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Rolland J.P.,Diagnostics for All
MRS Bulletin

Paper, broadly defined as thin, porous sheets, is currently being used to create novel devices for diagnostics, microfluidics, and electronics that ideally combine low cost and high performance. A device, in this context, can be defined as an object that serves to provide information or function to a user in response to input. This issue will highlight some of these novel devices and provide examples of potential applications. We begin with an overview of paper's unique properties and how these properties lead to a potential for changing the integrated microfluidic and flexible electronics landscape. We then discuss methods for patterning paper as well as specific fluidic operations that are possible on paper. Finally, we conclude with an overview of electronic devices on paper and a brief outlook on the future of this emerging field. © 2013 Materials Research Society. Source

Rolland J.P.,Diagnostics for All
International Conference on Digital Printing Technologies

Novel technologies are needed to address the urgent healthcare requirements of patients in the developing world and other resource-limited settings. Diagnostic devices that provide critical patient information at the point of need play a key role in the treatment and monitoring of disease. Such devices must be robust, simple to use, actionable, and extremely low in cost. Paper and other porous media provide an attractive platform from which to build devices that are able to address these needs. In an effort to expand the capabilities of porous media in diagnostics, we present a novel platform based on patterned paper microfluidic devices. In particular, 3-dimensional devices formed by stacking multiple layers of patterned paper provide the ability to perform many fluidic handling operations including: filtration; splitting; mixing; incubation; capture; and separations. Diagnostics For All (DFA) is developing tests based on this platform, in order to provide highly-functional diagnostic devices at unprecedented low cost. In this presentation, we will describe some specific examples of paper-based tests designed specifically for use in resource-poor areas. Source

Pollock N.R.,Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center | Colby D.,Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center | Colby D.,Harvard University | Rolland J.P.,Diagnostics for All
Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology

There is currently great need for high-quality, low-cost, point-of-care diagnostics that can benefit patients in resource-limited settings and correspondingly growing interest in the diagnostic utility of microfluidic platforms that are based on paper. We describe the development, early clinical testing, and potential clinical impact of a novel paper-based, multiplexed microfluidic assay designed for rapid, semiquantitative measurement of aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase in a fingerstick specimen. This device ultimately holds promise for providing universal access to affordable point-of-care screening for drug-induced liver injury in resource-limited settings and opens the door to development of similar point-of-care clinical assays for other important analytes. © 2013 AGA Institute. Source

Wong S.Y.,Boston University | Cabodi M.,Boston University | Rolland J.,Diagnostics for All | Rolland J.,Carbon3D | Klapperich C.M.,Boston University
Analytical Chemistry

We report the first demonstration of using heat on a paper device to rapidly concentrate a clinically relevant analyte of interest from a biological fluid. Our technology relies on the application of localized heat to a paper strip to evaporate off hundreds of microliters of liquid to concentrate the target analyte. This method can be used to enrich for a target analyte that is present at low concentrations within a biological fluid to enhance the sensitivity of downstream detection methods. We demonstrate our method by concentrating the tuberculosis-specific glycolipid, lipoarabinomannan (LAM), a promising urinary biomarker for the detection and diagnosis of tuberculosis. We show that the heat does not compromise the subsequent immunodetectability of LAM, and in 20 min, the tuberculosis biomarker was concentrated by nearly 20-fold in simulated urine. Our method requires only 500 mW of power, and sample flow is self-driven via capillary action. As such, our technology can be readily integrated into portable, battery-powered, instrument-free diagnostic devices intended for use in low-resource settings. (Figure Presented). © 2014 American Chemical Society. Source

Connelly J.T.,Diagnostics for All | Rolland J.P.,Diagnostics for All | Whitesides G.M.,Harvard University
Analytical Chemistry

Clinical tests based on primer-initiated amplification of specific nucleic acid sequences achieve high levels of sensitivity and specificity. Despite these desirable characteristics, these tests have not reached their full potential because their complexity and expense limit their usefulness to centralized laboratories. This paper describes a device that integrates sample preparation and loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) with end point detection using a hand-held UV source and camera phone. The prototype device integrates paper microfluidics (to enable fluid handling) and a multilayer structure, or a "paper machine", that allows a central patterned paper strip to slide in and out of fluidic path and thus allows introduction of sample, wash buffers, amplification master mix, and detection reagents with minimal pipetting, in a hand-held, disposable device intended for point-of-care use in resource-limited environments. This device creates a dynamic seal that prevents evaporation during incubation at 65°C for 1 h. This interval is sufficient to allow a LAMP reaction for the Escherichia coli malB gene to proceed with an analytical sensitivity of 1 double-stranded DNA target copy. Starting with human plasma spiked with whole, live E. coli cells, this paper demonstrates full integration of sample preparation with LAMP amplification and end point detection with a limit of detection of 5 cells. Further, it shows that the method used to prepare sample enables concentration of DNA from sample volumes commonly available from fingerstick blood draw. © 2015 American Chemical Society. Source

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