, and the previous work of literature is as altered by the dialogue as the present one is. Though Bakhtin's "dialogic" emanates from his work with colleagues in what we now call the "Bakhtin Circle" in years following 1918, his work was not known to the West or translated into English until the 1970s. For those only recently introduced to Bakhtin's ideas but familiar with T.S.Eliot, his "dialogic" is consonant with Eliot's ideas in "Tradition and the Individual Talent," where Eliot holds that "the past should be altered by the present as much as the present is directed by the past". For Bakhtin, the influence can also occur at the level of the individual word or phrase as much as it does the work and even the oeuvre or collection of works. A German cannot use the word "fatherland" or the phrase "blood and soil" without also echoing the meaning that those terms took on under Nazism. Every word has a history of usage to which it responds, and anticipates a future response.The term 'dialogic' does not only apply to literature. For Bakhtin, all language — indeed, all thought — appears as dialogical. This means that everything anybody ever says always exists in response to things that have been said before and in anticipation of things that will be said in response. In other words, we do not speak in a vacuum. All language is dynamic, relational and engaged in a process of endless redescriptions of the world.Bakhtin also emphasized certain uses of language that maximized the dialogic nature of words, and other uses that attempted to limit or restrict their polyvocality. At one extreme is novelistic discourse, particularly that of a Dostoevsky in which various registers and languages are allowed to interact and respond to each other. At the other extreme would be the military order which attempts to minimize all orientations of the work toward the past or the future, and which prompts no response but obedience.When scholars, like Julia Kristeva, in the late 1970s and early 1980s, rediscovered Bakhtin, his work seemed to fit with the then-nascent concepts of "intertextuality". And European social psychologists applied Bakhtin's work to the study of human social experience, preferring it as a more dynamic alternative to Cartesian monologicality. Wikipedia.
Dialogic | Date: 2017-03-10
Systems and methods of handling packet errors associated with multimedia data received at data receivers from data senders, in which packet error feedback information is provided by the data receivers to the data senders in one or more real-time transport control protocol (RTCP) feedback packets. The data receivers can calculate, determine, or otherwise obtain costs associated with providing specific forms of packet error feedback information in the RTCP feedback packets, and further calculate, determine, or otherwise obtain wait times for handling out-of-order packets, as well as receiving retransmissions of lost packets. By handling packet errors associated with multimedia data while taking into account such costs and wait times, each of which can have an impact on system bandwidth and/or latency, the systems and methods can more reliably achieve the quality of experience (QoE) generally desired and/or required for multimedia data transmissions.
Dialogic | Date: 2015-12-16
Systems and methods of media servers for estimating the video quality of experience (QoE) of human viewers of video content or communications at video receivers. With these systems and methods, a media server can collect, within a plurality of predetermined time windows synchronized in time, operational parameters of ingress and egress networks over which such video content or communications can be transmitted, as well as coding parameters of a video decoder and a video encoder within the media server. Having collected the operational parameters of the ingress network and egress network and the coding parameters of the video decoder and video encoder, the media server can determine QoE scores associated with some or all the ingress network, the video decoder, the video encoder, and the egress network, and estimate a resulting video QoE for a human viewer at a video receiver as a predefined combination of the respective QoE scores.
Dialogic | Date: 2015-04-27
Systems and methods that provide a facility for a dynamic media overlay. An end user provides data for the dynamic media overlay that is activated upon selection to permit end users to share information while receiving or sending video data. The overlay may be a hyperlink that can be selected to take an action indicated by information provided in the hyperlink. The hyperlink may be represented by audio or image information in the form of instructions or clickable targets. A content of information represented by the hyperlink can be dynamic so that selection of the hyperlink can result in different actions, depending upon the informational content. One or more flags may be provided to indicate that a new hyperlink or new informational content for a hyperlink is requested. The hyperlink may be provided in an overlay represented as a media layer, or may be embedded in the video media itself.
Dialogic | Date: 2016-06-23
Systems and methods of recording real-time video transactions between computerized user devices that make more efficient use of the systems computing resources. Such systems and methods can record real-time video transactions between computerized user devices (e.g., customer client devices, customer service agent devices) by exploiting similarities between (1) video frame data generated by the respective computerized user devices, and (2) video frame data composed by the systems that record the real-time video transactions, without substantially degrading the video quality of the recorded real-time video transactions.
Dialogic | Date: 2015-03-31
Improved systems and methods of performing multimedia communications over multimedia communications networks, in which video data senders can maintain high video quality of experience (QoE) levels with increased reliability despite changes in available bandwidths of video data receivers. In the disclosed systems and methods, video encoding parameters employed by the video data senders, including at least the video frame size and/or the video frame rate, can be dynamically adapted to the available bandwidths of the video data receivers, taking into account possible effects of spatial scaling and/or temporal scaling of video frames on the resulting video QoE.
Dialogic | Date: 2015-07-02
Improved systems and methods of video decoding and recording in real-time video communications for use in lossy network environments. The disclosed systems and methods can employ a plurality of wait time thresholds for retransmission of missing video packets, based at least on the processing performed on the respective video packets, such processing including video decoding in a real-time video communication between client devices, and video recording and storing in a video file. The disclosed system and methods can also adaptively perform error concealment on video frames in the bitstream domain prior to recording and storing encoded video frame data in a video file, based at least on estimates of the complexities of the respective video frames.
Dialogic | Date: 2013-03-15
A compression method applies a selection rule to input symbols and generates a reduced partial set of symbols. The partial set is checked against a dictionary-index for a match. A match identifies a range of matching symbols in a dictionary. The length of the matching range is iteratively increased by checking previous and next symbols in the input data and the dictionary until a matching range length meets a threshold limit or the length of the matching range cannot be increased further. Compressed data corresponding to the input symbols is provided where input symbols are copied over and symbols in a matched range of data are replaced with a representation of their corresponding start location and length in the dictionary.
Dialogic | Date: 2014-11-14
Systems and methods of performing intra-frame refresh in multimedia communications over lossy packet networks, in which a video receiver can provide packet loss feedback information to a video transmitter, and the video transmitter can respond to the feedback information, in a manner that makes efficient use of available bandwidth. By providing one or more PLI messages from the video receiver to the video transmitter based on criteria related to the detection of an eventual missing video packet and/or the determination that the quality of a current reference frame is bad, and by pausing the providing of GNACK messages from the video receiver to the video transmitter while the PLI messages are being provided to the video transmitter, the total number of video packets required for transmission/retransmission can be reduced, thereby limiting the impact of the transmitted/retransmitted video packets on the available bandwidth while enhancing the video QoE of system users.
Dialogic | Date: 2016-01-21
Systems and methods of provisioning data storage and runtime configuration in telecommunications systems and devices. The systems and methods employ at least one decentralized revision control system as a data repository for storing data, such as configuration data, and at least one data provisioning component as an interface for accessing the configuration data stored in the data repository. By employing the decentralized revision control system in conjunction with the data provisioning component, the systems and methods can provide a data storage and runtime configuration provisioning framework that is data agnostic, application agnostic, and user agnostic, while further providing at least the capability of tracking and maintaining the version history of the configuration data.
Dialogic | Date: 2015-10-26
Systems and methods of video conferencing, in which existing video encoders associated with a multipoint control unit (MCU) can be shared among conference participant devices, depending upon the availability of processor and/or memory resources for the MCU. In making decisions regarding the sharing of video encoders, the systems and methods take into account various parameters associated with potential conference participant devices and the total cost of the processor/memory resources for the MCU, to determine whether a video encoder of the MCU can be shared with, or allocated to, the respective conference participant devices. By determining whether to share or allocate a video encoder of the MCU, depending upon the available processor/memory resources for the MCU, the MCU can be made to operate with increased stability. The systems and methods can be applied to any application that sends the same content to multiple receivers, including announcement and video streaming applications.