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Utrecht, Netherlands
Utrecht, Netherlands
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De Kleijn D.P.V.,Experimental Cardiology G02523 | De Kleijn D.P.V.,Interuniversity Cardiology Institute of the Netherlands | De Kleijn D.P.V.,Genome Institute of Singapore | Moll F.L.,UMC Utrecht | And 20 more authors.
Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology | Year: 2010

Objective-Atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease is a major burden to health care. Because atherosclerosis is considered a systemic disease, we hypothesized that one single atherosclerotic plaque contains ample molecular information that predicts future cardiovascular events in all vascular territories. Methods and Results-AtheroExpress is a biobank collecting atherosclerotic lesions during surgery, with a 3-year follow-up. The composite primary outcome encompasses all cardiovascular events and interventions, eg, cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction, stroke, and endovascular interventions. A proteomics search identified osteopontin as a potential plaque biomarker. Patients undergoing carotid surgery (n=574) served as the cohort in which plaque osteopontin levels were examined in relation to their outcome during follow-up and was validated in a cohort of patients undergoing femoral endarterectomy (n=151). Comparing the highest quartile of carotid plaque osteopontin levels with quartile 1 showed a hazard ratio for the primary outcome of 3.8 (95% confidence interval, 2.6-5.9). The outcome did not change after adjustment for plaque characteristics and traditional risk factors (hazard ratio, 3.5; 95% confidence interval, 2.0-5.9). The femoral validation cohort showed a hazard ratio of 3.8 (95% confidence interval 2.0 to 7.4) comparing osteopontin levels in quartile 4 with quartile 1. Conclusion-Plaque osteopontin levels in single lesions are predictive for cardiovascular events in other vascular territories. Local atherosclerotic plaques are a source of prognostic biomarkers with a high predictive value for secondary manifestations of atherosclerotic disease. © 2010 American Heart Association, Inc.


Potassium inward rectifier KIR2.1 channels contribute to the stable resting membrane potential in a variety of muscle and neuronal cell-types. Mutations in the KIR2.1 gene KCNJ2 have been associated with human disease, such as cardiac arrhythmias and periodic paralysis. Crystal structure and homology modelling of KIR2.1 channels combined with functional current measurements provided valuable insights in mechanisms underlying channel function. KIR2.1 channels have been cloned and analyzed from all main vertebrate phyla, except reptilians. To address this lacuna, we set out to clone reptilian KIR2.1 channels. Using a degenerated primer set we cloned the KCNJ2 coding regions from muscle tissue of turtle, snake, bear, quail and bream, and compared their deduced amino acid sequences with those of KIR2.1 sequences from 26 different animal species obtained from Genbank. Furthermore, expression constructs were prepared for functional electrophysiological studies of ectopically expressed KIR2.1 ion channels. In general, KCNJ2 gene evolution followed normal phylogenetic patterns, however turtle KIR2.1 ion channel sequence is more homologues to avians than to snake. Alignment of all 31 KIR2.1 sequences showed that all disease causing KIR2.1 mutations, except V93I, V123G and N318S, are fully conserved. Homology models were built to provide structural insights into species specific amino acid substitutions. Snake KIR2.1 channels became expressed at the plasmamembrane and produced typical barium sensitive (IC50 ∼6 μM) inward rectifier currents. © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

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