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Pfutzner J.,Institute for Clinical Research and Development | Hellhammer J.,Diagnostic Assessment and Clinical Research Organization | Musholt P.,Institute for Clinical Research and Development | Pfutzner A.H.,Institute for Clinical Research and Development | And 6 more authors.
Journal of Diabetes Science and Technology | Year: 2011

Background: Daily routine for insulin-treated patients with diabetes mellitus requires correct performance of self-monitoring of blood glucose and insulin injections several times a day. Dexterity skills may play an important role in the performance efficacy of these procedures. Methods: We collected data of insulin-treated (>10 years) patients with different age ranges [healthy controls, 14 female/11 male, age (mean ± standard deviation) 55 ± 7 years; type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) patients, 12/13, 45 ± 9 years, disease duration 23.9 ± 6.5 years; T2DM patients, 8/17, 64 ± 6 years, 16.2 ± 6.9 years; T2DM patients (>70 years of age), 9/16, 75 ± 4 years, 19.7 ± 7.0 years]. After assessment of neuropathy (temperature, pain, and vibration perception), the patients participated in two dexterity test batteries [Jebsen-Taylor hand-function test (JHFT) and motoric performance series (MPS)]. Results: Patients with type 2 diabetes showed disturbed vibration perception as compared to the other groups. The dexterity results were influenced by age to a large extent. Older T2DM patients performed worst in the majority of the subtests (e.g., JHFT, writing nondominant hand: control, 40.8 ± 11.7 s; T1DM, 46.3 ± 50.9 s, not significant versus control; old T2DM, 68.1 ± 29.5 s, p < .05; young T2DM, 52.5 ± 26.2 s, p < .05). Patients with type 1 diabetes showed similar JHFT and MPS results than the 10-year-older control subjects and performed outside of the age-dependent normal reference range. Conclusions: Manual skills and dexterity differed between the groups, and age-corrected reduced skills were common in both T1DM and T2DM patients in this study. Our findings underline the importance of considering dexterity and manual skills when designing medical devices for patients with diabetes mellitus. © Diabetes Technology Society.

Schult J.,Diagnostic Assessment and Clinical Research Organization | Hero T.,Diagnostic Assessment and Clinical Research Organization | Hero T.,University of Trier | Hellhammer J.,Diagnostic Assessment and Clinical Research Organization
Clinical Nutrition | Year: 2010

Background & aims: Effects of nutritional supplements on psychological wellbeing receive increasing attention. This double-blind placebo-controlled study investigated effects of a four week intake of powder of fertilized eggs (Young Tissue Extract; YTE™) in a laboratory protocol (Trier Social Stress Test; TSST). Methods: Aside the laboratory stress test, we examined differential effects on subjects with high and low levels of chronic stress. Thus, subjects were further divided into two subgroups with scores for chronic stress scores below and above average, respectively. Results: Compared to placebo, a four week intake of YTE™ did not result in superior effects on general wellbeing. However, beneficial effects of YTE™ were observed in subjects with enhanced levels of chronic stress. When compared to placebo these subjects showed an improvement of both the psychological and endocrine stress response. Conclusions: Group differences suggest that YTE™ selectively improves adaptation to acute stress by normalizing the endocrine and the subjective stress response. Subjects with less chronic stress also reported less subjective stress but did not show beneficial effects on the endocrine stress response. © 2009 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism.

Hellhammer J.,Diagnostic Assessment and Clinical Research Organization | Waladkhani A.-R.,University of Trier | Hero T.,Diagnostic Assessment and Clinical Research Organization | Hero T.,University of Trier | And 2 more authors.
British Food Journal | Year: 2010

Purpose: Phosphatidylserine (PS) extracted from both bovine cortex and soya beans has been previously reported to positively affect cognitive functioning, mood, and the capacity to cope with stress. The present paper aims to investigate whether the daily intake of phospholipid concentrate (PL) rich in phosphatidylserine (PS) and sphingomyelin (SM) has similar beneficial effects on working memory, allostastic load and the acute stress response. Design/methodology/approach: A total of 46 healthy men (average 41.5 years) received either placebo or 13.5 g per day PL over a three-week period. On the 21st day of PL intake, subjects' working memory performance and their psychological and endocrine responses to the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST) were tested. Findings: Compared to placebo-exposed individuals, there was a tendency for shorter reaction times in the working memory task, suggesting better performance in PL-treated subjects. The two treatment groups did not significantly differ in their endocrine stress response. However, PL-treated subjects with a higher stress load showed a blunted psychological stress response. Practical implications: Results of the present study show beneficial effects of PL intake on cognitive performance. Under acute stress, benefits of PL may only be visible in chronically stressed subjects. Originality/value: This paper provides new information for practitioners, academics and food supplement industries interested in possible beneficial effects of a milk phospholipid product on memory and mental stress. © Emerald Group Publishing Limited.

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