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Levenson J.S.,Lynn University | Prescott D.S.,Becket Family of Services | Jumper S.,DHS Inc
International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology | Year: 2014

The purpose of this study was to obtain feedback from civilly committed sex offenders (N = 113) about the components of treatment that they believed to be most important and helpful in preventing reoffense. Participants were also asked to rate their satisfaction with the treatment process and therapists. Victim empathy and accountability were rated as the most important elements of treatment, along with skills for preventing relapse and methods for controlling sexual arousal. There was a fairly robust correlation between client perceptions of importance and satisfaction on most treatment components. Some clients expressed concerns about respect, confidentiality, and judgmental attitudes of some therapists. Because civilly committed sex offenders are considered to be among the most likely to reoffend, strategies are discussed for engagement of this population in a meaningful process of change. © 2013 The Author(s).

Hill K.,Harvard Center for Population and Development Studies | You D.,United Nations Childrens Fund | Inoue M.,World Health Organization | Oestergaard M.Z.,World Health Organization | And 8 more authors.
PLoS Medicine | Year: 2012

Monitoring development indicators has become a central interest of international agencies and countries for tracking progress towards the Millennium Development Goals. In this review, which also provides an introduction to a collection of articles, we describe the methodology used by the United Nations Inter-agency Group for Child Mortality Estimation to track country-specific changes in the key indicator for Millennium Development Goal 4 (MDG 4), the decline of the under-five mortality rate (the probability of dying between birth and age five, also denoted in the literature as U5MR and 5q0). We review how relevant data from civil registration, sample registration, population censuses, and household surveys are compiled and assessed for United Nations member states, and how time series regression models are fitted to all points of acceptable quality to establish the trends in U5MR from which infant and neonatal mortality rates are generally derived. The application of this methodology indicates that, between 1990 and 2010, the global U5MR fell from 88 to 57 deaths per 1,000 live births, and the annual number of under-five deaths fell from 12.0 to 7.6 million. Although the annual rate of reduction in the U5MR accelerated from 1.9% for the period 1990-2000 to 2.5% for the period 2000-2010, it remains well below the 4.4% annual rate of reduction required to achieve the MDG 4 goal of a two-thirds reduction in U5MR from its 1990 value by 2015. Thus, despite progress in reducing child mortality worldwide, and an encouraging increase in the pace of decline over the last two decades, MDG 4 will not be met without greatly increasing efforts to reduce child deaths. © 2012 Hill et al.

Devries K.M.,London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine | Kishor S.,DHS Inc | Johnson H.,University of Ottawa | Stockl H.,London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine | And 3 more authors.
Reproductive Health Matters | Year: 2010

We aimed to describe the prevalence of intimate partner violence (IPV) during pregnancy across 19 countries, and examine trends across age groups and UN regions. We conducted a secondary analysis of data from the Demographic and Health Surveys (20 surveys from 15 countries) and the International Violence Against Women Surveys (4 surveys from 4 countries) carried out between 1998 and 2007. Our data suggest that intimate partner violence during a pregnancy is a common experience. The prevalence of IPV during pregnancy ranged from approximately 2.0% in Australia, Cambodia, Denmark and the Philippines to 13.5% in Uganda among ever-pregnant, ever-partnered women; half of the surveys estimated prevalence to be between 3.9 and 8.7%. Prevalence appeared to be higher in African and Latin American countries relative to the European and Asian countries surveyed. In most settings, prevalence was relatively constant in the younger age groups (age 15-35), and then appeared to decline very slightly after age 35. Intimate partner violence during pregnancy is more common than some maternal health conditions routinely screened for in antenatal care. Global initiatives to reduce maternal mortality and improve maternal health must devote increased attention to violence against women, particularly violence during pregnancy. © 2010 Reproductive Health Matters.

Sambisa W.,University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill | Curtis S.,University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill | Mishra V.,DHS Inc
AIDS Care - Psychological and Socio-Medical Aspects of AIDS/HIV | Year: 2010

Using the 2005-2006 Zimbabwe Demographic and Health Survey, we investigated the prevalence of HIV testing uptake within a sample of women (6839) and men (5315), and identified the independent effects of AIDS stigma on testing uptake, with particular emphasis on three pathways to testing: voluntary testing, testing when offered, and testing when required. The prevalence of self-reported HIV testing was higher among women (31%) than men (22%). For women, the main pathway to testing uptake was to accept testing when it is offered (46%), whereas for men it was voluntary testing (53%). In the logistic regression models, we found that social rejection stigma was inversely associated with uptake across all pathways of testing for women, but not men. As regards observed enacted stigma, respondents who both knew someone with HIV and had observed discrimination against someone with HIV were more likely to test for HIV through all pathways, while those who knew someone with HIV but had not observed stigma were more likely to test voluntarily. Individual characteristics important to the adoption of testing included high educational attainment, religion, exposure to mass media, and ever use of condoms; while being never married and self-perceived risk were barriers to testing. Programmatic strategies aimed at increasing HIV testing uptake should consider reducing stigma toward people living with HIV/AIDS and also addressing the role of agency and structure in individual's decision to be tested for HIV. © 2010 Taylor & Francis.

Moayeri N.,U.S. National Institute of Standards and Technology | Mapar J.,DHS Inc | Tompkins S.,Darpa | Pahlavan K.,Worcester Polytechnic Institute
IEEE Wireless Communications | Year: 2011

GPS has been a phenomenal success. Simply consider as examples its use in car navigation systems or walking around city streets with the help of a smart phone. However, GPS is unavailable inside buildings, in urban canyons, underground, and underwater. Developing complementary location and tracking technologies for these environments would unleash the use of such capabilities in many applications in the military, public safety, and commercial arenas. Within residences and nursing homes, for example, there is an increasing need for indoor geolocation systems to track people with special needs, the elderly, and children to relieve the need for around-the-clock visual monitoring. Other applications include systems to assist the visually impaired, locate instrumentation and other equipment in hospitals, and track specific items in warehouses. In first responder/public safety and military applications, indoor geolocation systems are needed to monitor inmates in prisons, locate miners trapped in mines, and track/guide first responders and soldiers inside buildings. Given the growing interest in sensor networks and radio frequency identification (RFID) technologies, one can also envision wider-ranging applications such as locating unwanted chemical, biological, or radioactive materials using sensor networks, and tracking specific items such as controlled pharmaceuticals in their containers using RFID tags. © 2011 IEEE.

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