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Garcia-Ruiz C.,Institute of Biomedical Research of Barcelona IIBB | Baulies A.,Institute of Biomedical Research of Barcelona IIBB | Mari M.,Institute of Biomedical Research of Barcelona IIBB | Garcia-Roves P.M.,Diabetes and Obesity Laboratory | And 2 more authors.
Free Radical Research

Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is considered the hepatic manifestation of the metabolic syndrome and refers to a spectrum of disorders ranging from steatosis to steatohepatitis, a disease stage characterized by inflammation, fibrosis, cell death and insulin resistance (IR). Due to its association with obesity and IR the impact of NAFLD is growing worldwide. Consistent with the role of mitochondria in fatty acid (FA) metabolism, impaired mitochondrial function is thought to contribute to NAFLD and IR. Indeed, mitochondrial dysfunction and impaired mitochondrial respiratory chain have been described in patients with non-alcoholic steatohepatitis and skeletal muscle of obese patients. However, recent data have provided evidence that pharmacological and genetic models of mitochondrial impairment with reduced electron transport stimulate insulin sensitivity and protect against diet-induced obesity, hepatosteatosis and IR. These beneficial metabolic effects of impaired mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation may be related not only to the reduction of reactive oxygen species production that regulate insulin signaling but also to decreased mitochondrial FA overload that generate specific metabolites derived from incomplete FA oxidation (FAO) in the TCA cycle. In line with the Randle cycle, reduced mitochondrial FAO rates may alleviate the repression on glucose metabolism in obesity. In addition, the redox paradox in insulin signaling and the delicate mitochondrial antioxidant balance in steatohepatitis add another level of complexity to the role of mitochondria in NAFLD and IR. Thus, better understanding the role of mitochondria in FA metabolism and glucose homeostasis may provide novel strategies for the treatment of NAFLD and IR. © 2013 Informa UK, Ltd. Source

Pihlajamaki J.,Harvard University | Pihlajamaki J.,University of Eastern Finland | Lerin C.,Harvard University | Lerin C.,Diabetes and Obesity Laboratory | And 23 more authors.
Cell Metabolism

Alternative mRNA splicing provides transcript diversity and may contribute to human disease. We demonstrate that expression of several genes regulating RNA processing is decreased in both liver and skeletal muscle of obese humans. We evaluated a representative splicing factor, SFRS10, downregulated in both obese human liver and muscle and in high-fat-fed mice, and determined metabolic impact of reduced expression. SFRS10-specific siRNA induces lipogenesis and lipid accumulation in hepatocytes. Moreover, Sfrs10 heterozygous mice have increased hepatic lipogenic gene expression, VLDL secretion, and plasma triglycerides. We demonstrate that LPIN1, a key regulator of lipid metabolism, is a splicing target of SFRS10; reduced SFRS10 favors the lipogenic β isoform of LPIN1. Importantly, LPIN1β-specific siRNA abolished lipogenic effects of decreased SFRS10 expression. Together, our results indicate that reduced expression of SFRS10, as observed in tissues from obese humans, alters LPIN1 splicing, induces lipogenesis, and therefore contributes to metabolic phenotypes associated with obesity. © 2011 Elsevier Inc. Source

Teodoro B.G.,University of Sao Paulo | Teodoro B.G.,Federal University of Sao Paulo | Baraldi F.G.,University of Sao Paulo | Sampaio I.H.,University of Sao Paulo | And 15 more authors.
Journal of Pineal Research

Melatonin has a number of beneficial metabolic actions and reduced levels of melatonin may contribute to type 2 diabetes. The present study investigated the metabolic pathways involved in the effects of melatonin on mitochondrial function and insulin resistance in rat skeletal muscle. The effect of melatonin was tested both in vitro in isolated rats skeletal muscle cells and in vivo using pinealectomized rats (PNX). Insulin resistance was induced in vitro by treating primary rat skeletal muscle cells with palmitic acid for 24 hr. Insulin-stimulated glucose uptake was reduced by palmitic acid followed by decreased phosphorylation of AKT which was prevented my melatonin. Palmitic acid reduced mitochondrial respiration, genes involved in mitochondrial biogenesis and the levels of tricarboxylic acid cycle intermediates whereas melatonin counteracted all these parameters in insulin-resistant cells. Melatonin treatment increases CAMKII and p-CREB but had no effect on p-AMPK. Silencing of CREB protein by siRNA reduced mitochondrial respiration mimicking the effect of palmitic acid and prevented melatonin-induced increase in p-AKT in palmitic acid-treated cells. PNX rats exhibited mild glucose intolerance, decreased energy expenditure and decreased p-AKT, mitochondrial respiration, and p-CREB and PGC-1 alpha levels in skeletal muscle which were restored by melatonin treatment in PNX rats. In summary, we showed that melatonin could prevent mitochondrial dysfunction and insulin resistance via activation of CREB-PGC-1 alpha pathway. Thus, the present work shows that melatonin play an important role in skeletal muscle mitochondrial function which could explain some of the beneficial effects of melatonin in insulin resistance states. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. Source

Fucho R.,IIBB CSIC | Fucho R.,CIBER ISCIII | Martinez L.,IIBB CSIC | Martinez L.,CIBER ISCIII | And 28 more authors.
Journal of Hepatology

Background & Aims: Acid sphingomyelinase (ASMase) is activated in non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). However, the contribution of ASMase to NASH is poorly understood and limited to hepatic steatosis and glucose metabolism. Here we examined the role of ASMase in high fat diet (HFD)-induced NASH. Methods: Autophagy, endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and lysosomal membrane permeabilization (LMP) were determined in ASMase-/- mice fed a HFD. The impact of pharmacological ASMase inhibition on NASH was analyzed in wild type mice fed a HFD. Results: ASMase deficiency determined resistance to hepatic steatosis mediated by a HFD or methionine-choline deficient diet. ASMase-/- mice were resistant to HFD-induced hepatic ER stress, but sensitive to tunicamycin-mediated ER stress, indicating selectivity in the resistance of ASMase-/- mice to ER stress and steatosis. Autophagic flux, determined in the presence of rapamycin and/or chloroquine, was lower in primary mouse hepatocytes (PMH) from ASMase-/- mice and accompanied by increased p62 levels, suggesting autophagic impairment. Moreover, autophagy suppression by chloroquine and brefeldin A caused ER stress in PMH from ASMase+/+ mice but not in ASMase-/- mice. ASMase-/- PMH exhibited increased lysosomal cholesterol loading, decreased LMP and apoptosis resistance induced by O-methyl-serine dodecylamide hydrochloride or palmitic acid, effects that were reversed by decreasing cholesterol levels by oxysterol 25-hydroxycholesterol. In vivo pharmacological ASMase inhibition by amitriptyline, a widely used tricyclic antidepressant, protected wild type mice against HFD-induced hepatic steatosis, fibrosis, and liver damage, effects indicative of early-stage NASH. Conclusions: These findings underscore a critical role for ASMase in diet-induced NASH and suggest the potential of amitriptyline as a treatment for patients with NASH. © 2014 European Association for the Study of the Liver. Source

Canivell S.,Hospital Clinic | Canivell S.,Les Corts Primary Health Care Center | Canivell S.,Diabetes and Obesity Laboratory | Ruano E.G.,Diabetes and Obesity Laboratory | And 13 more authors.

TCF7L2 is the susceptibility gene for Type 2 diabetes (T2D) with the largest effect on disease risk that has been discovered to date. However, the mechanisms by which TCF7L2 contributes to the disease remain largely elusive. In addition, epigenetic mechanisms, such as changes in DNA methylation patterns, might have a role in the pathophysiology of T2D. This study aimed to investigate the differences in terms of DNA methylation profile of TCF7L2 promoter gene between type 2 diabetic patients and age- and Body Mass Index (BMI)- matched controls. We included 93 type 2 diabetic patients that were recently diagnosed for T2D and exclusively on diet (without any pharmacological treatment). DNA was extracted from whole blood and DNA methylation was assessed using the Sequenom EpiTYPER system. Type 2 diabetic patients were more insulin resistant than their matched controls (mean HOMA IR 2.6 vs 1.8 in controls, P<0.001) and had a poorer beta-cell function (mean HOMA B 75.7 vs. 113.6 in controls, P<0.001). Results showed that 59% of the CpGs analyzed in TCF7L2 promoter had significant differences between type 2 diabetic patients and matched controls. In addition, fasting glucose, HOMA-B, HOMA-IR, total cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol correlated with methylation in specific CpG sites of TCF7L2 promoter. After adjustment by age, BMI, gender, physical inactivity, waist circumference, smoking status and diabetes status uniquely fasting glucose, total cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol remained significant. Taken together, newly diagnosed, drug-naïve type 2 diabetic patients display specific epigenetic changes at the TCF7L2 promoter as compared to age- and BMI-matched controls. Methylation in TCF7L2 promoter is further correlated with fasting glucose in peripheral blood DNA, which sheds new light on the role of epigenetic regulation of TCF7L2 in T2D. © 2014 Canivell et al. Source

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