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Krishnaveni G.V.,Epidemiology Research Unit | Veena S.R.,Epidemiology Research Unit | Karat S.C.,Epidemiology Research Unit | Yajnik C.S.,Diabetes Unit | Fall C.H.D.,MRC Lifecourse Epidemiology Unit
Diabetologia | Year: 2014

Aims/hypothesis: In an Indian birth cohort, higher maternal homocysteine concentration in pregnancy was associated with lower birthweight of the offspring. Lower maternal vitamin B12 and higher folate concentrations were associated with higher offspring insulin resistance. Disordered one-carbon metabolism during early development may increase later metabolic risk. We explored these associations in another birth cohort in India at three age points. Methods: We measured plasma vitamin B12, folate and homocysteine concentrations at 30 ± 2 weeks' gestation in 654 women who delivered at one hospital. Neonatal anthropometry was recorded, and the children's glucose and insulin concentrations were measured at 5, 9.5 and 13.5 years of age. Insulin resistance was estimated using HOMA of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR). Results: Maternal homocysteine concentrations were inversely associated with all neonatal anthropometric measurements (p < 0.05), and positively associated with glucose concentrations in the children at 5 (30 min; p = 0.007) and 9.5 years of age (120 min; p = 0.02). Higher maternal folate concentrations were associated with higher HOMA-IR in the children at 9.5 (p = 0.03) and 13.5 years of age (p = 0.03). Maternal vitamin B12 concentrations were unrelated to offspring outcomes. Conclusions/interpretation: Maternal vitamin B12 status did not predict insulin resistance in our cohort. However, associations of maternal homocysteine and folate concentrations with birth size, and with childhood insulin resistance and glycaemia in the offspring, suggest a role for nutritionally driven disturbances in one-carbon metabolism in fetal programming of diabetes. © 2013 The Author(s). Source

Liistro F.,San Donato Hospital | Porto I.,San Donato Hospital | Angioli P.,San Donato Hospital | Grotti S.,University of Siena | And 7 more authors.
Circulation | Year: 2013

Background-The 1-year restenosis rate after balloon angioplasty of long lesions in below-the-knee arteries may be as high as 70%. Our aim was to investigate the efficacy of a paclitaxel drug-eluting balloons versus conventional percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA) for the reduction of restenosis in diabetic patients with critical limb ischemia undergoing endovascular intervention of below-the-knee arteries. Methods and Results-The Drug-Eluting Balloon in Peripheral Intervention for Below the Knee Angioplasty Evaluation (DEBATE-BTK) is a randomized, open-label, single-center study comparing drug-eluting balloons and PTA. Inclusion criteria were diabetes mellitus, critical limb ischemia (Rutherford class 4 or higher), significant stenosis or occlusion >40 mm of at least 1 below-the-knee vessel with distal runoff, and life expectancy >1 year. Binary in-segment restenosis at a 1-year angiographic or ultrasonographic follow-up was the primary end point. Clinically driven target lesion revascularization, major amputation, and target vessel occlusion were the secondary end points. One hundred thirty-two patients with 158 infrapopliteal atherosclerotic lesions were enrolled. Mean length of the treated segments was 129±83 mm in the drug-eluting balloon group compared with 131±79 mm in the PTA group (P=0.7). Binary restenosis, assessed by angiography in >90% of patients, occurred in 20 of 74 lesions (27%) in the drug-eluting balloon group compared with 55 of 74 lesions (74%) in the PTA group (P<0.001); target lesion revascularization, in 12 (18%) versus 29 (43%; P=0.002); and target vessel occlusion, in 12 (17%) versus 41 (55%; P<0.001). Only 1 major amputation occurred, in the PTA group (P=0.9). Conclusions-Drug-eluting balloons compared with PTA strikingly reduce 1-year restenosis, target lesion revascularization, and target vessel occlusion in the treatment of below-the-knee lesions in diabetic patients with critical limb ischemia. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION-: URL: http://ClinicalTrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT01558505. © 2013 American Heart Association, Inc. Source

Yajnik C.S.,Diabetes Unit
Annals of Nutrition and Metabolism | Year: 2014

The conventional aetiological model of obesity and diabetes proposes a genetic predisposition and a precipitation by an unhealthy adult lifestyle. This hypothesis was challenged by David Barker who proposed that the intrauterine environment influences the risk of non-communicable diseases (NCDs). The original idea was based on fetal undernutrition because lower birth weight was associated with a higher risk of diabetes and heart disease. However, soon it was clear that the association was U shaped, and that the increased risk in large babies was driven by maternal obesity and diabetes. A number of human and animal studies have refined our ideas of 'fetal programming', which is now thought to be related to acquired chemical changes in DNA (methylation), histones (acetylation and other) and the role of non-coding miRNAs. Maternal nutritional disturbances are the major programming stimulus, in addition to a deranged metabolism, infections, maternal stress, extreme atmospheric temperature, etc. The first demonstration of a link between fetal 'starvation' and future ill-health was in the Dutch Hunger Winter studies. In the prospective Pune Maternal Nutrition Study, we found that small and thin Indian babies were more adipose compared to larger English babies, and their higher risk of future diabetes was reflected in higher insulin and leptin and lower adiponectin concentrations in the cord blood. This phenotype was partly related to a deranged 1-carbon metabolism due to an imbalance in vitamin B12 (low) and folate (high) nutrition, which was also related to insulin resistance in the offspring. Maternal obesity and diabetes have made an increasing contribution to childhood obesity and diabetes at a young age. This was prominently shown in Pima Indians but is now obvious in all other populations. The best window of opportunity to prevent fetal programming of NCDs is in the periconceptional period. This is the period when gametogenesis, fertilisation, implantation, embryogenesis and placentation occur. Improving the nutrition and the health of young girls could make a substantial contribution to reducing the rapidly rising epidemic of NCDs in the world. This is referred to as 'primordial' prevention. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel. Source

Harrison C.L.,Monash University | Thompson R.G.,Monash University | Teede H.J.,Monash University | Teede H.J.,Diabetes Unit | Lombard C.B.,Monash University
International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity | Year: 2011

Background: Currently, little is known about physical activity patterns in pregnancy with prior estimates predominantly based on subjective assessment measures that are prone to error. Given the increasing obesity rates and the importance of physical activity in pregnancy, we evaluated the relationship and agreement between subjective and objective physical activity assessment tools to inform researchers and clinicians on optimal assessment of physical activity in pregnancy.Methods: 48 pregnant women between 26-28 weeks gestation were recruited. The Yamax pedometer and Actigraph accelerometer were worn for 5-7 days under free living conditions and thereafter the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ) was completed. IPAQ and pedometer estimates of activity were compared to the more robust and accurate accelerometer data.Results: Of 48 women recruited, 30 women completed the study (mean age: 33.6 ± 4.7 years; mean BMI: 31.2 ± 5.1 kg/m2) and 18 were excluded (failure to wear [n = 8] and incomplete data [n = 10]). The accelerometer and pedometer correlated significantly on estimation of daily steps (ρ = 0.69, p < 0.01) and had good absolute agreement with low systematic error (mean difference: 505 ± 1498 steps/day). Accelerometer and IPAQ estimates of total, light and moderate Metabolic Equivalent minutes/day (MET min-1day-1) were not significantly correlated and there was poor absolute agreement. Relative to the accelerometer, the IPAQ under predicted daily total METs (105.76 ± 259.13 min-1day-1) and light METs (255.55 ± 128.41 min-1day-1) and over predicted moderate METs (-112.25 ± 166.41 min-1day-1).Conclusion: Compared with the accelerometer, the pedometer appears to provide a reliable estimate of physical activity in pregnancy, whereas the subjective IPAQ measure performed less accurately in this setting. Future research measuring activity in pregnancy should optimally encompass objective measures of physical activity.Trial Registration: Australian New Zealand Clinical Trial Registry Number: ACTRN12608000233325. Registered 7/5/2008. © 2011 Harrison et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. Source

Teede H.,Monash University | Teede H.,Diabetes Unit | Deeks A.,Monash University | Moran L.,Monash University
BMC Medicine | Year: 2010

Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is of clinical and public health importance as it is very common, affecting up to one in five women of reproductive age. It has significant and diverse clinical implications including reproductive (infertility, hyperandrogenism, hirsutism), metabolic (insulin resistance, impaired glucose tolerance, type 2 diabetes mellitus, adverse cardiovascular risk profiles) and psychological features (increased anxiety, depression and worsened quality of life). Polycystic ovary syndrome is a heterogeneous condition and, as such, clinical and research agendas are broad and involve many disciplines. The phenotype varies widely depending on life stage, genotype, ethnicity and environmental factors including lifestyle and bodyweight. Importantly, PCOS has unique interactions with the ever increasing obesity prevalence worldwide as obesity-induced insulin resistance significantly exacerbates all the features of PCOS. Furthermore, it has clinical implications across the lifespan and is relevant to related family members with an increased risk for metabolic conditions reported in first-degree relatives. Therapy should focus on both the short and long-term reproductive, metabolic and psychological features. Given the aetiological role of insulin resistance and the impact of obesity on both hyperinsulinaemia and hyperandrogenism, multidisciplinary lifestyle improvement aimed at normalising insulin resistance, improving androgen status and aiding weight management is recognised as a crucial initial treatment strategy. Modest weight loss of 5% to 10% of initial body weight has been demonstrated to improve many of the features of PCOS. Management should focus on support, education, addressing psychological factors and strongly emphasising healthy lifestyle with targeted medical therapy as required. Monitoring and management of long-term metabolic complications is also an important part of routine clinical care. Comprehensive evidence-based guidelines are needed to aid early diagnosis, appropriate investigation, regular screening and treatment of this common condition. Whilst reproductive features of PCOS are well recognised and are covered here, this review focuses primarily on the less appreciated cardiometabolic and psychological features of PCOS. © 2010 Teede et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. Source

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