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Honea Path, WA, United States

Bancone G.,Mahidol University | Chowwiwat N.,Mahidol University | Bansil P.,Diagnostics Program | Domingo G.J.,Diagnostics Program | And 2 more authors.

Primaquine and other 8-amnoquinoline based anti-malarials can cause haemolysis in subjects with glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency. Correct diagnosis of G6PD status in patients is crucial for safe treatment of both relapsing stages of Plasmodium vivax and transmitting forms of Plasmodium falciparum. Lack of suitable point-of-care tests has hampered a much needed wide use of primaquine for malaria elimination. In this study we have assessed the performances of two qualitative tests, the fluorescent spot test (FST) and the G6PD CareStart test (CST), against the gold standard quantitative spectrophotometric assay in a population of 1000 random adult healthy volunteers living in Yangon, Myanmar. The prevalence of G6PD deficiency in the Bamar, Karen and in the whole sample set was 6.6% (10.1% in males), 9.2% (21.0% in males) and 6.8% (11.1% in males) respectively. The FST and CST showed comparable performances with sensitivity over 95% and specificity over 90%, however for cases with severe G6PD activity the FTS had improved performance. If used with a conservative interpretation of the signal, the CareStart test has the potential to be used in the field and, by allowing a wider use of primaquine, to help malaria elimination. Copyright: © 2016 Oo et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited. Source

Storey H.L.,Diagnostics Program | Huang Y.,Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center | Crudder C.,Diagnostics Program | Golden A.,Diagnostics Program | And 2 more authors.

Novel typhoid diagnostics currently under development have the potential to improve clinical care, surveillance, and the disease burden estimates that support vaccine introduction. Blood culture is most often used as the reference method to evaluate the accuracy of new typhoid tests; however, it is recognized to be an imperfect gold standard. If no single gold standard test exists, use of a composite reference standard (CRS) can improve estimation of diagnostic accuracy. Numerous studies have used a CRS to evaluate new typhoid diagnostics; however, there is no consensus on an appropriate CRS. In order to evaluate existing tests for use as a reference test or inclusion in a CRS, we performed a systematic review of the typhoid literature to include all index/reference test combinations observed. We described the landscape of comparisons performed, showed results of a meta-Analysis on the accuracy of the more common combinations, and evaluated sources of variability based on study quality. This wide-ranging meta-Analysis suggests that no single test has sufficiently good performance but some existing diagnostics may be useful as part of a CRS. Additionally, based on findings from the meta-Analysis and a constructed numerical example demonstrating the use of CRS, we proposed necessary criteria and potential components of a typhoid CRS to guide future recommendations. Agreement and adoption by all investigators of a standardized CRS is requisite, and would improve comparison of new diagnostics across independent studies, leading to the identification of a better reference test and improved confidence in prevalence estimates. © 2015 Storey et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited. Source

Anstey N.M.,Charles Darwin University | Auburn S.A.,Charles Darwin University | Kevin B.K.,Eijkman Oxford Clinical Research Unit | Kevin B.K.,University of Oxford | And 56 more authors.
Malaria Journal

The Asia Pacific Malaria Elimination Network (APMEN) is a collaboration of 18 country partners committed to eliminating malaria from within their borders. Over the past 5 years, APMEN has helped to build the knowledge, tools and in-country technical expertise required to attain this goal. At its inaugural meeting in Brisbane in 2009, Plasmodium vivax infections were identified across the region as a common threat to this ambitious programme; the APMEN Vivax Working Group was established to tackle specifically this issue. The Working Group developed a four-stage strategy to identify knowledge gaps, build regional consensus on shared priorities, generate evidence and change practice to optimize malaria elimination activities. This case study describes the issues faced and the solutions found in developing this robust strategic partnership between national programmes and research partners within the Working Group. The success of the approach adopted by the group may facilitate similar applications in other regions seeking to deploy evidence-based policy and practice. © 2015 World Health Organization; licensee BioMed Central. Source

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