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Bus S.A.,University of Amsterdam | van Netten J.J.,Diabetic Foot Clinic | Lavery L.A.,University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center | Monteiro-Soares M.,University of Porto | And 3 more authors.
Diabetes/Metabolism Research and Reviews | Year: 2016

Recommendations: To identify a person with diabetes at risk for foot ulceration, examine the feet annually to seek evidence for signs or symptoms of peripheral neuropathy and peripheral artery disease. (GRADE strength of recommendation: strong; Quality of evidence: low) In a person with diabetes who has peripheral neuropathy, screen for a history of foot ulceration or lower-extremity amputation, peripheral artery disease, foot deformity, pre-ulcerative signs on the foot, poor foot hygiene and ill-fitting or inadequate footwear. (Strong; Low) Treat any pre-ulcerative sign on the foot of a patient with diabetes. This includes removing callus, protecting blisters and draining when necessary, treating ingrown or thickened toe nails, treating haemorrhage when necessary and prescribing antifungal treatment for fungal infections. (Strong; Low) To protect their feet, instruct an at-risk patient with diabetes not to walk barefoot, in socks only, or in thin-soled standard slippers, whether at home or when outside. (Strong; Low) Instruct an at-risk patient with diabetes to daily inspect their feet and the inside of their shoes, daily wash their feet (with careful drying particularly between the toes), avoid using chemical agents or plasters to remove callus or corns, use emollients to lubricate dry skin and cut toe nails straight across. (Weak; Low) Instruct an at-risk patient with diabetes to wear properly fitting footwear to prevent a first foot ulcer, either plantar or non-plantar, or a recurrent non-plantar foot ulcer. When a foot deformity or a pre-ulcerative sign is present, consider prescribing therapeutic shoes, custom-made insoles or toe orthosis. (Strong; Low) To prevent a recurrent plantar foot ulcer in an at-risk patient with diabetes, prescribe therapeutic footwear that has a demonstrated plantar pressure-relieving effect during walking (i.e. 30% relief compared with plantar pressure in standard of care therapeutic footwear) and encourage the patient to wear this footwear. (Strong; Moderate) To prevent a first foot ulcer in an at-risk patient with diabetes, provide education aimed at improving foot care knowledge and behaviour, as well as encouraging the patient to adhere to this foot care advice. (Weak; Low) To prevent a recurrent foot ulcer in an at-risk patient with diabetes, provide integrated foot care, which includes professional foot treatment, adequate footwear and education. This should be repeated or re-evaluated once every 1 to 3 months as necessary. (Strong; Low) Instruct a high-risk patient with diabetes to monitor foot skin temperature at home to prevent a first or recurrent plantar foot ulcer. This aims at identifying the early signs of inflammation, followed by action taken by the patient and care provider to resolve the cause of inflammation. (Weak; Moderate) Consider digital flexor tenotomy to prevent a toe ulcer when conservative treatment fails in a high-risk patient with diabetes, hammertoes and either a pre-ulcerative sign or an ulcer on the distal toe. (Weak; Low) Consider Achilles tendon lengthening, joint arthroplasty, single or pan metatarsal head resection, or osteotomy to prevent a recurrent foot ulcer when conservative treatment fails in a high-risk patient with diabetes and a plantar forefoot ulcer. (Weak; Low) Do not use a nerve decompression procedure in an effort to prevent a foot ulcer in an at-risk patient with diabetes, in preference to accepted standards of good quality care. (Weak; Low) © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Source

van Netten J.J.,Diabetic Foot Clinic | Price P.E.,University of Cardiff | Lavery L.A.,University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center | Rasmussen A.,Steno Diabetes Center A S | And 2 more authors.
Diabetes/Metabolism Research and Reviews | Year: 2016

Background: Prevention of foot ulcers in patients with diabetes is extremely important to help reduce the enormous burden of foot ulceration on both patient and health resources. A comprehensive analysis of reported interventions is not currently available, but is needed to better inform caregivers about effective prevention. The aim of this systematic review is to investigate the effectiveness of interventions to prevent first and recurrent foot ulcers in persons with diabetes who are at risk for ulceration. Methods: The available medical scientific literature in PubMed, EMBASE, CINAHL and the Cochrane database was searched for original research studies on preventative interventions. Both controlled and non-controlled studies were selected. Data from controlled studies were assessed for methodological quality by two independent reviewers. Results: From the identified records, a total of 30 controlled studies (of which 19 RCTs) and another 44 non-controlled studies were assessed and described. Few controlled studies, of generally low to moderate quality, were identified on the prevention of a first foot ulcer. For the prevention of recurrent plantar foot ulcers, multiple RCTs with low risk of bias show the benefit for the use of daily foot skin temperature measurements and consequent preventative actions, as well as for therapeutic footwear that demonstrates to relieve plantar pressure and that is worn by the patient. To prevent recurrence, some evidence exists for integrated foot care when it includes a combination of professional foot treatment, therapeutic footwear and patient education; for just a single session of patient education, no evidence exists. Surgical interventions can be effective in selected patients, but the evidence base is small. Conclusion: The evidence base to support the use of specific self-management and footwear interventions for the prevention of recurrent plantar foot ulcers is quite strong, but is small for the use of other, sometimes widely applied, interventions and is practically nonexistent for the prevention of a first foot ulcer and non-plantar foot ulcer. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Source

Jayanthy A.K.,SRM University | Sujatha N.,Indian Institute of Technology Madras | Reddy M.R.,Indian Institute of Technology Madras | Narayanamoorthy V.B.,Diabetic Foot Clinic
Progress in Biomedical Optics and Imaging - Proceedings of SPIE | Year: 2014

Measuring microcirculatory tissue blood perfusion is of interest for both clinicians and researchers in a wide range of applications and can provide essential information of the progress of treatment of certain diseases which causes either an increased or decreased blood flow. Diabetic ulcer associated with alterations in tissue blood flow is the most common cause of non-traumatic lower extremity amputations. A technique which can detect the onset of ulcer and provide essential information on the progress of the treatment of ulcer would be of great help to the clinicians. A noninvasive, noncontact and whole field laser speckle contrast imaging (LSCI) technique has been described in this paper which is used to assess the changes in blood flow in diabetic ulcer affected areas of the foot. The blood flow assessment at the wound site can provide critical information on the efficiency and progress of the treatment given to the diabetic ulcer subjects. The technique may also potentially fulfill a significant need in diabetic foot ulcer screening and management. © 2014 SPIE. Source

Caravaggi C.,Diabetic Foot Clinic | Caravaggi C.,University of Milan | Sganzaroli A.,Diabetic Foot Clinic | Galenda P.,Diabetic Foot Clinic | And 3 more authors.
Current Diabetes Reviews | Year: 2013

Diabetes is a chronic disease with a worldwide increasing trend. Foot complications, closely related to neuropathy and obstructive peripheral vascular disease, are responsible for more than 1 million of leg amputations every year. Foot infection can dramatically increase the risk of amputation. Although many ulcer classification systems have been proposed to stratify the severity of the infectious process, the definition of a specific therapeutic approach still remains an unsolved problem. A Diabetic Foot Triage and an Integrated Surgical Protocol are proposed to identify a diagnostic flowchart and a step-by-step surgical protocol that can be applied in the treatment of diabetic foot infection. Considering the rapid climbing of multidrug resistant strains it is very important to rationalize the use of antibiotics utilizing them only for the treatment of true infected ulcers. PAD is widely considered the most important factor conditioning the outcome of a diabetic foot ulcer. Currently no randomized control trials are reported in the international literature directly comparing open versus endovascular revascularisation in diabetic patients with CLI. Insufficient data are available to demonstrate whether open bypass surgery or endovascular interventions are more effective in these patients. A decisional flow chart in choosing the best revascularization strategy in diabetic patients with CLI is proposed. Goals and technical aspects of emergency and elective surgical procedures in diabetic foot are analysed to evaluate critical aspects and to suggest proper surgical choices. © 2013 Bentham Science Publishers. Source

Ferraresi R.,Interventional Cardiovascular Unit | Palloshi A.,Interventional Cardiovascular Unit | Aprigliano G.,Interventional Cardiovascular Unit | Caravaggi C.,Diabetic Foot Clinic | And 4 more authors.
European Journal of Vascular and Endovascular Surgery | Year: 2012

Background: Critical hand ischaemia (CHI) due to pure below-the-elbow (BTE) artery obstruction is a disabling disease and there is still no consensus concerning the most appropriate revascularisation strategy. The aim of this study was to assess the feasibility, safety and outcomes of percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA) in the treatment of CHI due to pure BTE artery disease. Methods and results: Twenty-eight patients (age 62 ± 11 years; three females) with a total of 34 hands affected by CHI (one pain at rest; 18 non-healing ulcer; 15 gangrene) due to pure BTE artery disease underwent PTA. Most of the patients were males with a long history of diabetes mellitus, end-stage renal disease (ESRD) on haemodialysis and systemic atherosclerosis. The interosseous artery was free of disease in all cases, whereas the radial and ulnar arteries were simultaneously involved in 31/34 hands with long stenosis/occlusions (91%; mean length 155 ± 64 mm). The technical success rate was 82% (28/34), with only three minor complications. In the three cases with a functioning radial arteriovenous fistula, we successfully treated the ulnar artery. PTA was unsuccessful in 18% (6/34) hands due to inability to cross severely calcified lesions. The hand-healing rate was 65% (22/34). The predictors of hand healing were PTA technical success (odds ratio (OR) 0.5, confidence interval (CI) 0.28-0.88; p ≤ 0.0001) and digital run-off (OR 0.37, CI 0.19-0.71; p ≤ 0.003). The mean follow-up period was 13 ± 9 months. Six patients (18%) underwent secondary procedures due to symptomatic restenosis. In all these cases, a successful re-PTA was performed at a mean 6 months after the index procedure, and there were no major procedure-related events. Ten patients (36%) died during follow-up. Conclusions: Angioplasty of BTE vessels for CHI is a feasible and safe procedure with acceptable rates of technical success and hand healing. Poor digital run-off due to obstructive disease of the digital vessels can reduce the hand-healing rate after a successful PTA. Pure isolated BTE vessel disease seems to characterise patients with ESRD and diabetes mellitus. © 2011 European Society for Vascular Surgery. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Source

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