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Lee Y.R.,University of Ulsan | Kim S.C.,University of Ulsan | Lee H.-I.,University of Ulsan | Jeong H.M.,University of Ulsan | And 4 more authors.
Macromolecular Research | Year: 2011

Graphite oxides (GOs) at various oxidation states were examined as fire retardants of epoxy resin. Excessive oxidation is detrimental to the fire retardant effect of GO because it generated a weak GO with reduced intumescent ability. GO manifested optimum fire retardant properties when it was properly oxidized due to the effective intumescence, demonstrating that intumescent GO needs to be strong enough to effectively push the epoxy resin matrix apart to cause efficient intumescence and generate a solid remnant char that acts as an efficient barrier. The fire retardant effect of GO was also reduced when a dispersion of GO in the epoxy resin was enhanced by sonication. This shows that the fine dispersion and disordering of layered structure of GO by the intercalation of epoxy molecules into the gallery of GO also reduced the intumescent ability, and the fire retardant effects of GO.

Chakrabarti S.,Dhirubhai Ambani Life science Center | Barrow C.J.,Deakin University | Kanwar R.K.,Deakin University | Ramana V.,Dhirubhai Ambani Life science Center | Kanwar J.R.,Deakin University
Mini-Reviews in Medicinal Chemistry | Year: 2014

Angiogenesis is a multistep process for the formation of new blood vessels. Interactions between several cellular factors including growth factors, cytokines and hematopoietic factors lead to activation of various cellular pathways finally resulting in the extracellular matrix (ECM) degradation, endothelial cell proliferation, survival and migration. Normally, angiogenesis is an essential requirement for vascular development in growing embryos as well as in adult tissues where this process depends on the intricate balance between the activities of the pro-and anti-angiogenic factors. Abnormal angiogenesis results in aberrant vasculature leading to various pathological conditions. The most important factor implicated in angiogenic processes is vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and its family of ligands and receptors. Several anti-angiogenic drugs have been developed and many more are currently in different phases of clinical trials, which target various angiogenesis-inducing agents including VEGF, VEGF receptors, angiopoietins and ECM components such as integrins. Anti-angiogenic therapy can be divided into gene-based therapy and protein-based therapy. Gene-based therapies include the use of antisense oligonucleotides, siRNA, aptamers, catalytic oligonucleotides including ribozymes and DNAzymes and transcription decoys. Protein-based therapeutics includes monoclonal antibodies, peptidomimetics, fusion proteins and decoy receptors. The later class of therapeutics has several advantages over gene-based and small molecule drugs, including specificity and complexity in functions, better tolerability, less interference with normal biological processes and lesser adverse effects due to decreased immune response by virtue of being mostly body's natural proteins. This review provides a comprehensive overview of angiogenesis and on the current protein-based anti-angiogenic therapeutics under research and in the clinic. © 2014 Bentham Science Publishers.

Chakrabarti S.,Dhirubhai Ambani Life science Center | Barrow C.J.,Deakin University | Kanwar R.K.,Deakin University | Ramana V.,Dhirubhai Ambani Life science Center | Kanwar J.R.,Deakin University
International Journal of Molecular Sciences | Year: 2016

Clipping of recombinant proteins is a major issue in animal cell cultures. A recombinant Fc-fusion protein, VEGFR1(D1-D3)-Fc expressed in CHOK1SV GS-KO cells was observed to be undergoing clippings in lab scale cultures. Partial cleaving of expressed protein initiated early on in cell culture and was observed to increase over time in culture and also on storage. In this study, a few parameters were explored in a bid to inhibit clipping in the fusion protein The effects of culture temperature, duration of culture, the addition of an anti-clumping agent, ferric citrate and use of protease inhibitor cocktail on inhibition of proteolysis of the Fc fusion were studied. Lowering of culture temperature from 37 to 30 °C alone appears to be the best solution for reducing protein degradation from the quality, cost and regulatory points of view. The obtained Fc protein was characterized and found to be in its stable folded state, exhibiting a high affinity for its ligand and also biological and functional activities. © 2016 by the authors; licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.

Chhaya S.,Dhirubhai Ambani Life science Center | Desai S.,Dhirubhai Ambani Life science Center | Saranath D.,Dhirubhai Ambani Life science Center
International Journal of Immunogenetics | Year: 2010

Indian population is an amalgamation of various ethnicities, cultural and linguistic diversities, primarily due to marriages within a community. HLA-A, B and DRB1 alleles and haplotype frequencies were investigated in the Sindhi and compared with Marathi, Gujarati and North Indian population from Mumbai. This work is a part of a larger effort aimed at analysis of the HLA profile of diverse Indian ethnics to establish an umbilical cord stem cell panel in India. HLA polymorphisms at the HLA-A, B and DRB1 loci were determined in 413 cord blood samples by the molecular method of polymerase chain reaction using sequencespecific primer amplification. The most frequent alleles included A*01, A*02, A*11 and A*24 at A locus, B*35 and B*40 at B locus and DRB1*07 and DRB1*15 in all the four groups, although the frequency fluctuated in individual communities. HLA-DRB1*03 was significantly high (P < 0.05) in the Sindhi. Phylogenetic association using neighbour-joining tree, based on DA genetic distances for HLA-A and HLA-B alleles, indicated that the Sindhis cluster with North Indian and Pakistan Sindhi. The three locus haplotype analysis revealed that A*02-B*40-DRB1*15 and A*33-B* 44-DRB1*07 were common haplotypes in all the groups. The three locus haplotypes found suggest an influence from Caucasian and Oriental populations. The data will be useful in developing an umbilical cord stem cell panel in India. The results will have clinical implications in unrelated umbilical cord stem cell for transplantation in India. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

Mundargi R.C.,Dhirubhai Ambani Life science Center | Rangaswamy V.,Dhirubhai Ambani Life science Center | Aminabhavi T.M.,Dhirubhai Ambani Life science Center
Drug Development and Industrial Pharmacy | Year: 2011

In this paper, we present in vitro and in vivo release data on pH-sensitive microspheres of Eudragit L100, Eudragit RS100 and their blend systems prepared by double emulsion-solvent evaporation technique for oral delivery of insulin. Of the three systems developed, Eudragit L100 was chosen for preclinical studies. Insulin was encapsulated and in vitro experiments performed on insulin-loaded microspheres in pH 1.2 media did not release insulin during the first 2 h, but maximum insulin was released in pH 7.4 buffer media from 4 to 6 h. The microspheres were characterized by scanning electron microscopy to understand particle size, shape and surface morphology. The size of microspheres ranged between 1 and 40 μm. Circular dichroism spectra indicated the structural integrity of insulin during encapsulation as well as after its release in pH 7.4 buffer media. The in vivo release studies on diabetic-induced rat models exhibited maximum inhibition of up to 86%, suggesting absorption of insulin in the intestine. © 2011 Informa Healthcare USA, Inc.

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