Time filter

Source Type

Barnard K.D.,University of Southampton | Lloyd C.E.,Open University Milton Keynes | Dyson P.A.,University of Oxford | Davies M.J.,University of Leicester | And 5 more authors.
Diabetic Medicine | Year: 2014

National Audit Data highlight persistent sub-optimum control among increasing numbers of people living with diabetes, with severe consequences for the individual and the NHS. The aim of the present review was to introduce a new cohesive, holistic model of care, tailored to individual needs to support optimum diabetes outcomes. This model of diabetes is necessary in order to understand the driving forces behind behaviour and their impact on diabetes management. Feelings (an emotional state or reaction) and beliefs (an acceptance that something is true or real) are fundamental behavioural drivers and influence diabetes self-management choices. Individually, these explain some of the complexities of behaviour and, collectively, they impact on personal motivation (rationale/desire to act) to achieve a specific outcome. Inevitably, they independently affect diabetes self-management and the environment in which individuals live. A model of care that proposes the encompassing of environment, intrinsic thought and therapy regimens to provide tailored, personalized healthcare should support enhanced diabetes self-management and outcomes from diagnosis. The Kaleidoscope model of care could be deliverable in routine care, incorporating each of the influences on diabetes self-management, and should benefit both individuals with diabetes and healthcare professionals. © 2014 The Authors. Diabetic Medicine © 2014 Diabetes UK.


Ziegler R.,Diabetes Clinic for Children and Adolescents | Cavan D.A.,Royal Bournemouth Hospital | Cranston I.,Queen Alexandra Hospital | Barnard K.,University of Southampton | And 8 more authors.
Diabetes Care | Year: 2013

OBJECTIVE-Use of automated bolus advisors is associated with improved glycemic control in patients treatedwith insulin pump therapy.We conducted a study to assess the impact of using an insulin bolus advisor embedded in a blood glucose (BG) meter on glycemic control and treatment satisfaction in patients treated with multiple daily insulin injection (MDI) therapy. The study goal was to achieve >0.5% A1C reduction in most patients. RESEARCHDESIGN AND METHODS-This was a 26-week, prospective, randomized, controlled, multinational study that enrolled 218 MDI-treated patients with poorly controlled diabetes (202 with type 1 diabetes, 16 with type 2 diabetes) who were 18 years of age or older. Participants had mean baseline A1C of 8.9% (SD, 1.2 [74 mmol/mol]), mean age of 42.4 years (SD, 14.0), mean BMI of 26.5 kg/m2 (SD, 4.2), and mean diabetes duration of 17.7 years (SD, 11.1). Control group (CNL) patients used a standard BG meter and manual bolus calculation; intervention group (EXP) patients used the Accu-Chek Aviva Expert meter with an integrated bolus advisor to calculate insulin dosages. Glucose data were downloaded and used for therapy parameter adjustments in both groups. RESULTS-A total of 193 patients (CNL, n = 93; EXP, n=100) completedthe study.Significantly more EXP than CNL patients achieved >0.5% A1C reduction (56.0% vs. 34.4%; P < 0.01). Improvement in treatment satisfaction (Diabetes Treatment Satisfaction Questionnaire scale) was significantly greater in EXP patients (11.4 [SD, 6.0] vs. 9.0 [SD, 6.3]; P < 0.01). Percentage of BG values <50 mg/dL was <2% in both groups during the study. CONCLUSIONS-Use of an automated bolus advisor resulted in improved glycemic control and treatment satisfaction without increasing severe hypoglycemia. © 2013 by the American Diabetes Association.


Cavan D.A.,Bournemouth Diabetes and Endocrine Center | Ziegler R.,Diabetes Clinic for Children and Adolescents | Cranston I.,Queen Alexandra Hospital | Barnard K.,University of Southampton | And 8 more authors.
Diabetes Technology and Therapeutics | Year: 2014

Background: We assessed the impact of using an automated bolus advisor integrated into a blood glucose meter on the timing and frequency of adjusting insulin therapy parameter settings and whether the availability of this technology would increase blood glucose test strip utilization in diabetes patients treated with multiple daily insulin injection (MDI) therapy. Subjects and Methods: The Automated Bolus Advisor Control and Usability Study (ABACUS) trial, a 26-week, prospective, randomized, controlled, multinational study that enrolled 218 type 1 and type 2 diabetes patients, demonstrated that use of an automated insulin bolus advisor helps improve glycemic control in suboptimally controlled, MDI-treated patients. Patient data were assessed to determine when and how often changes in insulin parameter settings occurred during the study. Patient meters were downloaded to determine blood glucose monitoring frequency. Results: One hundred ninety-three patients completed the study: 93 control arm (CNL) and 100 intervention (experimental) arm (EXP). Significantly more EXP (47.5%) than CNL (30.7%) patients received one or more changes in their insulin sensitivity factor (ISF) settings during the study (P=0.0191). Changes in ISF settings occurred earlier and more frequently in EXP than CNL patients throughout the study. A similar trend was seen in changes in insulin-to-carbohydrate ratios. There were no differences in daily self-monitoring of blood glucose frequency [mean (SD)] between CNL and EXP patients: 4.7 (1.5) versus 4.6 (1.3) (P=0.4085). Conclusions: Use of an automated bolus advisor was associated with earlier, more frequent changes in key insulin parameters, which may have contributed to subsequent improvements in glycemic control but without increased glucose test strip utilization. © Mary Ann Liebert, Inc.


Cavan D.A.,Royal Bournemouth Hospital | Ziegler R.,Diabetes Clinic for Children and Adolescents | Cranston I.,Queen Alexandra Hospital | Barnard K.,University of Southampton | And 7 more authors.
BMC Family Practice | Year: 2012

Background: People with T1DM and insulin-treated T2DM often do not follow and/or adjust their insulin regimens as needed. Key contributors to treatment non-adherence are fear of hypoglycaemia, difficulty and lack of self-efficacy associated with insulin dose determination. Because manual calculation of insulin boluses is both complex and time consuming, people may rely on empirical estimates, which can result in persistent hypoglycaemia and/or hyperglycaemia. Use of automated bolus advisors (BA) has been shown to help insulin pump users to more accurately meet prandial insulin dosage requirements, improve postprandial glycaemic excursions, and achieve optimal glycaemic control with an increased time within optimal range. Use of a BA containing an early algorithm based on sliding scales for insulin dosing has also been shown to improve HbA1c levels in people treated with multiple daily insulin injections (MDI). We designed a study to determine if use of an automated BA can improve clinical and psychosocial outcomes in people treated with MDI. Methods/design. The Automated Bolus Advisor Control and Usability Study (ABACUS) is a 6-month, prospective, randomised, multi-centre, multi-national trial to determine if automated BA use improves glycaemic control as measured by a change in HbA1c in people using MDI with elevated HbA1c levels (>7.5%). A total of 226 T1DM and T2DM participants will be recruited. Anticipated attrition of 20% will yield a sample size of 90 participants, which will provide >80% power to detect a mean difference of 0.5%, with SD of 0.9%, using a one-sided 5% t-test, with 5% significance level. Other measures of glycaemic control, self-care behaviours and psychosocial issues will also be assessed. Discussion. It is critical that healthcare providers utilise available technologies that both facilitate effective glucose management and address concerns about safety and lifestyle. Automated BAs may help people using MDI to manage their diabetes more effectively and minimise the risk of long-term diabetes related complications. Findings from a recent study suggest that BA use positively addresses both safety and lifestyle concerns; however, randomised trials are needed to confirm these perceptions and determine whether bolus advisor use improves clinical outcomes. Our study is designed to make these assessments. Trial registration. NCT01460446. © 2012 Cavan et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.


PubMed | CGParkin Communications Inc., BioStat International Inc., Roche Holding AG and Diabetes Clinic for Children and Adolescents
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Pediatric diabetes | Year: 2016

The relationship between frequency and sustained bolus advisor (BA) use and glycemic improvement has not been well characterized in pediatric populations.The objective of this study is to assess the impact of frequent and persistent BA use on glycemic control among pediatric type 1 diabetes patients.In this 6-month, single-center, retrospective cohort study, 104 children [61 girls, mean age: 12.7 yr, mean HbA1c 8.0 (1.6)% [64 (17.5) mmol/mol]], treated with the Accu-Chek Aviva Combo insulin pump, were observed. Frequency of BA use, HbA1c, hypoglycemia (<70 mg/dL), therapy changes, mean blood glucose, and glycemic variability (standard deviation) was assessed at baseline and month 6. Sub-analyses of the adolescent patient use (12 months) and longitudinal use (24 months) were also conducted.Seventy-one patients reported high frequency (HF) device use (50%); 33 reported low frequency (LF) use (<50%) during the study. HF users achieved lower mean (SE) HbA1c levels than LF users: 7.5 (0.1)% [59 (1.1) mmol/mol] vs. 8.0 (0.2)% [64 (2.2) mmol/mol], p = 0.0252. No between-group differences in the percentage of hypoglycemia values were seen at 6 months. HF users showed less glycemic variability (84.0 vs. 94.7, p = 0.0045) than LF users. More HF patients reached HbA1c target of <7.5 at 6 months 66.2% (+16.9) vs. 27.3% (-9.1), p = 0.0056. Similar HbA1c results were seen in adolescents and BA users at 24 months.Frequent use of the Accu-Chek Aviva Combo insulin pump BA feature was associated with improved and sustained glycemic control with no increase in hypoglycemia in this pediatric population.


Pfutzner A.,PFUTZNER Science and Health Institute | Weissmann J.,Roche Holding AG | Mougiakakou S.,University of Bern | Daskalaki E.,University of Bern | And 2 more authors.
Diabetes Technology and Therapeutics | Year: 2015

Introduction: The ProAct study has shown that a pump switch to the Accu-Chek® Combo system (Roche Diagnostics Deutschland GmbH, Mannheim, Germany) in type 1 diabetes patients results in stable glycemic control with significant improvements in glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) in patients with unsatisfactory baseline HbA1c and shorter pump usage time. Patients and Methods: In this post hoc analysis of the ProAct database, we investigated the glycemic control and glycemic variability at baseline by determination of several established parameters and scores (HbA1c, hypoglycemia frequency, J-score, Hypoglycemia and Hyperglycemia Indexes, and Index of Glycemic Control) in participants with different daily bolus and blood glucose measurement frequencies (less than four day, four or five per day, and more than five per day, in both cases). The data were derived from up to 299 patients (172 females, 127 males; age [mean±SD], 39.4±15.2 years; pump treatment duration, 7.0±5.2 years). Results: Participants with frequent glucose readings had better glycemic control than those with few readings (more than five readings per day vs. less than four readings per day: HbA1c, 7.2±1.1% vs. 8.0±0.9%; mean daily blood glucose, 151±22? mg/dL vs. 176±30? mg/dL; percentage of readings per month >300? mg/dL, 10±4% vs. 14±5%; percentage of readings in target range [80-180? mg/dL], 59% vs. 48% [P<0.05 in all cases]) and had a lower glycemic variability (J-score, 49±13 vs. 71±25 [P<0.05]; Hyperglycemia Index, 0.9±0.5 vs. 1.9±1.2 [P<0.05]; Index of Glycemic Control, 1.9±0.8 vs. 3.1±1.6 [P<0.05]; Hypoglycemia Index, 0.9±0.8 vs. 1.2±1.3 [not significant]). Frequent self-monitoring of blood glucose was associated with a higher number of bolus applications (6.1±2.2 boluses/day vs. 4.5±2.0 boluses/day [P<0.05]). Therefore, a similar but less pronounced effect on glycemic variability in favor of more daily bolus applications was observed (more than five vs. less than four bolues per day: J-score, 57±17 vs. 63±25 [not significant]; Hypoglycemia Index, 1.0±1.0 vs. 1.5±1.4 [P<0.05]; Hyperglycemia Index, 1.3±0.6 vs. 1.6±1.1 [not significant]; Index of Glycemic Control, 2.3±1.1 vs. 3.1±1.7 [P<0.05]). Conclusions: Pump users who perform frequent daily glucose readings have a better glycemic control with lower glycemic variability. © 2015, Mary Ann Liebert, Inc.


Ziegler R.,Diabetes Clinic for Children and Adolescents | Tubili C.,Hospital S Camillo Forlanini | Chico A.,Hospital Santa Creu i Sant Pau | Guerci B.,Hospital Brabois | And 6 more authors.
Diabetes Technology and Therapeutics | Year: 2013

Background: Continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (CSII) patients experience switches of pump systems on a regular basis. We investigated the impact of transition from older pumps to the Accu-Chek® Combo system (Roche Diagnostics Deutschland GmbH, Mannheim, Germany) on a patient's glycemic control and diabetes management. Patients and Methods: In total, 299 patients (172 female, 127 male; mean±SD age, 39.4±15.2 years; CSII duration, 7.0±5.2 years) were enrolled by 61 European sites into this uncontrolled prospective trial. Glycemic control, safety, and diabetes management parameters were measured at baseline and after 3 and 6 months. Changes from baseline were analyzed. Results: After transition to the new insulin pump, mean±SD hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) values decreased from 7.8±1.1% (baseline) to 7.7±1.1% (end point). The proportion of patients with HbA1c <7.0% was slightly higher at the end of the study (29.6%) than at baseline (25.2%), whereas the proportion of patients with HbA1c >8.0% decreased (baseline, 36.2%; end point, 32.7%; P<0.05). The number of hypoglycemic episodes (blood glucose<70 mg/dL) improved slightly during the study (baseline, 40.4±34.0 events/quarter; end point, 39.2±33.9 events/quarter). Glycemic control improved significantly in the group with an initial HbA1c >8.0% (-0.46%; P<0.001) and remained solidly stable in the group with an initial HbA1c <7% (+0.04%; not significant). Short-Term (<3 years) pump users (n=48) had a larger HbA1c decrease (-0.40%) than long-Term (≥3 years) users (n=251) (-0.07%; P<0.05). The number of blood glucose measurements increased (3.7±1.9/day vs. 4.4±1.8/day; P<0.05), whereas the number of insulin boluses decreased (5.1±1.9/day vs. 4.6±1.5/day; P<0.05) during the study. Conclusions: Transition from older pump systems to the Accu-Chek Combo system in a large patient population resulted in stable glycemic control with significant improvements in HbA1c in patients with unsatisfactory baseline HbA1c and shorter pump use. Increased frequency of self-monitoring of blood glucose and decrease of bolus frequency could suggest a more confident diabetes management and a reduced need for correction boluses. © Copyright 2013, Mary Ann Liebert, Inc. 2013.


PubMed | Science & Co, Diabetes Clinic for Children and Adolescents and University of Ulm
Type: | Journal: Journal of diabetes science and technology | Year: 2016

Giving a bolus is one major part in multiple dose insulin therapy (MDI) along with basal insulin substitution. To adjust the bolus optimally, different factors like carbohydrate content and composition of the meal, correction factors, and timing have to be considered. Advances in technologies like bolus advisors can assist the patients but still there a several open questions and technical challenges regarding boluses. This commentary provides an opportunity to address several of the above-mentioned factors influencing the result of bolusing. It shall draw attention to those factors and address the current opportunities, for example, continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (CSII), as well as the need for further studies which can help to improve diabetes insulin therapy by means of the correct use of boluses.


PubMed | Econ Epi, Hamburg University of Applied Sciences, Johnson & Johnson and Diabetes Clinic for Children and Adolescents
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Journal of diabetes science and technology | Year: 2016

Most patients with type 1 diabetes (T1D) administer insulin by multiple daily injections (MDI). However, continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (CSII) therapy has been shown to improve glycemic control compared with MDI.The objective was to determine the key medical event and cost offsets generated over a 4-year period by introducing CSII to T1D patients who have inadequately controlled glucose metabolism on MDI in Germany.A decision-analytic budget impact model, simulating a treatment switch scenario, was developed. In the base case, all T1D patients received MDI, while in the switch scenario, 20% of the eligible T1D population, randomly selected, moved to CSII. The model focused on 2 medical endpoints and their corresponding cost offsets: severe hypoglycemic events requiring hospitalization (SHEH) and complication-borne diabetic events (CDEs) avoided. Event rates and costs were taken from the literature and official sources, adopting a health insurance perspective.Compared with the base case, treating 20% of patients with CSII in the switch scenario resulted in 47864 fewer SHEH and 5543 fewer CDEs. This led to total cost offsets of 183085281 within the 4-year time horizon. Of these, 92% were driven by avoided SHEH. Compared to an expected budget impact (cost increase) of 83%, only treatment costs considered, the total impact of the switch scenario amounted merely to a 24.5% increase in costs (reduction by 58.5% points; a factor of 3.4).The use of CSII resulted in fewer SHEH and CDEs compared to MDI. The incurred CSII implementation costs are hence offset to a substantial degree by cost savings in complication treatment.


PubMed | Diabetes Clinic for Children and Adolescents
Type: Clinical Trial | Journal: Diabetes technology & therapeutics | Year: 2013

Continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (CSII) patients experience switches of pump systems on a regular basis. We investigated the impact of transition from older pumps to the Accu-Chek() Combo system (Roche Diagnostics Deutschland GmbH, Mannheim, Germany) on a patients glycemic control and diabetes management.In total, 299 patients (172 female, 127 male; meanSD age, 39.415.2 years; CSII duration, 7.05.2 years) were enrolled by 61 European sites into this uncontrolled prospective trial. Glycemic control, safety, and diabetes management parameters were measured at baseline and after 3 and 6 months. Changes from baseline were analyzed.After transition to the new insulin pump, meanSD hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) values decreased from 7.81.1% (baseline) to 7.71.1% (end point). The proportion of patients with HbA1c <7.0% was slightly higher at the end of the study (29.6%) than at baseline (25.2%), whereas the proportion of patients with HbA1c >8.0% decreased (baseline, 36.2%; end point, 32.7%; P<0.05). The number of hypoglycemic episodes (blood glucose<70mg/dL) improved slightly during the study (baseline, 40.434.0 events/quarter; end point, 39.233.9 events/quarter). Glycemic control improved significantly in the group with an initial HbA1c >8.0% (-0.46%; P<0.001) and remained solidly stable in the group with an initial HbA1c <7% (+0.04%; not significant). Short-term (<3 years) pump users (n=48) had a larger HbA1c decrease (-0.40%) than long-term (3 years) users (n=251) (-0.07%; P<0.05). The number of blood glucose measurements increased (3.71.9/day vs. 4.41.8/day; P<0.05), whereas the number of insulin boluses decreased (5.11.9/day vs. 4.61.5/day; P<0.05) during the study.Transition from older pump systems to the Accu-Chek Combo system in a large patient population resulted in stable glycemic control with significant improvements in HbA1c in patients with unsatisfactory baseline HbA1c and shorter pump use. Increased frequency of self-monitoring of blood glucose and decrease of bolus frequency could suggest a more confident diabetes management and a reduced need for correction boluses.

Loading Diabetes Clinic for Children and Adolescents collaborators
Loading Diabetes Clinic for Children and Adolescents collaborators