Diabetes and endocrinology research Center

Hull, United Kingdom

Diabetes and endocrinology research Center

Hull, United Kingdom
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Bonjour J.-P.,University of Geneva | Benoit V.,Yoplait | Atkin S.,Diabetes and endocrinology research Center
Journal of Nutrition, Health and Aging | Year: 2015

Objective: To evaluate whether fortification of yogurts with vitamin D and calcium exerts an additional lowering effect on serum parathyroid hormone (PTH) and bone resorption markers (BRM) as compared to iso-caloric and iso-protein dairy products in aged white women at risk of fragility fractures.Design: A randomized double-blind controlled trial.Setting: A community dwelling home.Participants: Forty-eight women over 60 years (mean age 73.4).Intervention: Consumption during 84 days of two 125 g servings of either vitamin D and calcium-fortified yogurts (FY) at supplemental levels of 10 µg vitamin D3/d and 520 mg/d of calcium (total=800 mg/d), or non fortified control yogurts (CY) providing 280 mg/d of calcium.Measurements: Serum changes from baseline (D0) to D28, D56 and D84 in 25OHD, PTH and in two BRM: Tartrate-resistant-acid-phosphatase-isoform-5b (TRAP5b) and carboxy-terminal-cross-linked-telopeptide of type-I-collagen (CTX).Results: The 10 years risk of major and hip fractures were 13.1 and 5.0%, and 12.9 and 4.2 %, in FY and CY groups, respectively. From D0 to D84, serum 25OHD increased (mean±SE) from 34.3±2.4 to 56.3±2.4 nmol/L in FY (n=24) and from 35.0±2.5 to 41.3±3.0 nmol/L in CY (n=24), (P=0.00001). The corresponding changes in PTH were from 64.1±5.1 to 47.4±3.8 ng/L in FY and from 63.5±4.6 to 60.7±4.2 ng/L in CY (P=0.0011). After D84, TRAP5b was reduced significantly (P=0.0228) and CTX fell though not significantly (P=0.0773) in FY compared to CY.Conclusion: This trial in aged white women living in a community dwelling home at risk for osteoporotic fractures confirms that fortification of dairy products with vitamin D3 and calcium should provide a greater prevention of secondary hyperparathyroidism and accelerated bone resorption as compared to non-fortified equivalent foods. © 2015, Serdi and Springer-Verlag France.


Chen W.,Diabetes and Endocrinology Research Center | Chang B.,Diabetes and Endocrinology Research Center | Saha P.,Diabetes and Endocrinology Research Center | Li L.,Diabetes and Endocrinology Research Center | And 5 more authors.
Molecular and Cellular Biology | Year: 2012

Mutations in BSCL2 underlie human congenital generalized lipodystrophy. We inactivated Bscl2 in mice to examine the mechanisms whereby absence of Bscl2 leads to adipose tissue loss and metabolic disorders. Bscl2 -/- mice develop severe lipodystrophy of white adipose tissue (WAT), dyslipidemia, insulin resistance, and hepatic steatosis. In vitro differentiation of both Bscl2 -/- murine embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) and stromal vascular cells (SVCs) reveals normal early-phase adipocyte differentiation but a striking failure in terminal differentiation due to unbridled cyclic AMP (cAMP)-dependent protein kinase A (PKA)-activated lipolysis, which leads to loss of lipid droplets and silencing of the expression of adipose tissue-specific transcription factors. Importantly, such defects in differentiation can be largely rescued by inhibitors of lipolysis but not by a gamma peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPARγ) agonist. The residual epididymal WAT (EWAT) in Bscl2 -/- mice displays enhanced lipolysis. It also assumes a "brown-like" phenotype with marked upregulation of UCP1 and other brown adipose tissue-specific markers. Together with decreased Pref1 but increased C/EBPβ levels, these changes highlight a possible increase in cAMP signaling that impairs terminal adipocyte differentiation in the EWAT of Bscl2 -/- mice. Our study underscores the fundamental role of regulated cAMP/PKA-mediated lipolysis in adipose differentiation and identifies Bscl2 as a novel cell-autonomous determinant of activated lipolysis essential for terminal adipocyte differentiation. © 2012, American Society for Microbiology.


Chen W.,Georgia Regents University | Zhou H.,Georgia Regents University | Saha P.,Diabetes and Endocrinology Research Center | Li L.,Diabetes and Endocrinology Research Center | And 3 more authors.
Endocrinology | Year: 2014

Bscl2-/- mice recapitulate many of the major metabolic manifestations in Berardinelli-Seip congenital lipodystrophy type 2 (BSCL2) individuals, including lipodystrophy, hepatomegly, hepatic steatosis, and insulin resistance. The mechanisms that underlie hepatic steatosis and insulin resistance in Bscl2-/- mice are poorly understood. To address this issue, we performed hyperinsuline-mic-euglycemic clamp on Bscl2-/- and wild-type mice after an overnight (16-h) fast, and found that Bscl2-/- actually displayed increased hepatic insulin sensitivity. Interestingly, liver in Bscl2-/- mice after a short term (4-h) fast had impaired acute insulin signaling, a defect that disappeared after a 16-hour fast. Notably, fasting-dependent hepatic insulin signaling in Bscl2-/- mice was not associated with liver diacylglyceride and ceramide contents, but could be attributable in part to the expression of hepatic insulin signaling receptor and substrates. Meanwhile, increased de novo lipogenesis and decreased β-oxidation led to severe hepatic steatosis in fed or short-fasted Bscl2-/- mice whereas liver lipid accumulation and metabolism in Bscl2-/- mice was markedly affected by prolonged fasting. Furthermore, mice with liver-specific inactivation of Bscl2 manifested no hepatic steatosis even under high-fat diet, suggesting Bscl2 does not play a cell autonomous role in regulating liver lipid homeostasis. Overall, our results offered new insights into the metabolic adaptations of liver in response to fasting and uncovered a novel fasting-dependent regulation of hepatic insulin signaling in a mouse model of human BSCL2. Copyright © 2014 by the Endocrine Society.


Nuotio-Antar A.M.,Diabetes and Endocrinology Research Center | Nuotio-Antar A.M.,Baylor College of Medicine | Poungvarin N.,Diabetes and Endocrinology Research Center | Li M.,Diabetes and Endocrinology Research Center | And 5 more authors.
Endocrinology | Year: 2015

Carbohydrate response element binding protein (ChREBP) regulates cellular glucose and lipid homeostasis. Although ChREBP is highly expressed in many key metabolic tissues, the role of ChREBP in most of those tissues and the consequent effects on whole-body glucose and lipid metabolism are not well understood. Therefore, we generated a transgenic mouse that overexpresses a constitutively active ChREBP isoform under the control of the fatty acid binding protein 4-Cre-driven promoter (FaChOX). Weight gain was blunted in male, but not female, FaChOX mice when placed on either a normal chow diet or an obesogenic Western diet. Respiratory exchange ratios were increased in Western diet-fed FaChOX mice, indicating a shift in whole-body substrate use favoring carbohydrate metabolism. Western diet-fed FaChOX mice showed improved insulin sensitivity and glucose tolerance in comparison with controls. Hepatic triglyceride content was reduced in Western diet-fed FaChOX mice in comparison with controls, suggesting protection from fatty liver. Epididymal adipose tissue exhibited differential expression of genes involved in differentiation, browning, metabolism, lipid homeostasis, and inflammation between Western diet-fed FaChOX mice and controls. Our findings support a role for ChREBP in modulating adipocyte differentiation and adipose tissue metabolism and inflammation as well as consequent risks for obesity and insulin resistance. © 2015 by the Endocrine Society.


Nguyen D.,Baylor College of Medicine | Nguyen D.,Diabetes and Endocrinology Research Center | Hsu J.W.,U.S. Department of Agriculture | Jahoor F.,U.S. Department of Agriculture | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism | Year: 2014

Background: HIV-infected patients are reported to have impaired oxidation of fatty acids despite increased availability, suggesting a mitochondrial defect. We investigated whether diminished levels of a key mitochondrial antioxidant, glutathione (GSH), was contributing to defective fatty acid oxidation in older HIV-infected patients, and if so, the metabolic mechanisms contributing to GSH deficiency in these patients. Methods: In an open-label design, 8 older GSH-deficient HIV-infected males were studied before and after 14 days of oral supplementation with the GSH precursors cysteine and glycine. A combination of stable-isotope tracers, calorimetry, hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp, and dynamometry were used to measure GSH synthesis, fasted and insulin-stimulated (fed) mitochondrial fuel oxidation, insulin sensitivity, body composition, anthropometry, forearm-muscle strength, and lipid profiles. Results: Impaired synthesis contributed to GSH deficiency in the patients and was restored with cysteine plus glycine supplementation. GSH improvement was accompanied by marked improvements in fasted and fed mitochondrial fuel oxidation. Associated benefits included improvements in insulin sensitivity, body composition, anthropometry, muscle strength, and dyslipidemia. Conclusions: This work identifies 2 novel findings in older HIV-infected patients: 1) diminished synthesis due to decreased availability of cysteine and glycine contributes to GSH deficiency and can be rapidly corrected by dietary supplementation of these precursors and 2) correction of GSH deficiency is associated with improvement of mitochondrial fat and carbohydrate oxidation in both fasted and fed states and with improvements in insulin sensitivity, body composition, and muscle strength. The role of GSH on ameliorating metabolic complications in older HIV-infected patients warrants further investigation. (J Clin Endocrinol Metab 99: 169-177, 2014). © Copyright 2014 by The Endocrine Society.


Settembre C.,Telethon Institute of Genetics and Medicine | Settembre C.,Baylor College of Medicine | Settembre C.,The Texas Institute | Settembre C.,University of Naples Federico II | And 23 more authors.
Nature Cell Biology | Year: 2013

The lysosomal-autophagic pathway is activated by starvation and plays an important role in both cellular clearance and lipid catabolism. However, the transcriptional regulation of this pathway in response to metabolic cues is uncharacterized. Here we show that the transcription factor EB (TFEB), a master regulator of lysosomal biogenesis and autophagy, is induced by starvation through an autoregulatory feedback loop and exerts a global transcriptional control on lipid catabolism via Ppargc1α and Ppar1α. Thus, during starvation a transcriptional mechanism links the autophagic pathway to cellular energy metabolism. The conservation of this mechanism in Caenorhabditis elegans suggests a fundamental role for TFEB in the evolution of the adaptive response to food deprivation. Viral delivery of TFEB to the liver prevented weight gain and metabolic syndrome in both diet-induced and genetic mouse models of obesity, suggesting a new therapeutic strategy for disorders of lipid metabolism. © 2013 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.


Zhou J.,Chongqing Medical University | Zhou J.,Diabetes and Endocrinology Research Center | Chan L.,Diabetes and Endocrinology Research Center | Zhou S.,Chongqing Medical University
Current Medicinal Chemistry | Year: 2012

There is evidence that Trigonella foenum-graecum L. (fenugreek), a traditional Chinese herb, and its components are beneficial in the prevention and treatment of diabetes and central nervous system disease. The pharmacological activities of trigonelline, a major alkaloid component of fenugreek, have been more thoroughly evaluated than fenugreek's other components, especially with regard to diabetes and central nervous system disease. Trigonelline has hypoglycemic, hypolipidemic, neuroprotective, antimigraine, sedative, memory-improving, antibacterial, antiviral, and anti-tumor activities, and it has been shown to reduce diabetic auditory neuropathy and platelet aggregation. It acts by affecting .. cell regeneration, insulin secretion, activities of enzymes related to glucose metabolism, reactive oxygen species, axonal extension, and neuron excitability. However, further study of trigonelline's pharmacological activities and exact mechanism is warranted, along with application of this knowledge to its clinical usage. This review aims to give readers a survey of the pharmacological effects of trigonelline, especially in diabetes, diabetic complications and central nervous system disease. In addition, because of its pharmacological value and low toxicity, the reported adverse effects of trigonelline in experimental animal models and humans are briefly reviewed, and the pharmacokinetics of trigonelline are also discussed. © 2012 Bentham Science Publishers.


Sekhar R.V.,Diabetes and Endocrinology Research Center | Sekhar R.V.,Ben Taub General Hospital | Jahoor F.,Baylor College of Medicine | Iyer D.,Diabetes and Endocrinology Research Center | And 8 more authors.
Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental | Year: 2012

Patients with HIV-associated dyslipidemic lipodystrophy (HADL) have characteristic lipid kinetic defects: accelerated lipolysis, blunted fat oxidation and increased hepatic fatty acid reesterification. HADL patients with lipoatrophy also have leptin deficiency. Small or non-randomized studies have suggested that leptin replacement improves glucose metabolism in HADL, with very limited data regarding its effects on the lipid kinetic abnormalities. We performed a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, dose-escalating (0.02 mg/kg/d for two months; 0.04 mg/kg/d for a further two months) study of the effects of metreleptin on lipid kinetics in 17 adults with HADL, hypertriglyceridemia and hypoleptinemia. Rates of lipolysis, intra-adipocyte and intrahepatic reesterification and fatty acid oxidation were measured using infusions of 13C1-palmitate and 2H 5-glycerol, and indirect calorimetry. Fasting lipid profiles and glucose and insulin responses to oral glucose challenge were also measured. Metreleptin treatment induced significant, dose-dependent increases in fasting plasma leptin levels. There was no significant change in total lipolysis, net lipolysis, adipocyte or hepatic re-esterification or fatty acid oxidation, or in fasting triglyceride or HDL-C concentrations, with metreleptin treatment. Metreleptin decreased fasting non-HDL-C levels (P <.01) and area-under-the-curve for glucose (P <.05). In hypoleptinemic HADL patients, treatment with metreleptin at 0.02 or 0.04 mg/kg/d does not improve abnormal fasting lipid kinetics, or triglyceride or HDL-C levels. Metreleptin does, however, improve glycemia and non-HDL-C in these patients. These results suggest a dissociation between leptin's effects on glucose metabolism compared to those on lipid kinetics in HADL. © 2012 Elsevier Inc.


PubMed | Diabetes and Endocrinology Research Center
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Metabolism: clinical and experimental | Year: 2012

Patients with HIV-associated dyslipidemic lipodystrophy (HADL) have characteristic lipid kinetic defects: accelerated lipolysis, blunted fat oxidation and increased hepatic fatty acid reesterification. HADL patients with lipoatrophy also have leptin deficiency. Small or non-randomized studies have suggested that leptin replacement improves glucose metabolism in HADL, with very limited data regarding its effects on the lipid kinetic abnormalities. We performed a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, dose-escalating (0.02 mg/kg/d for two months; 0.04 mg/kg/d for a further two months) study of the effects of metreleptin on lipid kinetics in 17 adults with HADL, hypertriglyceridemia and hypoleptinemia. Rates of lipolysis, intra-adipocyte and intrahepatic reesterification and fatty acid oxidation were measured using infusions of (13)C(1)-palmitate and (2)H(5)-glycerol, and indirect calorimetry. Fasting lipid profiles and glucose and insulin responses to oral glucose challenge were also measured. Metreleptin treatment induced significant, dose-dependent increases in fasting plasma leptin levels. There was no significant change in total lipolysis, net lipolysis, adipocyte or hepatic re-esterification or fatty acid oxidation, or in fasting triglyceride or HDL-C concentrations, with metreleptin treatment. Metreleptin decreased fasting non-HDL-C levels (P<.01) and area-under-the-curve for glucose (P<.05). In hypoleptinemic HADL patients, treatment with metreleptin at 0.02 or 0.04 mg/kg/d does not improve abnormal fasting lipid kinetics, or triglyceride or HDL-C levels. Metreleptin does, however, improve glycemia and non-HDL-C in these patients. These results suggest a dissociation between leptins effects on glucose metabolism compared to those on lipid kinetics in HADL.

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