Diabetes and Metabolic Diseases

Sotteville-lès-Rouen, France

Diabetes and Metabolic Diseases

Sotteville-lès-Rouen, France
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News Article | May 2, 2017
Site: www.eurekalert.org

The National Academy of Sciences announced today the election of 84 new members and 21 foreign associates in recognition of their distinguished and continuing achievements in original research. The National Academy of Sciences announced today the election of 84 new members and 21 foreign associates in recognition of their distinguished and continuing achievements in original research. Those elected today bring the total number of active members to 2,290 and the total number of foreign associates to 475. Foreign associates are nonvoting members of the Academy, with citizenship outside the United States. Newly elected members and their affiliations at the time of election are: Bates, Frank S.; Regents Professor, department of chemical engineering and materials science, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis Beilinson, Alexander; David and Mary Winton Green University Professor, department of mathematics, The University of Chicago, Chicago Bell, Stephen P.; investigator, Howard Hughes Medical Institute; and professor of biology, department of biology, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge Bhatia, Sangeeta N.; John J. (1929) and Dorothy Wilson Professor, Institute for Medical Engineering and Science, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge Buzsáki, György; professor, Neuroscience Institute, departments of physiology and neuroscience, New York University Langone Medical Center, New York City Carroll, Dana; distinguished professor, department of biochemistry, University of Utah School of Medicine, Salt Lake City Cohen, Judith G.; Kate Van Nuys Page Professor of Astronomy, department of astronomy, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena Crabtree, Robert H.; Conkey P. Whitehead Professor of Chemistry, department of chemistry, Yale University, New Haven, Conn. Cronan, John E.; professor and head of microbiology, professor of biochemistry, and Microbiology Alumni Professor, department of microbiology, University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign Cummins, Christopher C.; Henry Dreyfus Professor of Chemistry, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge Darensbourg, Marcetta Y.; distinguished professor of chemistry, department of chemistry, Texas A&M University, College Station DeVore, Ronald A.; The Walter E. Koss Professor and distinguished professor, department of mathematics, Texas A&M University, College Station Diamond, Douglas W.; Merton H. Miller Distinguished Service Professor of Finance, The University of Chicago, Chicago Doe, Chris Q.; investigator, Howard Hughes Medical Institute; and professor of biology, Institute of Molecular Biology, University of Oregon, Eugene Duflo, Esther; Co-founder and co-Director of the Abdul Latif Jameel Poverty Action Lab, and Professor of Poverty Alleviation and Development Economics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge Edwards, Robert Haas; professor of neurology and physiology, University of California, San Francisco Firestone, Mary K.; professor and associate dean of instruction and student affairs, department of environmental science policy and management, University of California, Berkeley Fischhoff, Baruch; Howard Heinz University Professor, department of social and decision sciences and department of engineering and public policy, Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh Ginty, David D.; investigator, Howard Hughes Medical Institute; and Edward R. and Anne G. Lefler Professor of Neurobiology, department of neurobiology, Harvard Medical School, Boston Glass, Christopher K.; professor of cellular and molecular medicine and professor of medicine, University of California, San Diego Goldman, Yale E.; professor, department of physiology, Pennsylvania Muscle Institute, University of Pennsylvania Perelman School of Medicine, Philadelphia González, Gabriela; spokesperson, LIGO Scientific Collaboration; and professor, department of physics and astronomy, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge Hagan, John L.; John D. MacArthur Professor of Sociology and Law, department of sociology, Northwestern University, Evanston, Ill. Hatten, Mary E.; Frederick P. Rose Professor, laboratory of developmental neurobiology, The Rockefeller University, New York City Hebard, Arthur F.; distinguished professor of physics, department of physics, University of Florida, Gainesville Jensen, Klavs F.; Warren K. Lewis Professor of Chemical Engineering and professor of materials science and engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge Kahn, Barbara B.; vice chair for research strategy and George R. Minot Professor of Medicine at Harvard Medical School, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Boston Kinder, Donald R.; Philip E. Converse Collegiate Professor of Political Science and Psychology and research scientist, department of political science, Center for Political Studies, Institute for Social Research, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor Lazar, Mitchell A.; Willard and Rhoda Ware Professor in Diabetes and Metabolic Diseases, and director, Institute for Diabetes, Obesity, and Metabolism, University of Pennsylvania Perelman School of Medicine, Philadelphia Locksley, Richard M.; investigator, Howard Hughes Medical Institute; and professor, department of medicine (infectious diseases), and Marion and Herbert Sandler Distinguished Professorship in Asthma Research, University of California, San Francisco Lozano, Guillermina; professor and chair, department of genetics, The University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston Mavalvala, Nergis; Curtis and Kathleen Marble Professor of Astrophysics and associate head, department of physics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge Moore, Jeffrey Scott; Murchison-Mallory Professor of Chemistry, department of chemistry, University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign Moore, Melissa J.; chief scientific officer, mRNA Research Platform, Moderna Therapeutics, Cambridge, Mass.; and Eleanor Eustis Farrington Chair of Cancer Research Professor, RNA Therapeutics Institute, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester Nunnari, Jodi M.; professor, department of molecular and cellular biology, University of California, Davis O'Farrell, Patrick H.; professor of biochemistry and biophysics, department of biochemistry and biophysics, University of California, San Francisco Ort, Donald R.; research leader and Robert Emerson Professor, USDA/ARS Global Change and Photosynthesis Research Unit, departments of plant biology and crop sciences, University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign Parker, Gary; professor, department of civil and environmental engineering and department of geology, University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign Patapoutian, Ardem; investigator, Howard Hughes Medical Institute; and professor, department of molecular and cellular neuroscience, The Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, Calif. Pellegrini, Claudio; distinguished professor emeritus, department of physics and astronomy, University of California, Los Angeles Pikaard, Craig, S.; investigator, Howard Hughes Medical Institute and Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation; and distinguished professor of biology and molecular and cellular biochemistry, department of biology, Indiana University, Bloomington Read, Nicholas; Henry Ford II Professor of Physics and professor of applied physics and mathematics, Yale University, New Haven, Conn. Roediger, Henry L.; James S. McDonnell Distinguished and University Professor of Psychology, department of psychology and brain sciences, Washington University, St. Louis Rosenzweig, Amy C.; Weinberg Family Distinguished Professor of Life Sciences, and professor, departments of molecular biosciences and of chemistry, Northwestern University, Evanston, Ill. Seto, Karen C.; professor, Yale School of Forestry and Environmental Studies, New Haven, Conn. Seyfarth, Robert M.; professor of psychology and member of the graduate groups in anthropology and biology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia Sibley, L. David; Alan A. and Edith L. Wolff Distinguished Professor in Molecular Microbiology, department of molecular microbiology, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis Spielman, Daniel A.; Henry Ford II Professor of Computer Science and Mathematics, departments of computer science and mathematics, Yale University, New Haven, Conn. Sudan, Madhu; Gordon McKay Professor of Computer Science, John A. Paulson School of Engineering and Applied Sciences, Harvard University, Cambridge, Mass. Tishkoff, Sarah; David and Lyn Silfen University Professor, departments of genetics and biology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia Van Essen, David C.; Alumni Professor of Neurobiology, department of anatomy and neurobiology, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis Vidale, John E.; professor, department of earth and space sciences, University of Washington, Seattle Wennberg, Paul O.; R. Stanton Avery Professor of Atmospheric Chemistry and Environmental Science and Engineering, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena Wilson, Rachel I.; Martin Family Professor of Basic Research in the Field of Neurobiology, department of neurobiology, Harvard Medical School, Boston Zachos, James C.; professor, department of earth and planetary sciences, University of California, Santa Cruz, Santa Cruz Newly elected foreign associates, their affiliations at the time of election, and their country of citizenship are: Addadi, Lia; professor and Dorothy and Patrick E. Gorman Chair of Biological Ultrastructure, department of structural science, Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot, Israel (Israel/Italy) Folke, Carl; director and professor, The Beijer Institute of Ecological Economics, Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Stockholm, Sweden (Sweden) Freeman, Kenneth C.; Duffield Professor of Astronomy, Mount Stromlo and Siding Spring Observatories, Research School of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Australian National University, Weston Creek (Australia) Lee, Sang Yup; distinguished professor, dean, and director, department of chemical and biomolecular engineering, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon, South Korea (South Korea) Levitzki, Alexander; professor of biochemistry, unit of cellular signaling, department of biological chemistry, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Jerusalem (Israel) Peiris, Joseph Sriyal Malik; Tam Wah-Ching Professorship in Medical Science, School of Public Health, The University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam, Hong Kong, People's Republic of China (Sri Lanka) Robinson, Carol Vivien; Dr. Lee's Professor of Chemistry, Physical and Theoretical Chemistry Laboratory, University of Oxford, Oxford, England (United Kingdom) Thesleff, Irma; academician of science, professor, and research director, developmental biology program, Institute of Biotechnology, University of Helsinki, Helsinki (Finland) Underdal, Arild; professor of political science, department of political science, University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway (Norway) The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit institution that was established under a congressional charter signed by President Abraham Lincoln in 1863. It recognizes achievement in science by election to membership, and -- with the National Academy of Engineering and the National Academy of Medicine -- provides science, engineering, and health policy advice to the federal government and other organizations.

Savona-Ventura C.,University of Malta | Vassallo J.,University of Malta | Craus J.,University of Malta | Anastasiou E.,Alexandra General Hospital 1st Endocrine Center Diabetes Center | And 6 more authors.
Journal of Perinatal Medicine | Year: 2016

The interplay of various nutrients provided to the developing foetus determines the growth potential of the conceptus. This study assessed the inter-relationship between these nutrients in a Mediterranean population including 1062 pregnant, previously non-diabetic women. These underwent an oral glucose tolerance test (oGTT) and were accordingly classified into gestational hyperglycaemic and normoglycaemic groups. Fasting insulin, HbA1c, and lipid profiles were further assessed, and the anthropomorphic characteristics of the mother and child at birth were measured. Lipid profiles were compared between the two groups and related to the biological characteristics of the mother and child at birth. Gestational hyperglycaemia was significantly associated with elevated triglycerides (P<0.0001) and decreased low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) (P=0.02). There were no significant changes in total cholesterol and high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) levels. Maternal BMI correlated positively with the various glycaemic indices (P<0.0001) and triglycerides (P<0.0001), but inversely with cholesterol (P<0.0001), HDL-C (P<0.0001) and LDL-C (P<0.0001). The infant birth weight correlated positively with maternal body weight (P<0.0001), LDL-C (P<0.0001) and the glycaemic indices (P<0.0001), but negatively with cholesterol (P<0.0001), triglycerides (P<0.0001), HDL-C (P<0.0001) and FBG (P<0.0001). This study confirms that the maternal body mass index (BMI), insulin resistance, and LDL-C levels positively contribute towards foetal growth, whereas a negative correlation was noted with cholesterol, triglycerides, and HDL-C. © 2016 by De Gruyter 2016.

Kosem R.,Diabetes and Metabolic Diseases | Debeljak M.,University of Ljubljana | Repic Lampret B.,University of Ljubljana | Kansky A.,Diabetes and Metabolic Diseases | And 3 more authors.
Dermatology | Year: 2012

Background: Papillon-Lefèvre syndrome (PLS) is a rare autosomal recessive disorder characterized by palmoplantar keratoderma together with a severe form of generalized aggressive periodontitis and associated with mutations in cathepsin C gene (CTSC). Objective: To investigate the clinical and mutational characteristics of 6 PLS patients from 4 unrelated Slovenian families. Methods:CTSC mutational and functional analyses were performed. Results: In all patients, a novel homozygous substitution, c.-55C>A, in the CTSC 5′-untranslated region (UTR) was detected on genomic DNA level and confirmed by mRNA analysis, resulting in the almost complete loss of CTSC mRNA expression and CTSC activity. In silico analysis revealed the potential of the mutation to disrupt putative transcription factor binding sites (TFBSs) for AP-2 and Sp families of transcription factors. Conclusion: Identification of a novel CTSC 5′-UTR mutation together with a severe reduction of CTSC mRNA expression and virtually nonexistent CTSC activity was suggestive of a novel mechanism of TFBS dysfunction associated with PLS. © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

Constantinopoulos P.,Diabetes and Metabolic Diseases | Michalaki M.,Diabetes and Metabolic Diseases | Kottorou A.,University of Patras | Habeos I.,Diabetes and Metabolic Diseases | And 2 more authors.
European Journal of Endocrinology | Year: 2015

Context: Adrenal and extra-adrenal cortisol production may be involved in the development of metabolic syndrome (MetS).Objective: To investigate the activity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and the expression of HSD11B1, nuclear receptor subfamily 3, group C, member 1 (glucocorticoid receptors) a (NR3C1a) and b (NR3C1b) in the liver, subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) and visceral adipose tissue (VAT) of severely obese patients with and without MetS.Methods: The study included 37 severely obese patients (BMI R40 kg/m2), 19 with MetS (MetSC group) and 18 without (MetSK group), studied before and during bariatric surgery. Before the day of surgery, urinary free cortisol (UFC) and diurnal variation of serum and salivary cortisol were estimated. During surgery, biopsies of the liver, VAT and SAT were obtained. The expression of HSD11B1, NR3C1a and NR3C1b was evaluated by RT-PCR.Results: UFC and area under the curve for 24-h profiles of serum and salivary cortisol were lower in the MetSK group. In the MetSK group, mRNA levels of HSD11B1 in liver exhibited a negative correlation with liver NR3C1a (LNR3C1a) and VAT expression of HSD11B1 was lower than the MetSC group.Conclusions: We observed a downregulation of the NR3C1a expression and lower VAT mRNA levels of HSD11B1 in the MetSK group, indicating a lower selective tissue cortisol production and action that could protect these patients from the metabolic consequences of obesity. In the MetSK group, a lower activity of the HPA axis was also detected. Taken together, cortisol in tissue and systematic level might play a role in the development of MetS in severely obese patients. © 2015 European Society of Endocrinology Printed in Great Britain.

Caron P.J.,Center Hospitalier University Larrey | Bevan J.S.,Royal Infirmary | Petersenn S.,Center for Endocrine Tumors | Flanagan D.,Derriford Hospital | And 4 more authors.
Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism | Year: 2014

Context: Methodological shortcomings often compromise investigations into the effects of primary somatostatin-analog treatment on tumor size in acromegaly. There are also limited data for the long-acting lanreotide formulation. Objective: The aim of the study was to better characterize the effects of primary lanreotide Autogel treatment on tumor size in patients with GH-secreting macroadenomas. Design: PRIMARYS was a 48-week, multicenter, open-label, single-arm study. Setting: The study was conducted at specialist endocrine centers. Patients: Treatment-nave acromegalic patients with GH-secretingmacroadenomas participated in the study. Intervention: Lanreotide Autogel 120 mg was administered sc every 28 days (without dose titration). Outcome Measures: The primary endpoint was the proportion of patients with clinically significant (20%) tumor volume reduction (TVR) at week 48/last post-baseline value available using central assessments from three readers. The null hypothesis (H0 ) for the primary endpoint was that the proportion with TVRwas-55%. Secondary endpointsincluded: TVR at other time points, GH andIGF-1, acromegalic symptoms, quality of life (QoL), and safety. Results: Sixty-four of 90 (71.1%) patients completed the study. Clinically significant TVR at 48 weeks/last post-baseline value available was achieved by 62.9% (95% confidence interval, 52.0, 72.9) of 89 patients in the primary analysis (intention-to-treat population; H0 not rejected) and 71.9 -75.3% in sensitivity (n89) and secondary analyses (n63) (H0 rejected). At 12 weeks, 54.1% had clinically significant TVR. Early and sustained improvements also occurred in GH and IGF-1, acromegalic symptoms, and QoL. No patients withdrew due to gastrointestinal intolerance. Conclusions: Primary treatment with lanreotide Autogel, administered at 120 mg (highest available dose) without dose titration, in patients with GH-secreting macroadenomas provides early and sustained reductions in tumor volume, GH and IGF-1, and acromegalic symptoms, and improves QoL. Copyright © 2014 by the Endocrine Society.

Emanuele E.,University of Pavia | Minoretti P.,University of Pavia | Altabas K.,University of Zagreb | Gaeta E.,University of Pavia | Altabas V.,Diabetes and Metabolic Diseases
International Journal of Dermatology | Year: 2011

Background Cellulite, which appears as orange peel-type or cottage cheese-like dimpling of the skin on the thighs and buttocks, is a complex, multifactorial, cosmetic disorder of the subcutaneous fat layer and the overlying superficial skin. Adiponectin is an adipocyte-derived hormone mainly produced by subcutaneous fat that shows important protective anti-inflammatory and vasodilatory effects. We hypothesized that adiponectin expressed in the subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) might play a role in the pathogenesis of cellulite. We reasoned that a reduction in the expression of adiponectin - a humoral vasodilator - in the SAT of cellulite areas might contribute to the altered microcirculation frequently found in these regions. Methods A total of 15 lean (body mass index [BMI] <25kg/m2) women with cellulite and 15 age- and BMI-matched women without cellulite participated in this study. Real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was used to assess adiponectin gene expression. Plasma adiponectin levels were measured using a commercial enzyme immunoassay kit. Results Adiponectin mRNA expression in the SAT of the gluteal region was significantly lower in areas with cellulite compared with those without (12.6±3.1AU versus 16.6±4.1AU; P=0.006). However, plasma adiponectin levels did not differ between women with (20.3±7.3μg/ml) and without (19.3±6.1μg/ml) cellulite (P=0.69). Conclusions Adiponectin expression is significantly reduced in the SAT in areas affected by cellulite. Our findings provide novel insights into the nature of cellulite and may give clues to the treatment of this cosmetic issue. © 2011 The International Society of Dermatology.

Sulentic P.,Diabetes and Metabolic Diseases | Spajic B.,University of Zagreb | Grubisic I.,University of Zagreb | Spajic M.,General Hospital Karlovac | Vrkljan M.,Diabetes and Metabolic Diseases
Endocrinologist | Year: 2010

Adrenal myelolipoma is a rare benign tumor composed of mature adipose cells and hematopoietic elements. Their mostly small size (<5 cm), unilateral site, and clinical quiescence are accountable for predominantly incidental disclosure. We report a case of a 54-year-old man complaining of gradually aggravating pain in the right hemiabdomen in whom abdominal CT revealed bilateral and giant adrenal masses composed of predominantly adipose tissue with interspersed areas of solid parts displacing the kidneys caudally. The right tumor measured 14 × 9 cm and the left measured 7 cm in diameter. Hormone tests were within normal limits. Right and left adrenalectomies were performed and pathohistologic analysis confirmed diagnosis of myelolipoma. Postoperatively, the patient's recovery and further follow-up was uneventful. Reports on large and bilateral adrenal myelolipomas are very scarce. Current recommendations suggest that in all patients with adrenal incidentalomas, congenital adrenal hyperplasia should be excluded. This is particularly important in myelolipomas since they are occasionally associated with functional adrenal disorders, especially if they are large and bilateral. In adrenal incidentalomas larger than 6 cm a surgical removal is advocated because relatively significant preponderance of malignancy is found. Copyright © 2010 by Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.

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