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Utrecht, Netherlands

Geertsema D.,Diakonessen Hospital | Gobardhan P.D.,Diakonessen Hospital | Madsen E.V.E.,Diakonessen Hospital | Albregts M.,University Utrecht | And 3 more authors.
Annals of Surgical Oncology | Year: 2010

Background: In breast cancer surgery, intraoperative frozen section (FS) analysis of sentinel lymph nodes (SLNs) enables axillary lymph node dissection (ALND) during the same operative procedure. In case of discordance between a "negative" FS analysis and definitive histology, an ALND as a second operation is advocated since additional lymph node metastases may be present. The clinical implications of the subsequent ALND in these patients were evaluated. Materials and Methods: Between November 2000 and May 2008, 879 consecutive breast cancer patients underwent surgery including sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) with intraoperative FS analysis of 2 central cuts from axillary SLNs. Following fixation and serial sectioning, SLNs were further examined postoperatively with hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) and immunohistochemical techniques. For patients with a discordant FS examination, the effect of the pathology findings of the subsequent ALND specimen on subsequent nonsurgical therapy were evaluated. Results: FS analysis detected axillary metastases in the SLN(s) in 200 patients (23%), while the definitive pathology examination detected metastases in SLNs in another 151 patients (17%). A complementary ALND was performed in 108 of the 151 patients with discordant FS. Additional tumor positive axillary lymph nodes were found in 17 patients (16%), leading to "upstaging" in 7 (6%). Subsequent nonsurgical treatment was adjusted in 4 patients (4%): all 4 had more extensive locoregional radiotherapy; no patient received additional hormonal and/or chemotherapy. Conclusion: Discordance between intraoperative FS analysis and definitive histology of SLNs is common. In this selection of patients, a substantial proportion had additional lymph node metastases, but postsurgical treatment was rarely adjusted based on the findings of the complementary ALND. © 2010 The Author(s). Source

Engel M.F.,University Utrecht | Van Velzen M.,University Utrecht | Hoepelman A.I.M.,University Utrecht | Thijsen S.,Diakonessen Hospital | Oosterheert J.J.,University Utrecht
European Journal of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases | Year: 2013

A positive pneumococcal urinary antigen test (PUAT) for Streptococcus pneumoniae allows an early switch from empiric to targeted treatment in hospitalised community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) patients. The economic and treatment consequences of this widespread implemented test are, however, unknown. We retrospectively evaluated all tests performed since its introduction in two teaching hospitals. Data on patient characteristics, treatment, admission and outcome were retrieved from the electronic patient files. Test benefits were expressed as the number of days that targeted therapy (i.e. penicillin) was administered to hospitalised CAP patients due to a positive PUAT. This calculation was based on the timing of the PUAT and the initiation of targeted therapy. Subsequently, we performed two direct cost analyses from a hospital perspective, first including tests performed for CAP only, and second including costs of all (excessive) tests. Between 2005 and 2012, 3,479 PUATs were performed, of which 1,907 (55 %) were for CAP. A total of 1,638 PUATs (86 %) were negative and 269 (14 %) were positive. Fifty-two (19 %) positive tests were excluded. In 75 (35 %) of the 217 remaining positive tests, a positive PUAT led to targeted treatment during 293 cumulative admission days. Testing costs for CAP only were €131 per targeted treatment day. These costs were €257 if local protocol dictated PUAT use for all CAP cases, as opposed to €72 if the test was reserved for severe cases only. When including all tests, PUAT costs were €254 per targeted treatment day. Therefore, improving the selective use of the PUAT in hospitalised CAP patients may lead to increased (cost-)efficiency. © 2012 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg. Source

Doeksen A.,Diakonessen Hospital | Van Lanschot J.J.B.,Erasmus Medical Center
Canadian Journal of Surgery | Year: 2013

Background: There is a lack of outcome data beyond local recurrence rates after primary treatment in rectal cancer, despite more information being necessary for clinical decision-making. We sought to determine patient selection, therapeutic modalities and outcomes of locally recurrent rectal cancer treated with curative intent. Methods:We searched MEDLINE (1990-2010) using the medical subject headings "rectal neoplasms" and "neoplasm recurrence, local." Selection of cohort studies was based on the primary intention of treatment and availability of at least 1 outcome variable. Results:We included 55 cohort studies comprising 3767 patients; 8 studies provided data on the rate of intentionally curative treatment from an unselected consecutive cohort of patients (481 of 1188 patients; 40%). Patients were symptomatic with pain in 50% (796 of 1607) of cases. Overall, 3088 of 3767 patients underwent resection. The R0 resection rate was 56% (1484 of 2637 patients). The rate of external beam radiotherapy was 100% in 9 studies, 0% in 5 studies, and ranged from 12% to 97% in 37 studies. Overall postoperative mortality was 2.2% (57 of 2515 patients). Five-year survival was at least 25%, with an upper limit of 41% in 11 of 18 studies including at least 50 resections. We found a significant increase in reported survival rates over time (r2 = 0.214, p = 0.007). Conclusion: More uniformity in treatment protocols and reporting on outcomes for locally recurrent rectal cancer is warranted. The observed improvement of reported survival rates in time is probably related to better patient selection and optimized multimodality treatment in specialized centres. © 2013 Canadian Medical Association. Source

Ton E.,University Utrecht | Bakker M.F.,University Utrecht | Verstappen S.M.M.,University Utrecht | Ter Borg E.J.,Sint. Antonius Hospital | And 5 more authors.
Journal of Rheumatology | Year: 2012

Objective. To explore the influence of tender points (TP) on the Disease Activity Score assessing 28 joints (DAS28) in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Methods. In 200 consecutive patients with RA from the outpatient clinic, DAS28 and its components, tender and swollen joint counts (TJC, SJC, respectively), visual analog scale (VAS) for patient's general health (GH), and erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), along with a tender point count (TPC) were assessed. Patients were categorized according to 4 TPC classes: zero, 1-5, 6-10, and ≥ 11 TP. The influence of TPC classes on DAS28 and its individual components was determined with Kruskal-Wallis tests and correlations between TP and DAS28 and its components were calculated. Results. In 196 eligible patients, 70% were female, mean age was 59 years, and median disease duration was 3.9 years; median DAS28 was 3.1; and 49% had active disease, defined as DAS28 > 3.2. In 15% of patients, the TPC was ≥ 11, in 12% 6-10, in 30% 1-5, and in 43% zero. TPC significantly influenced the DAS28 and its less objective components TJC and VAS-GH (i.e., based on patient's report), but not the more objective DAS28 components SJC and ESR (i.e., observer- and laboratory-based). Conclusion. DAS28 is influenced by tender points, even in the non-fibromyalgia range, falsely suggesting higher disease activity and decreasing the sensitivity of the DAS28 criterion of low disease activity or remission. When applying DAS28-guided "tight control" or "treat-to-target" treatment strategies in RA, evaluation of not only the DAS28, but also its individual components along with a full joint and physical evaluation including assessment of TP is required to reliably estimate the individual's disease activity, which guides therapeutic decisions. The Journal of Rheumatology Copyright © 2012. All rights reserved. Source

Bouwman J.J.M.,Diakonessen Hospital Utrecht | Thijsen S.F.T.,Diakonessen Hospital Utrecht | Bossink A.W.,Diakonessen Hospital
Journal of Infection | Year: 2012

Vacutainer CPT tubes require blood samples for TSPOT.TB to be processed within 8h. In this study we evaluated the ability of T-Cell Xtend to maintain the number and function of lymphocytes after 24 and 48h of blood storage, giving similar test results as in freshly isolated specimens. Methods: Whole blood specimens from 59 individuals were collected in Vacutainer CPT tubes (CPT) and lithium heparin (LH) tubes. CPT tubes were processed within 8h. T-Cell Xtend was added to LH tubes after 24 or 48h. We also left LH tubes untreated for 48h. Total number of white blood cells (WBC) and proportions of lymphocytes and granulocytes were determined in the isolated Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells (PBMC). We also evaluated the performance of T-Cell Xtend in the TSPOT.TB assay. Results: PBMC yields from T-Cell Xtend treated LH samples did not differ from PBMC yields from CPT tubes, but T-Cell Xtend had a pronounced effect on the proportions of lymphocytes and granulocytes. The mean lymphocyte percentage in PBMCs isolated from fresh CPT blood was 84.31±1.14% (at t=48h), but was decreased to 52.72±3.34% (p<0.05) in untreated LH blood (at t=48h). This effect was neutralized by T-Cell Xtend (85.44±0.74%). We observed a similar but opposite effect on granulocytes: The mean proportion in untreated LH blood was increased to 40.9±3.67% (p<0.001) compared to CPT blood (8.26±0.89%). Treatment of LH samples with T-Cell Xtend (48h) restored the proportion of granulocytes to 8.47±0.61%. Enumeration of spots in the TSPOT.TB assay demonstrated good agreement between CPT and T-Cell Xtend results, even after 48 h. Conclusions: T-Cell Xtend efficiently removes granulocytes from PBMC suspensions and increases the proportion of lymphocytes. TSPOT.TB results from T-Cell Xtend treated blood samples are at least comparable to the results obtained from the current CPT method. Use of standard lithium heparin blood combined with T-Cell Xtend allows up to 48h storage of blood samples for batched processing and may further decrease the rate of indeterminate TSPOT.TB results. © 2011 The British Infection Association. Source

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