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Runa F.,University of Dhaka | Yasmin M.,University of Dhaka | Hoq M.M.,University of Dhaka | Begum J.,Diagnostic Laboratory | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Microbiology, Immunology and Infection | Year: 2011

Background: The diagnosis of tuberculosis (TB) in developing countries, such as Bangladesh, is based mainly on microscopic detection of acid-fast bacilli in smears from clinical specimens. On the other hand, the detection of TB by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is quite new in Bangladesh. In this study, we compared the molecular method with the conventional diagnosis procedures, where Lowenstein-Jensen medium culture results have been used as the " gold standard." Methods: A total of 135 sputum samples were collected from clinically suspected patients with pulmonary TB. A direct smear was made from each sputum specimen and stained by the Ziehl-Neelsen (Z-N) method. The sputum samples were then processed, and the pellet was used for both Z-N (concentration) and auramine O fluorescence staining or resuspended in phosphate buffered saline to inoculate Lowenstein-Jensen medium or processed for PCR detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Results: The direct smear staining yielded 44 (32.6%) sputum samples that were acid-fast positive, which increased after concentration, yielding 60 (44.4%) acid-fast-positive samples. Fluorescence microscopy using auramine O staining further increased the number of positive samples to 67 (49.6%). The biochemical tests showed 75 (55.6%) sputum samples to be culture positive, and the MB/BacT system increased the recovery up to 90 (66.7%) culture positives. On the other hand, PCR yielded 93 (68.9%) positive results, 20 (21.5%) of which were culture-negative sputum specimens. Conclusion: It is suggested that the Z-N direct microscopy on its own is the best method (with high specificity) for confirming the diagnosis of acid-fast bacilli. Although the PCR diagnosis of TB appears to be a rapid and sensitive method, the results should be interpreted with care in the clinical settings. © 2011. Source

Obuch-Woszczatynski P.,Medical University of Warsaw | Lachowicz D.,Medical University of Warsaw | Pawlowska J.,Diagnostic Laboratory | Ozdzenska-Milke E.,Medical University of Warsaw | And 7 more authors.
Anaerobe | Year: 2014

Since 2003, a rising incidence of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) in North America and Europe has coincided with outbreaks of C. difficile PCR ribotype 027. This ribotype was not observed in Poland until 2008. In the period 2008-2010, outbreaks of antibiotic-associated diarrhoea occurred in three different hospitals in Poland. Of 30 C.difficile isolates available for microbiological characterisation, 17 (56%) were positive for binary toxin genes and belonged to PCR ribotype 027 (n=7) and its closely related PCR ribotype 176 (n=10). All 17 binary toxin-positive C.difficile strains demonstrated high-level resistance to fluoroquinolones (minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC)≥32mg/L), including ciprofloxacin, gatifloxacin, and moxifloxacin, as well as erythromycin and clindamycin (MIC≥256mg/L for both). Of 14 patients from whom clinical information was available, 50% had a severe form of CDI, defined by fever (>38.5°C), decreased kidney function, and high leucocyte count. We conclude that outbreaks of CDI associated with hypervirulent strains belonging to PCR ribotypes 027 and 176 occurred in hospitals in Poland. Further studies evaluating the clinical impact of type 176 are urgently needed. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. Source

Liao H.-F.,National Chiayi University | Lu M.-C.,Chung Shan Medical University | Chang H.-C.,Chung Shan Medical University | Wei C.-C.,Chung Shan Medical University | And 4 more authors.
American Journal of Chinese Medicine | Year: 2010

The Chinese medicinal herbs Radix Isatidis and Viola yedoensis Makino have been suggested to possess antiviral activity. This study tests whether these and other Chinese and Western herbal medicinal formulas can modulate the immune functions involving virus-suppression in BALB/c mouse. We first confirmed the extract from Viola yedoensis Makino, but not from Radix Isatidis, the traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) formula Chui-Uren-Chien (CUC), or a Western homeopathic medicinal drink Método Canova, could inhibit the replications of herpes simplex virus-1 and enterovirus 71 in the human neuroblastoma SK-N-SH cell line. Subsequently, the same herbal extracts and drink underwent toxicity and immunomodulatory tests on mice of 57 weeks old. After 8 weeks of feeding different herbal medicinal formulas, no hepatic or renal toxicity was noted in any tested animal; whereas among the immune function evaluations, only the mice treated with CUC extract were found to be associated with significant increases (p < 0.05) in both the level of plasma IgG and the percentage of monocyte in blood mononuclear cells as well as the activation of macrophage Raw264.7 cells for nitric oxide production, suggesting its role in modulating the non-specific immune response. Analyses using protein arrays showed CUC was the most potent herbal medicinal formula eliciting fluctuations in plasma cytokine and chemokine concentrations. Taking all experimental data together, we conclude Chui-Uren-Chien possesses immunomodulatory capability in mouse, but none of the herbal medicinal formulas tested here are involved in strengthening antiviral immunity. © 2010 World Scientific Publishing Company & Institute for Advanced Research in Asian Science and Medicine. Source

Geng Y.,Hebei University | Zhao C.,National Institutes for Food and Drug Control | Zhao C.,Jilin University | Fan J.,National Institutes for Food and Drug Control | And 5 more authors.
Infection, Genetics and Evolution | Year: 2013

Hepatitis E is an important public health problem in many countries. However, there is no definite conclusion about the zoonotic reservoir, transmission patterns and risk factors of hepatitis E in the human population. The aim of this study was to analyze the epidemiological and viral genotype characteristics of hepatitis E cases in northern China. Surveillance was conducted in two hospitals in Liaoning and Hebei province from July 2010 to June 2012. Out of a total of 116 diagnosed patients, 88 (75.9%) were male and 28 (24.1%) were female and most (73%) were in the age group 40-70. years. In both hospitals, cases were diagnosed more frequently in March than in other months. HEV RNA was amplified from 41 patients and characterized by nucleotide sequencing and phylogenetic analysis. Most of the isolates (37 strains, 90.3%) were genotype 4, including subgenotypes 4a, 4b, 4d, 4h, 4i and a new subgenotype. One subgenotype 3a strain was isolated from Baoding, Hebei province. Three genotype 1b strains were found from patients in Jinzhou, Liaoning province. Most of the genotype 4 strains and the genotype 3 strains were phylogenetically related to known swine isolates. In conclusion, the finding that HEV infects mostly middle-aged and elderly men and that the incidence spiked in March may reflect the zoonotic transmission characteristics of HEV infection. Pigs, but not rabbits, were the important reservoirs in this area, because genotype 4 HEV was found to be responsible for the majority hepatitis E cases. However, genotype 1 is still present in northern China. Also, the first isolation of genotype 3 HEV in this area indicates that alternative routes of HEV transmission might exist. © 2013. Source

Abdel-Hamid N.M.,Minia University | Abdel-Hamid N.M.,Diagnostic Laboratory | Abdel-Ghany M.I.,Minia University | Nazmy M.H.,Minia University | Amgad S.W.,Minia University
Environmental Health and Preventive Medicine | Year: 2013

Background and aim: To investigate the possible modulating role of "Nigella sativa" (NS), a plant commonly used in Egyptian traditional medicine, on premalignant perturbations in three glycol-regulatory enzymes in an experimental rat model of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Methods: Thirty-six (36) male albino rats were divided into four groups (n = 9). Group 1 served as a normal control, group 2 was treated with methanolic extract of Nigella sativa (MENS) (1 g/kg/day, orally) for 14 weeks, group 3 received a single intraperitoneal dose of diethyl nitrosamine (DENA) (200 mg/kg), followed 2 weeks later by a subcutaneous injection of carbon tetrachloride (CCl4, 3 ml/kg/week/6 weeks) and group IV was treated with MENS for 2 weeks prior to administration of the carcinogenic combination (DENA + CCl4, as in group 3) until the end of the experiment. The total period of the experiment was 14 weeks. Results: In the DENA + CCl4-treated group, there was a significant increase in the relative liver weight, serum alpha fetoprotein level and the activities of hexokinase, glyceraldehyde phosphate dehydrogenase and glucose 6 phosphate dehydrogenase in both the serum and liver homogenate; this was accompanied by a subsequent decrease in body weight. Pre-treatment with MENS significantly maintained these parameters close to the normal condition. Conclusion: Based on these results, we conclude that MENS has a chemo-preventive effect against the progression into liver malignancy through its modulation of the energy metabolic pathways (i.e. glycolysis) that may be involved in hepatocarcinogenesis. © 2012 The Japanese Society for Hygiene. Source

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