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Law J.,Open University Milton Keynes | Moser I.,Diakonhjemmet University College
Science Technology and Human Values | Year: 2012

This article asks how contexts are made in science as well as in social science, and how the making of contexts relates to political agency and intervention. To explore these issues, it traces contexting for foot-and-mouth disease and the strategies used to control the epidemic in the United Kingdom in 2001. It argues that to depict the world is to assemble contexts and to hold them together in a mode that may be descriptive, explanatory, or predictive. In developing this argument, it explores how contexts are assembled in a series of different descriptive and explanatory narratives in epidemiology, policy, critical social science, and (feminist) social studies of science. © The Author(s).


Asdal K.,University of Oslo | Moser I.,Diakonhjemmet University College
Science Technology and Human Values | Year: 2012

What is context and how to deal with it? The context issue has been a key concern in Science and Technology Studies (STS). This is linked to the understanding that science is culture. But how? The irreductionist program from the early eighties sought to solve the problem by doing away with context altogether-for the benefit of worlds in the making. This special issue takes its points of departure in this irreductionist program, its source of inspirations, as well as its reworkings. The aim is not to solve the context problem but rather to experiment with context and what we label contexting. © The Author(s).


Fyrand L.,Diakonhjemmet University College
Current Gerontology and Geriatrics Research | Year: 2010

Many studies have demonstrated that social relationships confer mental health benefits. This paper aims to identify whether and how reciprocity in social relationships predicts or is associated with mental health benefits as well as with continuity in elderly people's social relationships. The studies reviewed in this paper show that, among elders, being in a balanced or underbenefited reciprocal position predicts better mental health and life quality than being in an overbenefited position. Throughout the course of life, reciprocity evens out present and earlier reciprocal imbalances, securing continuity in close relationships-particularly between spouses and between elderly parents and adult children. In friendships, securing continuity seems to be based on the maintenance of independence based on balanced reciprocal relations, making these relationships more vulnerable. Due to the problems of conceptualization and measurement in the reviewed studies, one should be cautious in stating a final conclusion that the reciprocity norm has a universal positive effect on mental health and continuity in elderly people's relationships. Copyright © 2010 Live Fyrand.


Moser I.,Diakonhjemmet University College
Science Technology and Human Values | Year: 2011

It is often assumed that it was the alliance between patient associations and neuroscience, which originally made dementia a matter for intervention. In parallel ways, science and technology studies (STS) often attributes the power to define and act upon matters of life to biomedicine and science. The concern here is that the science centrism of STS contributes to the dominance of science and biomedicine by granting these analytical privileges. As a result, alternative modes of acting, for instance in care, are disarticulated and made absent. This article mobilizes the sensibilities of anthropology to difference and draws upon excerpts of data from fieldwork in dementia care to show this and argue that there are different practices that act upon life and its limits; that these enact different versions of life and dementia; and that they matter because they shape how people are cared for and live and die with dementia. © The Author(s) 2011.


Sorbye L.W.,Diakonhjemmet University College
Archives of Gerontology and Geriatrics | Year: 2011

The aim of this study was to compare unintended weight loss in cancer patients to other elderly. Home care users, aged ≥65 from urban areas at 11 sites in Europe (N= 4010) were assessed with the Resident Assessment Instrument for Home Care. Epidemiological and medical characteristics of clients and service utilization were recorded. A total of 321 (8%) patients had a cancer diagnosis; they were on average 80.4 ± 7.3 years. Socio-demographic, functional and clinical parameters revealed small variations in the two groups. Compared to the non-cancer group, they more frequently suffered from: severe malnutrition (odds ratio = OR = 2.4) unintended weight loss (OR = 2.0), had been hospitalized during the last 6 months (OR = 1.8). Older patients with cancer suffer more frequently from problems associated with nutrition than non-cancer patients. A comprehensive assessment could lead to better management of food and fluid supply based on basic ethical principles. © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd.


Sorbye L.W.,Diakonhjemmet University College | Grue E.V.,Diakonhjemmet University College
Scandinavian Journal of Caring Sciences | Year: 2013

Background: Norway has a higher incidence of hip fractures than any other country. For older individuals, a hip fracture may cause dramatic changes in health status like incontinence and daily activities. Patients with hip fractures are at high risk of urinary incontinence (UI) after surgical repair. A urinary indwelling catheter (UIC) is inserted preoperatively, but should be removed within 24hours. Our aims were to identify indicators that might predict clinical challenges related to urinary incontinence 1year after hip fractures. Methods: Inclusion criteria were patients with hip fracture age 65years or older. They were admitted form their own home to two acute-care hospitals during 2004-2006. We used the Resident Assessment Instrument for Acute Care. Results: A total of 331 patients were included. Thirty-five (11%) had UIC 72hours after surgery. These patients had more frequently experienced delirium, urinary tract infection, cognitive impairment and discouragement than their counterparts. After 12months, patients with previous UI had lower functioning levels than those with no previous UI. They had moved four times more frequently to a nursing home and had over twice the mortality. Conclusions: Patient with UI should be followed up with a multidisciplinary team after discharged from hospital. © 2012 The Authors. Scandinavian Journal of Caring Sciences © 2012 Nordic College of Caring Science.


Molven O.,Diakonhjemmet University College
Medicine and law | Year: 2012

The Patient Ombudsman scheme in Norway has gradually been established over the last 25 years, and has its basis in the Patients' Rights Act. The 18 ombudsmen are obliged to assist all users of health services. The question mainly to be dealt with is twofold: In which ways are the aims of the Patient Ombudsmen scheme attended to by the ombudsmen? What do the ombudsmen look upon as key elements in building a functional system? This is examined by means of data from the Norwegian Social Science Data Services, the Norwegian Board of Health Supervision and from a questionnaire presented to the ombudsmen. Besides giving information the ombudsmen take roles as advisors, mediators, advocates and arbitrators. Among the key elements in building a well functioning scheme the ombudsmen in particular mentioned; working independently of health care authorities, the right to investigate cases, and the possibility to make use of the supervisory authority.


Brunborg B.,Diakonhjemmet University College | Ytrehus S.,Diakonhjemmet University College
Journal of Clinical Nursing | Year: 2014

Aims and objectives: To describe factors that promote subjective well-being in a long-time perspective of 10 years after stroke. Background: The research literature describes circumstances that are difficult to deal with after a stroke, but there is relatively little knowledge of factors that contribute to well-being in a longer-time perspective than two years after the incident. This study focuses on such conditions in a 10-year perspective. Design: Qualitative study Methods: Qualitative in-depth interviews were carried out with nine stroke survivors. The interviews addressed their description of factors accounting for adaptation and subjective well-being after the stroke. Kvale and Brinkmann's (2008, Interview. Sage Publications, Inc., København) guidelines for qualitative research informed the analysis. Results: Six major themes emerged from these analyses: (1) personal characteristics as the cause of positive adaptation to the new situation, (2) new meaningful activities, (3) new health habits, (4) social networks and family, (5) economical resources and (6) public help. Only a few of the survivors had received any home-based nursing care or health assistance, but they were nevertheless mainly satisfied with their rehabilitation outcome. Self-care, health literacy, stamina, a positive way of thinking and attention from family and friends seemed to be of immense importance for adaptation and well-being. Conclusion: Personal characteristics and synergy with significant others seem to be the most important factors for having a good and long life after a stroke. Relevance to clinical practice: The results of this study will contribute to rehabilitation planning and to understanding, assisting and supporting stroke survivors in restoring a good life despite disabilities after the stroke. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.


Haugen H.M.,Diakonhjemmet University College
Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy | Year: 2010

The article analyses the three terms autonomy, dignity and vulnerability. The relevance and practical application of the terms is tested in two spheres. First, as guiding principles in the area of ethics of medicines and science. Second, as human rights principles, serving to guide the conduct of public policies for an effective realization of human rights. The article argues that all human beings have the same dignity, but that the autonomy-and therefore vulnerability-differs considerably. Simply said, with reduced autonomy comes increased vulnerability, implying extra attention to the protective dimensions. The article finds that the three terms approach the protection of human beings in different ways and that all are relevant and applicable in both spheres, but that an isolated notion of autonomy and a 'group-based' notion of vulnerability are not adequate. © 2010 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.


Despite an enhanced emphasis on the human right to adequate food in the last decade, this has not had a measurable effect on the number of undernourished persons around the world. Rather, the number of hungry persons has increased from 800 million in 1996 (the year of the World Food Summit) to more than 925 million today. Acknowledging that enough food is produced globally to enable everyone to have an adequate food intake, the article analyzes the international dimensions of the right to food as recognized in the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights (ICESCR), particularly the international obligations that can be read out from the relevant provisions. The ICESCR recognizes the right to food by applying strong wording, and some of its provisions have not been adequately observed in order to provide for alternative policies. It is the lack of political will of the States which explains the increase in the number of hungry persons globally, not the human rights system per se. Moreover, the ICESCR is not formulated in a manner which provides for a substantive overhaul of the international economic system, even if the States must change their conduct to comply with the ICESCR. © 2012 Copyright Taylor and Francis Group, LLC.

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