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Misra A.,Diabetes Foundation | Misra A.,Obesity and Cholesterol Foundation N DOC | Ramchandran A.,India Diabetes Research Foundation | Ramchandran A.,Dr A Ramachandrans Diabetes Hospitals | And 6 more authors.
Diabetic Medicine | Year: 2014

Economic, dietary and other lifestyle transitions have been occurring rapidly in most South Asian countries, making their populations more vulnerable to developing Type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. Recent data show an increasing prevalence of Type 2 diabetes in urban areas as well as in semi-urban and rural areas, inclusive of people belonging to middle and low socio-economic strata. Prime determinants for Type 2 diabetes in South Asians include physical inactivity, imbalanced diets, abdominal obesity, excess hepatic fat and, possibly, adverse perinatal and early life nutrition and intra-country migration. It is reported that Type 2 diabetes affects South Asians a decade earlier and some complications, for example nephropathy, are more prevalent and progressive than in other races. Further, prevalence of pre-diabetes is high, and so is conversion to diabetes, while more than 50% of those who are affected remain undiagnosed. Attitudes, cultural differences and religious and social beliefs pose barriers in effective prevention and management of Type 2 diabetes in South Asians. Inadequate resources, insufficient healthcare budgets, lack of medical reimbursement and socio-economic factors contribute to the cost of diabetes management. The challenge is to develop new translational strategies, which are pragmatic, cost-effective and scalable and can be adopted by the South Asian countries with limited resources. The key areas that need focus are: generation of awareness, prioritizing health care for vulnerable subgroups (children, women, pregnant women and the underprivileged), screening of high-risk groups, maximum coverage of the population with essential medicines, and strengthening primary care. An effective national diabetes control programme in each South Asian country should be formulated, with these issues in mind. © 2014 The Authors.


Nanditha A.,India Diabetes Research Foundation | Ma R.C.W.,Chinese University of Hong Kong | Ramachandran A.,India Diabetes Research Foundation | Snehalatha C.,India Diabetes Research Foundation | And 4 more authors.
Diabetes Care | Year: 2016

The last three decades have witnessed an epidemic rise in the number of peoplewith diabetes, especially type 2 diabetes, and particularly in developing countries, where more than 80% of the people with diabetes live. The rise of type 2 diabetes in South Asia is estimated to be more than 150% between 2000 and 2035. Although aging, urbanization, and associated lifestyle changes are the major determinants for the rapid increase, an adverse intrauterine environment and the resulting epigenetic changes could also contribute in many developing countries. The International Diabetes Federation estimated that there were 382 million people with diabetes in 2013, a number surpassing its earlier predictions.More than 60% of the people with diabetes live in Asia,with almost one-half in China and India combined. The Western Pacific, the world's most populous region, has more than 138.2 million people with diabetes, and the numbermay rise to 201.8 million by 2035. The scenario poses huge social and economic problems to most nations in the region and could impede national and, indeed, global development. More action is required to understand the drivers of the epidemic to provide a rationale for prevention strategies to address the rising global public health "tsunami." Unless drastic steps are taken through national prevention programs to curb the escalating trends in all of the countries, the social, economic, and health care challenges are likely to be insurmountable. © 2016 by the American Diabetes Association.


PubMed | India Diabetes Research Foundation, Chinese University of Hong Kong, National University of Singapore and Baker IDI Heart and Diabetes Institute
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Diabetes care | Year: 2016

The last three decades have witnessed an epidemic rise in the number of people with diabetes, especially type 2 diabetes, and particularly in developing countries, where more than 80% of the people with diabetes live. The rise of type 2 diabetes in South Asia is estimated to be more than 150% between 2000 and 2035. Although aging, urbanization, and associated lifestyle changes are the major determinants for the rapid increase, an adverse intrauterine environment and the resulting epigenetic changes could also contribute in many developing countries. The International Diabetes Federation estimated that there were 382 million people with diabetes in 2013, a number surpassing its earlier predictions. More than 60% of the people with diabetes live in Asia, with almost one-half in China and India combined. The Western Pacific, the worlds most populous region, has more than 138.2 million people with diabetes, and the number may rise to 201.8 million by 2035. The scenario poses huge social and economic problems to most nations in the region and could impede national and, indeed, global development. More action is required to understand the drivers of the epidemic to provide a rationale for prevention strategies to address the rising global public health tsunami. Unless drastic steps are taken through national prevention programs to curb the escalating trends in all of the countries, the social, economic, and health care challenges are likely to be insurmountable.


Lonn E.M.,McMaster University | Bosch J.,McMaster University | Diaz R.,Estudios Clinicos Latino America | Lopez-Jaramillo P.,Santander University | And 10 more authors.
Diabetes Care | Year: 2013

OBJECTIVE-To evaluate the effects of insulin glargine and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (n- 3FA) supplements on carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT). RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS-We enrolled 1,184 people with cardiovascular (CV) disease and/or CV risk factors plus impaired fasting glucose, impaired glucose tolerance, or early type 2 diabetes in a randomized multicenter 2 × 2 factorial design trial. Participants received open-label insulin glargine (targeting fasting glucose levels ≤5.3 mmol/L [95 mg/dL]) or standard glycemic care and double-blind therapy with a 1-g capsule of n-3FA or placebo. The primary trial outcomewas the annualized rate of change inmaximumCIMT for the common carotid, bifurcation, and internal carotid artery segments. Secondary outcomes were the annualized rates of change in maximum CIMT for the common carotid and the common carotid plus bifurcation, respectively. Baseline followed by annual ultrasounds were obtained during a median follow-up of 4.9 years. RESULTS-Compared with standard care, insulin glargine reduced the primary CIMT outcome, but the differencewas not statistically significant (difference = 0.0030±.0021mm/year; P=0.145) and significantly reduced the secondary CIMT outcomes (differences of 0.0033±.0017mm/year [P = 0.049] and 0.0045±0.0021 mm/year [P = 0.032], respectively). There were no differences in the primary and secondary outcomes between the n-3FA supplement and placebo groups. CONCLUSIONS-In people with CV disease and/or CV risk factors and dysglycemia, insulin glargine used to target normoglycemia modestly reduced CIMT progression, whereas daily supplementation with n-3FA had no effect on CIMT progression. © 2013 by the American Diabetes Association.


Bosch J.,McMaster University | Gerstein H.C.,McMaster University | Dagenais G.R.,University of Québec | Diaz R.,Estudios Clinicos Latino America | And 8 more authors.
New England Journal of Medicine | Year: 2012

BACKGROUND: The use of n-3 fatty acids may prevent cardiovascular events in patients with recent myocardial infarction or heart failure. Their effects in patients with (or at risk for) type 2 diabetes mellitus are unknown. METHODS: In this double-blind study with a 2-by-2 factorial design, we randomly assigned 12,536 patients who were at high risk for cardiovascular events and had impaired fasting glucose, impaired glucose tolerance, or diabetes to receive a 1-g capsule containing at least 900 mg (90% or more) of ethyl esters of n-3 fatty acids or placebo daily and to receive either insulin glargine or standard care. The primary outcome was death from cardiovascular causes. The results of the comparison between n-3 fatty acids and placebo are reported here. RESULTS: During a median follow up of 6.2 years, the incidence of the primary outcome was not significantly decreased among patients receiving n-3 fatty acids, as compared with those receiving placebo (574 patients [9.1%] vs. 581 patients [9.3%]; hazard ratio, 0.98; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.87 to 1.10; P = 0.72). The use of n-3 fatty acids also had no significant effect on the rates of major vascular events (1034 patients [16.5%] vs. 1017 patients [16.3%]; hazard ratio, 1.01; 95% CI, 0.93 to 1.10; P = 0.81), death from any cause (951 [15.1%] vs. 964 [15.4%]; hazard ratio, 0.98; 95% CI, 0.89 to 1.07; P = 0.63), or death from arrhythmia (288 [4.6%] vs. 259 [4.1%]; hazard ratio, 1.10; 95% CI, 0.93 to 1.30; P = 0.26). Triglyceride levels were reduced by 14.5 mg per deciliter (0.16 mmol per liter) more among patients receiving n-3 fatty acids than among those receiving placebo (P<0.001), without a significant effect on other lipids. Adverse effects were similar in the two groups. CONCLUSIONS: Daily supplementation with 1 g of n-3 fatty acids did not reduce the rate of cardiovascular events in patients at high risk for cardiovascular events. Copyright © 2012 Massachusetts Medical Society.


Gerstein H.C.,McMaster University | Bosch J.,McMaster University | Dagenais G.R.,University of Québec | Diaz R.,Estudios Clinicos Latino America | And 8 more authors.
New England Journal of Medicine | Year: 2012

BACKGROUND: The provision of sufficient basal insulin to normalize fasting plasma glucose levels may reduce cardiovascular events, but such a possibility has not been formally tested. METHODS: We randomly assigned 12,537 people (mean age, 63.5 years) with cardiovascular risk factors plus impaired fasting glucose, impaired glucose tolerance, or type 2 diabetes to receive insulin glargine (with a target fasting blood glucose level of ≤95 mg per deciliter [5.3 mmol per liter]) or standard care and to receive n-3 fatty acids or placebo with the use of a 2-by-2 factorial design. The results of the comparison between insulin glargine and standard care are reported here. The coprimary outcomes were nonfatal myocardial infarction, nonfatal stroke, or death from cardiovascular causes and these events plus revascularization or hospitalization for heart failure. Microvascular outcomes, incident diabetes, hypoglycemia, weight, and cancers were also compared between groups. RESULTS: The median follow-up was 6.2 years (interquartile range, 5.8 to 6.7). Rates of incident cardiovascular outcomes were similar in the insulin-glargine and standard-care groups: 2.94 and 2.85 per 100 person-years, respectively, for the first coprimary outcome (hazard ratio, 1.02; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.94 to 1.11; P = 0.63) and 5.52 and 5.28 per 100 person-years, respectively, for the second coprimary outcome (hazard ratio, 1.04; 95% CI, 0.97 to 1.11; P = 0.27). New diabetes was diagnosed approximately 3 months after therapy was stopped among 30% versus 35% of 1456 participants without baseline diabetes (odds ratio, 0.80; 95% CI, 0.64 to 1.00; P = 0.05). Rates of severe hypoglycemia were 1.00 versus 0.31 per 100 person-years. Median weight increased by 1.6 kg in the insulin-glargine group and fell by 0.5 kg in the standard-care group. There was no significant difference in cancers (hazard ratio, 1.00; 95% CI, 0.88 to 1.13; P = 0.97). CONCLUSIONS: When used to target normal fasting plasma glucose levels for more than 6 years, insulin glargine had a neutral effect on cardiovascular outcomes and cancers. Although it reduced new-onset diabetes, insulin glargine also increased hypoglycemia and modestly increased weight. Copyright © 2012 Massachusetts Medical Society.


Punthakee Z.,McMaster University | Bosch J.,McMaster University | Dagenais G.,Laval University | Diaz R.,Instituto Cardiovascular Of Rosario | And 9 more authors.
Diabetologia | Year: 2012

Aims/objective Conflicting data regarding cardiovascular effects of thiazolidinediones (TZDs) and extra-skeletal effects of vitamin D supported the need for a definitive trial. The Thiazolidinedione Intervention with vitamin D Evaluation (TIDE) trial aimed to assess the effects of TZDs (rosiglitazone and pioglitazone) on cardiovascular outcomes and the effects of vitamin D (cholecalciferol) on cancers and mortality. Methods A large multicentre 3×2 factorial double-blind placebo-controlled randomised trial recruited from outpatient primary care and specialty clinics in 33 countries. From June 2009 to July 2010, 1,332 people with type 2 diabetes and other cardiovascular risk factors aged ≥50 years whose HbA1c was 6.5-9.5% (48-80 mmol/mol) when using two or fewer glucose-lowering drugs were randomised by a central computer system to placebo (n=541), rosiglitazone 4- 8 mg/day (n=399) or pioglitazone 30-45 mg/day (n=392); 1,221 participants were randomised to placebo (n=614) or vitamin D 1,000 IU/day (n=607). Participants and all study personnel were blind to treatment allocation. The primary outcome for the TZD arm was the composite of myocardial infarction, stroke or cardiovascular death, and for the vitamin D arm it was cancer or all-cause death. All randomised participants were included in the primary analysis. Results From the study design, 16,000 people were to be followed for approximately 5.5 years. However, the trial was stopped prematurely because of regulatory concerns after a mean of 162 days without consideration of the accrued data. In the TZD arm, the cardiovascular outcome occurred in five participants (0.9%) in the placebo groups and three participants (0.4%) in the TZD groups (two allocated to pioglitazone, one to rosiglitazone). In the vitamin D arm, the primary outcome occurred in three participants (0.5%) in the placebo group and in two participants (0.3%) receiving vitamin D. Adverse events were comparable in all groups. Conclusions/interpretation Uncertainty persists regarding the clinically relevant risks and benefits of TZDs and vitamin D because of the early cancellation of this comprehensive trial. © 2011 Springer-Verlag.


Simmons R.K.,Institute of Metabolic Science | Alberti K.G.M.M.,St Marys Hospital | Gale E.A.M.,University of Bristol | Colagiuri S.,University of Sydney | And 11 more authors.
Diabetologia | Year: 2010

This article presents the conclusions of a WHO Expert Consultation that evaluated the utility of the 'metabolic syndrome' concept in relation to four key areas: pathophysiology, epidemiology, clinical work and public health. The metabolic syndrome is a concept that focuses attention on complex multifactorial health problems. While it may be considered useful as an educational concept, it has limited practical utility as a diagnostic or management tool. Further efforts to redefine it are inappropriate in the light of current knowledge and understanding, and there is limited utility in epidemiological studies in which different definitions of the metabolic syndrome are compared. Metabolic syndrome is a pre-morbid condition rather than a clinical diagnosis, and should thus exclude individuals with established diabetes or known cardiovascular disease (CVD). Future research should focus on: (1) further elucidation of common metabolic pathways underlying the development of diabetes and CVD, including those clustering within the metabolic syndrome; (2) early-life determinants of metabolic risk; (3) developing and evaluating context-specific strategies for identifying and reducing CVD and diabetes risk, based on available resources; and (4) developing and evaluating population-based prevention strategies. © 2009 World Health Organization, 2009. Published by Springer-Verlag GmbH Berlin, Heidelberg, 2009. All Rights Reserved.


Grant
Agency: Cordis | Branch: FP7 | Program: MC-IAPP | Phase: FP7-PEOPLE-2011-IAPP | Award Amount: 809.24K | Year: 2011

DiaBSmart project aims to generate, transfer and exchange the clinical, academic and production knowledge between the partners to create a new generation of diabetic footwear through a newly developed patient assessment system.The transfer of knowledge(TOK) between various sectors ensures that the need of patients is considered and transferred effectively to product development using a scientific approach.The objectives include:(1) the design and development of an integrated system of DIABetic foot assessment (2) to validate the newly developed system using experimental methods (3) to develop a suitable material to meet the mechanical and clinical requirements (4) to evaluate the mechanical and clinical effectiveness of material choice in reducing the potential risk of foot complications.The Numerical, Experimental and Mathematical Analyses system will integrate all aspects of diabetic footwear including; clinical and biomechanical assessment, material choice and aesthetic design.Proposed interdisciplinary, intersectorial approach is unique and brings together the expertise from research institutions, industry and clinics. TOK between these sectors will ensure the synergy and efficient use of information in patient assessment, monitoring, product development and customisation in an objective manner.This project while enhancing the knowledge base in diabetic assessment; will have a clear impact on new product development leading to both clinical and economic benefits. The products include a new generation of integrated SMART /multi material midsoles and/or orthoses for diabetic footwear.Properties of the materials will be optimised with a view to minimise/ redistribute the pressure and hence the stress on the soft tissue in the critical plantar areas of the foot.Whilst significantly affecting the course of the disease, the products will aim to reduce the risk of limb loss in patients with diabetes,the most frequent cause of non-traumatic lower-limb amputations.


PubMed | India Diabetes Research Foundation and Imperial College London
Type: Journal Article | Journal: BioFactors (Oxford, England) | Year: 2015

The association of retinol binding protein-4 (RBP4) with incident type 2 diabetes (T2DM) in Asian Indian middle-aged men with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) was studied. This was an ancillary analysis of a subsample from a cohort of participants with IGT in a 2 year prospective diabetes prevention program in India. For this analysis, 71 incident T2DM and 76 non-diabetic cases (non-progressors) based on the final glycemic outcome were selected. Baseline serum RBP4 was measured using competitive enzyme immunoassay. Correlations of RBP4 with relevant anthropometric and biochemical variables and also its association with diabetes were assessed using appropriate statistical analyses. Participants who developed T2DM had higher levels of serum RBP4 (21.3 [IQR: 17.7-24.9] g/mL) compared with non-progressors (17.3 [IQR: 13.1-21.0] g/mL; P = 0.001). Levels of RBP4 were lower than in Caucasians. Stepwise linear regression analysis showed that body mass index (BMI), systolic blood pressure, triglycerides, and HbA1c had independent associations with RBP4 levels. Multiple logistic regression analyses showed that RBP4 was independently associated with incident diabetes (odds ratio [OR] [95%confidence interval (CI)]: 1.69 [1.18-2.41]; P = 0.004). Adjustment for study group, age, BMI, waist circumference, 2 H plasma glucose, triglycerides, gamma glutamyl transferase, and insulin resistance weakened the significance of its association (OR [95%CI]: 1.65 [1.03-2.66]; P = 0.038).The results of this preliminary analyses showed that baseline serum RBP4 levels were independently associated with incident diabetes in Asian Indian men with IGT. It may be used as an additional predictor of future diabetes.

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