East Lansing, MI, United States
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Wise A.G.,Diagnostic Center for Population and Animal Health | Wise A.G.,Michigan State University | Kiupel M.,Diagnostic Center for Population and Animal Health | Kiupel M.,Michigan State University | And 5 more authors.
Virus Research | Year: 2010

Ferret systemic coronavirus (FRSCV) infection is associated with an emerging, highly fatal disease of ferrets. Enhanced macrophage tropism and the resulting induction of pyogranulomatous lesions are shared with feline infectious peritonitis virus (FIPV) infection in cats, but are not features of ferret enteric coronavirus (FRECV) infection. Comparative sequence analysis of the distal one-third of the genomes of one FRSCV and one FRECV strain showed that these two ferret coronaviruses share >96% nucleotide sequence identities in the membrane (M), nucleocapsid (N) and non-structural protein genes (partial polymerase, open reading frames [ORFs] 3 and 7b). The envelope (E) protein gene showed a moderate nucleotide sequence similarity of 91.6%. In contrast, nucleotide and amino acid sequence similarities observed with the spike (S) protein were only 79.5 and 79.6%, respectively. Twenty-one amino acid differences within a 195-199-amino acid C-terminal portion of the S protein were conserved between 3 strains each of FRSCV and FRECV. Both systemic and enteric strains were found to carry a single ORF 3 gene with truncated proteins observed in two out of three FRSCV strains examined. The two enteric strains analyzed each contained an intact ORF 3 gene. Phylogenetically, FRSCV is more closely related to FRECV than to other group 1 coronaviruses. © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


Lee K.Y.,Diagnostic Center for Population and Animal Health | Bae O.-N.,Diagnostic Center for Population and Animal Health | Bae O.-N.,Hanyang University | Serfozo K.,Diagnostic Center for Population and Animal Health | And 12 more authors.
Stroke | Year: 2012

Background and Purpose-: Asiatic acid (AA) has been shown to attenuate cerebral infarction in a mouse model of focal ischemia and shows promise as a neuroprotective stroke therapy. To facilitate translation of these findings to clinical studies, we determined pharmacokinetics, a dose-response relationship, the therapeutic time window, and efficacy using multiple stroke models. We also explored potential mechanisms of action. Methods-: Escalating doses of intravenous AA were administered and serum concentrations were measured at multiple time points for the pharmacokinetic studies. Subsequently, a dose-response relationship was determined followed by administration at different intervals after the onset of ischemia to establish a therapeutic time window for neuroprotection. Outcome measurements included both histological and behavioral. Mitochondrial function and matrix metalloproteinase activity in controls and treated rats were also determined. Results-: The pharmacokinetic studies showed that AA (75 mg/kg) has a half-life of 2.0 hours. AA significantly decreased infarct volume and improved neurological outcome even when administration was at time points up to 12 hours after the onset of ischemia. Infarct volume was also significantly decreased in female rats and spontaneously hypertensive rats. AA attenuated mitochondrial dysfunction and reduced matrix metalloproteinase-9 induction. Conclusions-: Our study shows AA is effective against multiple models of focal ischemia, has a long therapeutic time window, and is also effective in females and hypertensive animals. AA may mediate neuroprotection by protecting mitochondria and inhibiting matrix metalloproteinase-9 induction and activation. Taken together these data suggest that AA is an excellent candidate for development as a stroke therapy. © 2012 American Heart Association, Inc.


Pires A.F.A.,Michigan State University | Funk J.A.,Michigan State University | Lim A.,Diagnostic Center for Population and Animal Health | Bolin S.R.,Diagnostic Center for Population and Animal Health | Bolin S.R.,Michigan State University
Foodborne Pathogens and Disease | Year: 2013

Quantification of Salmonella in asymptomatic pigs can be used to institute control measures and to assess risk of carcass contamination during slaughter. The objective of this study was to quantify the fecal concentration of Salmonella in naturally infected pigs. Individual fecal samples (positive [n=443], negative [n=1225] determined by microbiological culture) were submitted for direct quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (q-PCR). Direct q-PCR categorized 99.6% (1220/1225) of culture negative samples as negative. For culture positive samples, 15.4% (68/443) were detected by q-PCR, but only 3.4% (15/443) were within the direct q-PCR quantifiable range (≥103 colony-forming units [CFU]/g of feces). Of these latter samples, the concentration range was 1.06×103 to 1.73×106 CFU/g feces. Of the 15 samples with high Salmonella concentrations, seven were collected from one pig and three samples were collected from its penmates. Direct q-PCR may be an alternative to traditional culture-dependent methods for detection of pigs with high fecal concentrations of Salmonella, but not for detection of pigs shedding low concentrations of Salmonella, which represented the majority of pigs in this study. When high shedding was detected it was clustered within a single pig and its penmates. These data contribute to quantitative risk assessments of the association between concentrations of Salmonella shed by pigs during the finishing phase and risk of carcass contamination at slaughter. © 2013, Mary Ann Liebert, Inc.


Kraun M.B.,Michigan State University | Nelson N.C.,Michigan State University | Hollinger C.,Diagnostic Center for Population and Animal Health
Veterinary Radiology and Ultrasound | Year: 2015

A 6-year-old female spayed Shetland Sheepdog presented for evaluation of a subcutaneous mass over the right prescapular region. The mass had been cytologically diagnosed as a lipoma by the referring veterinarian 20 months prior, but had grown significantly and was very firm. CT scan of the mass was suggestive of neoplasia; however, the tissue of origin could not be determined. Histopathologic evaluation diagnosed infiltrative angiolipoma, and marginal resection of the tumor was performed. Infiltrative angiolipomas are benign but locally aggressive neoplasms uncommonly reported in veterinary medicine. This report correlates the clinical, CT, and histopathologic characteristics of an infiltrative angiolipoma. © 2014 American College of Veterinary Radiology.


Casey T.,Purdue University | Dover H.,Michigan State University | Liesman J.,Michigan State University | DeVries L.,Michigan State University | And 3 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2011

Transcriptome analysis of bovine mammary development has provided insight into regulation of mammogenesis. However, previous studies primarily examined expression of epithelial and stromal tissues combined, and consequently did not account for tissue specific contribution to mammary development. Our objective was to identify differences in gene expression in epithelial and intralobular stromal compartments. Tissue was biopsied from non-lactating dairy cows 3 weeks prepartum, cut into explants and incubated for 2 hr with insulin and hydrocortisone. Epithelial and intralobular stromal tissues were isolated with laser capture microdissection. Global gene expression was measured with Bovine Affymetrix GeneChips, and data were preprocessed using RMA method. Moderated t-tests from gene-specific linear model analysis with cell type as a fixed effect showed more than 3,000 genes were differentially expressed between tissues (P<0.05; FDR<0.17). Analysis of epithelial and stromal transcriptomes using Database for Annotation, Visualization and Integrated Discovery (DAVID) and Ingenuity Pathways Analysis (IPA) showed that epithelial and stromal cells contributed distinct molecular signatures. Epithelial signatures were enriched with gene sets for protein synthesis, metabolism and secretion. Stromal signatures were enriched with genes that encoded molecules important to signaling, extracellular matrix composition and remodeling. Transcriptome differences also showed evidence for paracrine interactions between tissues in stimulation of IGF1 signaling pathway, stromal reaction, angiogenesis, neurogenesis, and immune response. Molecular signatures point to the dynamic role the stroma plays in prepartum mammogenesis and highlight the importance of examining the roles of cell types within the mammary gland when targeting therapies and studying mechanisms that affect milk production. © 2011 Casey et al.


Thaiwong T.,Diagnostic Center for Population and Animal Health | Thaiwong T.,Michigan State University | Kettler N.M.,Diagnostic Center for Population and Animal Health | Lim A.,Diagnostic Center for Population and Animal Health | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Clinical Microbiology | Year: 2014

Wohlfahrtiimonas chitiniclastica is an emerging human pathogen that has been identified as the cause of septicemia in humans in Europe and South America. Here we report the first case of a unique disease manifestation of Wohlfahrtiimonas chitiniclastica- induced bacterial septicemia secondary to wound myiasis in a deer in Michigan in the United States. Copyright © 2014, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.


Nelli R.K.,Wilson College | Maes R.,Diagnostic Center for Population and Animal Health | Kiupel M.,Diagnostic Center for Population and Animal Health | Hussey G.S.,Wilson College
Virus Research | Year: 2016

Infection with feline herpesvirus-1 (FHV-1) accounts for 50% of viral upper respiratory diseases in domestic cats and is a significant cause of ocular diseases. Despite the clinical significance and high prevalence of FHV-1 infection, currently available vaccines cannot completely protect cats from infection and lifelong latency. FHV-1 infects via the mucous membranes and replicates in respiratory epithelial cells, but very little is known about the early innate immunity at this site. To address questions about immunity to FHV-1, feline respiratory epithelial cells cultured at air-liquid interface (ALI-FRECs) were established by collecting respiratory tracts from 6 healthy cats after euthanasia. Cells were isolated, cultured and characterized histologically and immunologically before infection with FHV-1. The expression of Toll-like receptors (TLRs), cytokine and chemokine responses were measured by real time PCR.ALI-FRECs morphologically resembled the natural airways of cats with multilayered columnar epithelial cells and cilia. Immunological properties of the natural airways were maintained in ALI-FRECs, as evidenced by the expression of TLRs, cytokines, chemokines, interferons, beta-defensins, and other regulatory genes. Furthermore, ALI-FRECs were able to support infection and replication of FHV-1, as well as modulate transcriptional regulation of various immune genes in response to infection. IL-1β and TNFα were increased in ALI-FRECs by 24 hpi, whereas expression levels of IFN-α and TLR9 were not increased until 36 hpi. In contrast, TLR3, GM-CSF and TGF-1β expression was down-regulated at 36 hpi. The data presented show the development of a system ideal for investigating the molecular pathogenesis and immunity of FHV-1 or other respiratory pathogens. © 2016.


Lehner A.,Michigan State University | Lehner A.,Diagnostic Center for Population and Animal Health | Johnson M.,Michigan State University | Simkins T.,Michigan State University | And 4 more authors.
Toxicology Mechanisms and Methods | Year: 2011

1-Methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) is widely used as a neurotoxin in several models of Parkinson''s disease in mice. MPTP is metabolized to 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP+), which is a mitochondrial toxicant of central dopamine (DA) neurons. There are species, strain, and age differences in sensitivity to MPTP. Simultaneous measurement of the MPTP active metabolite MPP+ and dopamine (DA) in the brain would be helpful in mechanistic studies of this neurotoxin. The objective of this study was to develop a liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC/MS) method for analysis of MPTP and MPP+ in brain tissue and correlate these in the same sample with changes in DA measured via HPLC coupled with electrochemical detection. Twenty-five C57BL/6J7 8-week old female mice were used in the study. Mice were given a single subcutaneous injection of MPTP (20?mg/kg) and were sacrificed 1, 2, 4, or 8?h later. Zero time control mice received an injection of 0.9% normal saline (10?ml/kg) and were killed 1?h later. Brains were rapidly harvested and quickly frozen, and microdissected brain regions were placed in 0.1?M phosphate-citric acid buffer containing 20% methanol (pH 2.5). A new LC/MS method was successfully developed that utilized selected reaction monitoring (SRM) of MPP+ m/z 170→127, 170→128, and 170→154 fragmentation for quantitation and area ratios (m/z 127)/(m/z 128) and (m/z 154)/(128) for identity confirmation. A similar SRM strategy from m/z 174 was unable to detect any significant levels of MPTP down to 0.4 ppb. According to this method, MPP+ was detected in the nucleus accumbens (NA) and the striatum (ST), with the levels in the NA being 3-times higher than those in the ST. The advantage of this approach is that the tissue buffer used in this procedure allowed concurrent measurement of striatal DA, thus enabling direct correlation between accumulation of tissue MPP + and depletion of DA concentrations in discrete regions of the brain. © 2011 Informa Healthcare USA, Inc.


PubMed | Wilson College and Diagnostic Center for Population and Animal Health
Type: | Journal: Virus research | Year: 2016

Infection with feline herpesvirus-1 (FHV-1) accounts for 50% of viral upper respiratory diseases in domestic cats and is a significant cause of ocular diseases. Despite the clinical significance and high prevalence of FHV-1 infection, currently available vaccines cannot completely protect cats from infection and lifelong latency. FHV-1 infects via the mucous membranes and replicates in respiratory epithelial cells, but very little is known about the early innate immunity at this site. To address questions about immunity to FHV-1, feline respiratory epithelial cells cultured at air-liquid interface (ALI-FRECs) were established by collecting respiratory tracts from 6 healthy cats after euthanasia. Cells were isolated, cultured and characterized histologically and immunologically before infection with FHV-1. The expression of Toll-like receptors (TLRs), cytokine and chemokine responses were measured by real time PCR. ALI-FRECs morphologically resembled the natural airways of cats with multilayered columnar epithelial cells and cilia. Immunological properties of the natural airways were maintained in ALI-FRECs, as evidenced by the expression of TLRs, cytokines, chemokines, interferons, beta-defensins, and other regulatory genes. Furthermore, ALI-FRECs were able to support infection and replication of FHV-1, as well as modulate transcriptional regulation of various immune genes in response to infection. IL-1 and TNF were increased in ALI-FRECs by 24hpi, whereas expression levels of IFN- and TLR9 were not increased until 36hpi. In contrast, TLR3, GM-CSF and TGF-1 expression was down-regulated at 36hpi. The data presented show the development of a system ideal for investigating the molecular pathogenesis and immunity of FHV-1 or other respiratory pathogens.


PubMed | Complutense University of Madrid and Diagnostic Center for Population and Animal Health
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Veterinary pathology | Year: 2015

Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and intestinal lymphoma are intestinal disorders in dogs, both causing similar chronic digestive signs, although with a different prognosis and different treatment requirements. Differentiation between these 2 conditions is based on histopathologic evaluation of intestinal biopsies. However, an accurate diagnosis is often difficult based on histology alone, especially when only endoscopic biopsies are available to differentiate IBD from enteropathy-associated T-cell lymphoma (EATL) type 2, a small cell lymphoma. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the utility of histopathology; immunohistochemistry (IHC) for CD3, CD20, and Ki-67; and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for antigen receptor rearrangement (T-cell clonality) in the differential diagnosis of severe IBD vs intestinal lymphoma. Endoscopic biopsies from 32 dogs with severe IBD or intestinal lymphoma were evaluated. The original diagnosis was based on microscopic examination of hematoxylin and eosin (HE)-stained sections alone followed by a second evaluation using morphology in association with IHC for CD3 and CD20 and a third evaluation using PCR for clonality. Our results show that, in contrast to feline intestinal lymphomas, 6 of 8 canine small intestinal lymphomas were EATL type 1 (large cell) lymphomas. EATL type 2 was uncommon. Regardless, in dogs, intraepithelial lymphocytes were not an important diagnostic feature to differentiate IBD from EATL as confirmed by PCR. EATL type 1 had a significantly higher Ki-67 index than did EATL type 2 or IBD cases. Based on the results of this study, a stepwise diagnostic approach using histology as the first step, followed by immunophenotyping and determining the Ki67 index and finally PCR for clonality, improves the accuracy of distinguishing intestinal lymphoma from IBD in dogs.

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