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The English terms dialogic and dialogism often refer to the concept used by the Russian philosopher Mikhail Bakhtin in his work of literary theory, The Dialogic Imagination. Bakhtin contrasts the dialogic and the "monologic" work of literature. The dialogic work carries on a continual dialogue with other works of literature and other authors. It does not merely answer, correct, silence, or extend a previous work, but informs and is continually informed by the previous work. Dialogic literature is in communication with multiple works. This is not merely a matter of influence, for the dialogue extends in both directions, and the previous work of literature is as altered by the dialogue as the present one is. Though Bakhtin's "dialogic" emanates from his work with colleagues in what we now call the "Bakhtin Circle" in years following 1918, his work was not known to the West or translated into English until the 1970s. For those only recently introduced to Bakhtin's ideas but familiar with T.S.Eliot, his "dialogic" is consonant with Eliot's ideas in "Tradition and the Individual Talent," where Eliot holds that "the past should be altered by the present as much as the present is directed by the past". For Bakhtin, the influence can also occur at the level of the individual word or phrase as much as it does the work and even the oeuvre or collection of works. A German cannot use the word "fatherland" or the phrase "blood and soil" without also echoing the meaning that those terms took on under Nazism. Every word has a history of usage to which it responds, and anticipates a future response.The term 'dialogic' does not only apply to literature. For Bakhtin, all language — indeed, all thought — appears as dialogical. This means that everything anybody ever says always exists in response to things that have been said before and in anticipation of things that will be said in response. In other words, we do not speak in a vacuum. All language is dynamic, relational and engaged in a process of endless redescriptions of the world.Bakhtin also emphasized certain uses of language that maximized the dialogic nature of words, and other uses that attempted to limit or restrict their polyvocality. At one extreme is novelistic discourse, particularly that of a Dostoevsky in which various registers and languages are allowed to interact and respond to each other. At the other extreme would be the military order which attempts to minimize all orientations of the work toward the past or the future, and which prompts no response but obedience.When scholars, like Julia Kristeva, in the late 1970s and early 1980s, rediscovered Bakhtin, his work seemed to fit with the then-nascent concepts of "intertextuality". And European social psychologists applied Bakhtin's work to the study of human social experience, preferring it as a more dynamic alternative to Cartesian monologicality. Wikipedia.

Bekkers R.,TU Eindhoven | Bekkers R.,Dialogic | Bongard R.,Statistics Netherlands | Nuvolari A.,SantAnna School of Advanced Studies
Research Policy | Year: 2011

In the field of compatibility standards, an increasing number of companies claim to own so-called essential patents (i.e. those patents that are indispensable for designing and manufacturing products conforming to the standard). It is widely believed that the ownership of such patents is a very valuable bargaining tool in cross-license negotiations, while for non-producing firms such patents may result in a substantial stream of licensing revenues. In this paper we study the determinants of essential patent claims in compatibility standards. In particular, we assess the role of two main factors: the significance of the technological solution contained in the patent and the involvement of the applicant of the patent in the standardisation process. We examine the case of W-CDMA, one of the most successful standards in mobile telecommunications. We compare the patents claimed essential for this standard with a control group of randomly selected, unclaimed patents covering the same time period and technology classes. We find empirical evidence that both factors have significant impact on the probability that a patent is claimed as essential, but the involvement in the standardisation process is a stronger determinant than the technical value ('merit') of the patent. On the basis of our findings, we offer policy recommendations. © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. Source

A compression method applies a selection rule to input symbols and generates a reduced partial set of symbols. The partial set is checked against a dictionary-index for a match. A match identifies a range of matching symbols in a dictionary. The length of the matching range is iteratively increased by checking previous and next symbols in the input data and the dictionary until a matching range length meets a threshold limit or the length of the matching range cannot be increased further. Compressed data corresponding to the input symbols is provided where input symbols are copied over and symbols in a matched range of data are replaced with a representation of their corresponding start location and length in the dictionary.

A communication channel in a network maintains client-server transparency while providing reduced bandwidth in the channel. A first and second node can communicate a compressed form of the object data between themselves in the channel. One of the first or second nodes hosts a cache database that can store, transparently to the client, the requested object data. The stored object data can be used to decompress the compressed object data communicated between the first and second node. One of the nodes can provide control signals to the other node to indicate whether the requested object data is stored in the cache database. This configuration preserves transparency between the client and the server while permitting reduced bandwidth usage between the first and second nodes via the compressed object data.

Systems and methods of video conferencing, in which existing video encoders associated with a multipoint control unit (MCU) can be shared among conference participant devices, depending upon the availability of processor and/or memory resources for the MCU. In making decisions regarding the sharing of video encoders, the systems and methods take into account various parameters associated with potential conference participant devices and the total cost of the processor/memory resources for the MCU, to determine whether a video encoder of the MCU can be shared with, or allocated to, the respective conference participant devices. By determining whether to share or allocate a video encoder of the MCU, depending upon the available processor/memory resources for the MCU, the MCU can be made to operate with increased stability. The systems and methods can be applied to any application that sends the same content to multiple receivers, including announcement and video streaming applications.

An automated system for delivery of messages to multiple recipients, and for processing of responses to the messages, includes a message client, message server, and a system database. A message is created using a universal message form. The message content can be translated into multiple formats and sent to one or more different recipients using one or more different types of messaging devices, including pagers, e-mail readers, telephones, cellular telephones, personal computers, fax machines, and voice mail systems. A recipient profile manager allows each recipient to select the messaging devices to be used for message delivery as well as preferred messaging schedules, priorities, and message security. Receipt of the messages by the recipients is verified, response requirements collected and consolidated from multiple sources and presented to the message originator in a structured format.

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