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Hôpital-Camfrout, France

Roussel R.,DHU FIRE | Roussel R.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | Roussel R.,University Paris Diderot | Lorraine J.,Eli Lilly and Company | And 2 more authors.
Advances in Therapy

Introduction: It can be a challenge to manage glycemic control in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and chronic kidney disease (CKD), due to both patient and medication issues. Although most antihyperglycemic medications can be used in mild kidney disease, many medications are either not advised or require dose adjustments in more advanced CKD. This review summarizes product label information, pharmacokinetic and clinical studies, and clinical guidelines relevant to use of antihyperglycemic medications in CKD. Methods: Product labels and guidelines from North America and Europe, as well as pharmacokinetic and clinical studies of diabetes medication use in CKD were identified through Medline and PubMed searches, up to February 2015. Available data are summarized and correlations between treatment recommendations and available research are discussed, as are glycemic targets for patients with CKD. Results: Newer medications have significantly more data available than older medications regarding use in CKD, although larger clinical studies are still lacking for some drugs. As CKD advances, dose adjustment is needed for many medications [numerous dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors, some insulins, sodium glucose co-transporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors], although not for others (thiazolidinediones, meglitinides). Some medications are not recommended for use in more advanced CKD (metformin, SGLT2 inhibitors, some glucagon-like protein-1 receptor agonists) for safety or efficacy reasons. There is not always good alignment between label recommendations, pharmacokinetic or clinical studies, and guideline recommendations for use of these drugs in CKD. In particular, controversy remains about the use of metformin in moderate CKD and appropriate use of liraglutide and sulfonylureas in advanced CKD. Conclusion: Considerable variability exists with respect to recommendations and clinical data for the many antihyperglycemic drugs used in patients with T2DM and CKD. Funding: Eli Lilly and Company. © 2015, Springer Healthcare. Source

Vidal-Petiot E.,DHU FIRE | Vidal-Petiot E.,University Paris Diderot | Bens M.,University Paris Diderot | Choudat L.,Departement de Pathologie | And 8 more authors.
Journal of Hypertension

Case report: A 20-year-old woman presented with malignant hypertension associated with hypokalemia, metabolic alkalosis and elevated plasma renin and aldosterone levels. Computed tomography angiography (CTA) evidenced a 22mm tissular mass in the posterior cortex of the left kidney, and 18F-flurodeoxyglucose PET (18-FDG PET) imaging showed no hypermetabolism of the tumour. Following nephron-sparing surgery, blood pressure and potassium levels rapidly normalized, allowing interruption of all treatments within 2 weeks. Discussion: Reninoma is a rare juxtaglomerular cell tumour (JGCT) producing excessive amounts of renin resulting in severe hypertension. Pathological studies revealed that tumoural cells highly expressed renin and contained electron-dense structures, typical of renin-containing granules. Tumoural cells also exhibited the vascular cell surface marker CD34, but, in contrast with previous reports, did not express the tyrosine-protein kinase Kit (cKit or CD117). Dissociation of the tumour allowed to obtain confluent cultures of elongated smooth muscle actin (SMA)-positive cells producing high amounts of renin. However, after the first passage, subcultured human juxtaglomerular cells rapidly lost renin and CD34 expressions and their ability to produce renin. Conclusion: The present case of reninoma emphasizes the need for CTA in the etiologic work up of otherwise unexplained severe hypertension. 18-FDG PET imaging showed no hypermetabolism of the tumour, in accordance with its reported benignity. Pathological studies further emphasized that high expressions of renin and CD34 are typical hallmarks of reninoma. Although CD117 has been proposed to represent a reliable marker of JGCT, the present findings indicate that reninomas may not always express this marker. © 2015 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. Source

Hurabielle C.,Hopital Saint Louis | Pillebout E.,Hopital Saint Louis | Stehle T.,DHU FIRE | Pages C.,Hopital Saint Louis | And 14 more authors.

Context Serum creatinine has been reported to increase in patients receiving Vemurafenib, yet neither the prevalence nor the mechanism of this adverse event are known. Objective We aimed to evaluate the frequency and the mechanisms of increases in plasma creatinine level in patients receiving Vemurafenib for advanced melanoma. Methods We performed a retrospective monocentric study including consecutive patients treated with Vemurafenib for an advanced melanoma. We collected clinical and biological data concerning renal function before introduction of Vemurafenib and in the course of monthly follow- up visits from March 2013 to December 2014. Cystatin C-derived glomerular filtration rate was evaluated before and after Vemurafenib initiation, as increase in serum cystatin C is specific to a decrease in the glomerular filtration rate. We also performed thorough renal explorations in 3 patients, with measurement of tubular secretion of creatinine before and after Vemurafenib initiation and a renal biopsy in 2 patients. Results 70 patients were included: 97% of them displayed an immediate, and thereafter stable, increase in creatinine (+22.8%) after Vemurafenib initiation. In 44/52 patients in whom Vemurafenib was discontinued, creatinine levels returned to baseline. Serum cystatin C increased, although proportionally less than serum creatinine, showing that creatinine increase under vemurafenib was indeed partly due to a renal function impairment. In addition, renal explorations demonstrated that Vemurafenib induced an inhibition of creatinine tubular secretion. Conclusion Thus, Vemurafenib induces a dual mechanism of increase in plasma creatinine with both an inhibition of creatinine tubular secretion and slight renal function impairment. However, this side effect is mostly reversible when Vemurafenib is discontinued, and should not lead physicians to discontinue the treatment if it is effective. © 2016 Hurabielle et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited. Source

Vecchierini M.-F.,Center Du Sommeil Et Of La Vigilance | Vecchierini M.-F.,University of Paris Descartes | Attali V.,Groupe Hospitalier Pitie Salpetriere Charles Foix | Attali V.,Paris-Sorbonne University | And 14 more authors.
Sleep Medicine

Background: Mandibular repositioning devices (MRDs) are usually recommended as the first therapy option in patients with mild-to-moderate obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA). However, data on the long-term efficacy of MRDs are limited, not only in OSA patients who are noncompliant with continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) but also in those with more severe OSA. The ORCADES study aimed to prospectively determine the long-term efficacy and tolerability of two custom-made Narval™ MRDs for obstructive sleep apnoea-hypopnoea syndrome (OSAHS) patients. The interim 3- to 6-month data are reported. Methods: Eligible patients had OSAHS and had refused or were noncompliant with prescribed CPAP. Outcome measurements after gradual mandibular advancement titration included: apnoea-hypopnoea index (AHI), oxygen saturation, sleepiness, symptoms, quality of life, side effects and compliance. Results: A total of 369 patients were included. Overall, MRD treatment was successful (≥50% decrease in AHI) in 76.2% of the participants; complete response (AHI <10/h) was achieved in 63.5%. Severe OSAHS was effectively treated (AHI <15/h) in about 60% of the participants; 38% had complete symptom resolution. Mandibular repositioning devices significantly decreased subjective sleepiness, eliminated symptoms and improved quality of life. They were well tolerated and compliance was excellent. Only 8% of the participants stopped MRD treatment due to side effects. Conclusion: Custom-made Narval™ MRDs are effective for mild to severe OSA in patients who refuse or are noncompliant with CPAP. They are well tolerated and have excellent compliance. © 2015 Elsevier B.V. Source

Matteau A.,Brigham and Womens Hospital | Yeh R.W.,Massachusetts General Hospital | Camenzind E.,University of Geneva | Steg P.G.,DHU FIRE | And 10 more authors.
American Journal of Cardiology

Although trials comparing antiplatelet strategies after percutaneous coronary intervention report average risks of bleeding and ischemia in a population, there is limited information to guide choices based on individual patient risks, particularly beyond 1 year after treatment. Patient-level data from Patient Related Outcomes With Endeavor vs Cypher Stenting Trial (PROTECT), a broadly inclusive trial enrolling 8,709 subjects treated with drug-eluting stents (sirolimus vs zotarolimus-eluting stent), and PROTECT US, a single-arm study including 1,018 subjects treated with a zotarolimus-eluting stent, were combined. The risk of ischemic events, cardiovascular death/non-periprocedural myocardial infarction (MI)/definite or probable stent thrombosis, and bleeding events, Global Use of Strategies to Open Occluded Arteries moderate or severe bleed, were predicted using logistic regression. At median follow-up of 4.1 years, major bleeding occurred in 260 subjects (2.8%) and ischemic events in 595 (6.3%). Multivariate predictors of bleeding were older age, smoking, diabetes mellitus, congestive heart failure, and chronic kidney disease (all p <0.05). Ischemic events shared all the same predictors with bleeding events and gender, body mass index, previous MI, previous coronary artery bypass graft surgery, ST-segment elevation MI on presentation, stent length, and sirolimus-eluting stent use (all p <0.05). Within individual subjects, bleeding and ischemic risks were strongly correlated; 97% of subjects had a greater risk of ischemic events than bleeding. In conclusion, individual patient risks of ischemia and bleeding are related to many common risk factors, yet the predicted risks of ischemic events are greater than those of major bleeding in the large majority of patients in long-term follow-up. © 2015 Elsevier Inc. Source

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