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Stará Ľubovňa, Slovakia

Kubatka P.,Comenius University | Kubatka P.,Catholic University in Ruzomberok | Kajo K.,Slovak Medical University | Zihlavnikova K.,Comenius University | And 10 more authors.

The results of experimental studies have indicated the pleiotropic effects of statins in organism, e.g. the influence on cell cycle, apoptosis or angiogenesis. In this study, the effects of simvastatin on selected parameters of apoptosis and proliferation in chemocarcinogen-induced mammary tumorigenesis in female rats were determined. Simvastatin was administered dietary at a dose of 18 mg/kg and highly effective dose of 180 mg/kg the entire experiment (18 weeks). At autopsy mammary tumors were removed and prepared for immunohistochemical and histomorphological analysis. In treated animals (simvastatin 180 mg/kg), significant decrease by 12% in Bcl-2 protein expression and non-significant decrease by 27% of Ki67 protein expression in tumor cells compared to tumor cells in control animals were observed after semiquantitative evaluation. Morphometrical analysis has shown significant proapototic shift in Bcl-2/Bax ratio in tumor cells. In high grade control carcinoma cells, the expression of Ki67 increased by 37% (non-significantly) in comparison with control low grade carcinomas. A histomorphological analysis of malignant tumors has revealed a shift from high grade to low grade carcinomas after simvastatin treatment. The noticeable decrease of mammary tumor frequency and incidence in rats after simvastatin treatment was accompanied with antiapoptotic Blc-2 protein decrease and proapoptotic Bax protein increase in this experiment. Source

Kubatka P.,Comenius University | Kubatka P.,Catholic University in Ruzomberok | Zihlavnikova K.,Comenius University | Kajo K.,Comenius University | And 7 more authors.
Klinicka Onkologie

Backgrounds: Statins (3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase inhibitors) have proven therapeutic and preventive effects on cardiovascular diseases. Preclinical evidence demonstrates tumor-suppressive effects of statins in several human neoplasias, including breast cancer. Materials and Methods: In this study, antineoplastic effects of simvastatin in chemoprevention of N-methyl-N-nitrosourea-induced mammary carcinogenesis in female rats were evaluated. The drug was dietary administered at two concentrations - 18 mg/kg (SIMVA 18) and 180 mg/kg (SIMVA 180). Results: Basic parameters of experimental carcinogenesis after long-term simvastatin treatment in animals were assessed. In the SIMVA 180 group, simvastatin significantly suppressed tumour frequency by 80.5% and tumour incidence by 58.5% in comparison to the controls. Higher dose simvastatin non-significantly decreased the mean tumor volume by 23.5%, as well as non-significantly lengthened the latency period by 14.5 days compared to the control animals. Simvastatin, administered at a lower dose did not change parameters of mammary carcinogenesis in comparison to the control group. Simvastatin in both treated groups significantly decreased serum levels of triacylglycerols and VLDL-cholesterol in comparison to the control animals. Compared to the controls, a significant increase in food intake by the animals was recorded in the SIMVA 18 and SIMVA 180 groups. No significant differences in the final body weight gain between the simvastatin-administered and the control group were found. Conclusion: This study represents the first report of simvastatin use in experimental mammary carcinogenesis in vivo. Source

Kubatka P.,Comenius University | Kubatka P.,Catholic University in Ruzomberok | Zihlavnikova K.,Comenius University | Solar P.,University of P.J. Safarik | And 9 more authors.

Epidemiological studies indicate that 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase inhibitors, or statins, play a role in inhibition of several human neoplasia including breast cancer. In this study, chemopreventive effects of atorvastatin in N-methyl-N-nitrosourea-induced mammary carcinogenesis in female rats were evaluated. Atorvastatin was administered in the diet at two concentrations: 10 mg/kg (ATOR 10) and 100 mg/kg (ATOR 100). Atorvastatin treatment began 8 days prior to carcinogen administration and subsequently continued for 15 weeks till the end of the experiment. Atorvastatin at a higher dose suppressed tumor frequency by 80.5% (P = 0.0008) and tumor incidence by 49.5% (P = 0.015), and extended latency period by 14 days (P = 0.076) when compared to the control group. Atorvastatin at a lower dose did not significantly alter tumor parameters in comparison with the control group. In the specimens of mammary tumors, atorvastatin (in the ATOR 100 group) significantly decreased mRNA expression of Bcl-2 gene but non-significantly increased Bax mRNA expression compared to control group. Atorvastatin administration did not alter serum concentration of triacylglycerols, total cholesterol, and LDL cholesterol in comparison with controls. This study is the first report on tumor suppressive effect of atorvastatin in rat mammary carcinogenesis. © 2011 Versita Warsaw and Springer-Verlag Wien. Source

Bojkova B.,University of P.J. Safarik | Kajo K.,Slovak Medical University | Kajo K.,Diagnostic Center Ltd | Garajova M.,University of P.J. Safarik | And 7 more authors.

Peroral antidiabetics from thiazolidinedione (glitazone) group showed oncostatic effects in preclinical models. This study evaluated chemopreventive effects of rosiglitazone in N-methyl-N-nitrosourea-induced mammary carcinogenesis in rats. N-methyl-N-nitrosourea was administered in two intraperitoneal doses each per 50 mg/kg b.w. between 40th and 51st postnatal days. Rosiglitazone was administered in a diet at a concentration of 10 ppm and 100 ppm, respectively, 9 days before the first carcinogen dose until the termination of the experiment. During the experiment the animals were weekly weighed and palpated for the presence of mammary tumors and estimation of latency period, tumor frequency per group and animal, and tumor volume were recorded. The experiment was terminated 16 weeks after the first carcinogen dose, basic tumor growth parameters and selected metabolic and hormonal variables were evaluated. Chemoprevention with higher rosiglitazone dose decreased tumor frequency per group by 44%, other tumor parameters (incidence, tumor frequency per animal) were decreased insignificantly (at both doses), latency period was not changed. Rosiglitazone administration decreased cumulative tumor volume, more efficiently at lower dose. Glycaemia and insulinaemia decreased after lower rosigitazone dose administration but glycaemia did not exceed normal values. Higher rosiglitazone dose alleviated some metabolic alterations resulting from cancer progression more effectively but induced a prominent cardiac hypertrophy. Source

Orendas P.,University of P.J. Safarik | Kubatka P.,Comenius University | Kubatka P.,Catholic University in Ruzomberok | Kajo K.,Slovak Medical University | And 10 more authors.

The aim of this paper was to test lower, safe bexarotene dose administered alone and in combination with melatonin to improve its efficacy. Mammary carcinogenesis was induced by N-methyl-N-nitrosourea in female Sprague-Dawley rats, administered in two doses intraperitoneally between 42.-54. postnatal days and chemoprevention was initiated 7 days prior to first N-methyl-N-nitrosourea injection and lasted 15 weeks. Bexarotene, particularly in combination with melatonin decreased mammary tumor incidence and frequency with a shift from poorly to well differentiated carcinomas. Bexarotene alleviated glycaemia and liver/heart muscle glycogen concentration decreased as well as liver/thymus malondialdehyde increased in comparison with control group. The combination of bexarotene and melatonin is therefore beneficial in preventive-curative model of experimental mammary carcinogenesis and may be applied in oncological practice as such. Source

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