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Malmegrim K.C.R.,University of Ribeirão Preto | Malmegrim K.C.R.,University of Sao Paulo | de Azevedo J.T.C.,University of Ribeirão Preto | de Azevedo J.T.C.,University of Sao Paulo | And 27 more authors.
Frontiers in Immunology | Year: 2017

Autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (AHSCT) increases C-peptide levels and induces insulin independence in patients with type 1 diabetes. This study aimed to investigate how clinical outcomes may associate with the immunological status, especially concerning the balance between immunoregulation and autoreactivity. Twenty-one type 1 diabetes patients were monitored after AHSCT and assessed every 6 months for duration of insulin independence, C-peptide levels, frequencies of islet-specific autoreactive CD8+ T cells (CTL), regulatory lymphocyte subsets, thymic function, and T-cell repertoire diversity. In median follow-up of 78 (range 15-106) months, all patients became insulin-independent, resuming insulin after median of 43 (range 6-100) months. Patients were retrospectively divided into short- or prolonged-remission groups, according to duration of insulin independence. For the entire follow-up, CD3+CD4+ T-cell numbers remained lower than baseline in both groups, whereas CD3+CD8+ T-cell levels did not change, resulting in a CD4/CD8 ratio inversion. Memory CTL comprehended most of T cells detected on long-term follow-up of patients after AHSCT. B cells reconstituted to baseline levels at 2-3 months post-AHSCT in both patient groups. In the prolonged-remission-group, baseline islet-specific T-cell autoreactivity persisted after transplantation, but regulatory T cell counts increased. Patients with lower frequencies of autoreactive islet-specific T cells remained insulin-free longer and presented greater C-peptide levels than those with lower frequencies of these cells. Therefore, immune monitoring identified a subgroup of patients with superior clinical outcome of AHSCT. Our study shows that improved immunoregulation may balance autoreactivity endorsing better metabolic outcomes in patients with lower frequencies of islet-specific T cells. Development of new strategies of AHSCT is necessary to increase frequency and function of T and B regulatory cells and decrease efficiently autoreactive islet-specific T and B memory cells in type 1 diabetes patients undergoing transplantation. © 2017 Malmegrim, de Azevedo, Arruda, Abreu, Couri, de Oliveira, Palma, Scortegagna, Stracieri, Moraes, Dias, Pieroni, Cunha, Guilherme, Santos, Foss, Covas, Burt, Simões, Voltarelli, Roep and Oliveira.

Cui Q.,Beckman Research Institute | Shi H.,Howard Hughes Medical Institute | Ye P.,Beckman Research Institute | Li L.,Beckman Research Institute | And 9 more authors.
Cell Reports | Year: 2017

RNA modifications play critical roles in important biological processes. However, the functions of N6-methyladenosine (m6A) mRNA modification in cancer biology and cancer stem cells remain largely unknown. Here, we show that m6A mRNA modification is critical for glioblastoma stem cell (GSC) self-renewal and tumorigenesis. Knockdown of METTL3 or METTL14, key components of the RNA methyltransferase complex, dramatically promotes human GSC growth, self-renewal, and tumorigenesis. In contrast, overexpression of METTL3 or inhibition of the RNA demethylase FTO suppresses GSC growth and self-renewal. Moreover, inhibition of FTO suppresses tumor progression and prolongs lifespan of GSC-grafted mice substantially. m6A sequencing reveals that knockdown of METTL3 or METTL14 induced changes in mRNA m6A enrichment and altered mRNA expression of genes (e.g., ADAM19) with critical biological functions in GSCs. In summary, this study identifies the m6A mRNA methylation machinery as promising therapeutic targets for glioblastoma. © 2017 The Authors

Ghazalli N.,Diabetes and Metabolism Research Institute at City of Hope | Mahdavi A.,California Institute of Technology | Feng T.,Diabetes and Metabolism Research Institute at City of Hope | Jin L.,Diabetes and Metabolism Research Institute at City of Hope | And 5 more authors.
Stem Cells and Development | Year: 2015

Postnatal pancreas is a potential source for progenitor cells to generate endocrine β-cells for treating type 1 diabetes. However, it remains unclear whether young (1-week-old) pancreas harbors multipotent progenitors capable of differentiating into duct, acinar, and endocrine cells. Laminin is an extracellular matrix (ECM) protein important for β-cells' survival and function. We established an artificial extracellular matrix (aECM) protein that contains the functional IKVAV (Ile-Lys-Val-Ala-Val) sequence derived from laminin (designated aECM-lam). Whether IKVAV is necessary for endocrine differentiation in vitro is unknown. To answer these questions, we cultured single cells from 1-week-old pancreas in semi-solid media supplemented with aECM-lam, aECM-scr (which contains a scrambled sequence instead of IKVAV), or Matrigel. We found that colonies were generated in all materials. Individual colonies were examined by microfluidic reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, immunostaining, and electron microscopy analyses. The majority of the colonies expressed markers for endocrine, acinar, and ductal lineages, demonstrating tri-lineage potential of individual colony-forming progenitors. Colonies grown in aECM-lam expressed higher levels of endocrine markers Insulin1, Insulin2, and Glucagon compared with those grown in aECM-scr and Matrigel, indicating that the IKVAV sequence enhances endocrine differentiation. In contrast, Matrigel was inhibitory for endocrine gene expression. Colonies grown in aECM-lam displayed the hallmarks of functional β-cells: mature insulin granules and glucose-stimulated insulin secretion. Colony-forming progenitors were enriched in the CD133high fraction and among 230 micro-manipulated single CD133high cells, four gave rise to colonies that expressed tri-lineage markers. We conclude that young postnatal pancreas contains multipotent progenitor cells and that aECM-lam promotes differentiation of β-like cells in vitro. © Copyright 2015, Mary Ann Liebert, Inc. 2015.

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