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Prasad Nayak N.,AJ Institute of Medical science | Nayak R.P.,Dhanalakshmi Srinivasan Medical College | Soans S.T.,AJ Institute of Medical science | Alva S.,AJ Institute of Medical science | And 2 more authors.
Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Disease | Year: 2014

Objective: To study the clinical profile and management of malaria in the paediatric age group. Methods: This retrospective study was done at AJ Institute of Medical Sciences, Mangalore in Karnataka, India. The prescriptions case records of patients diagnosed with malaria, treated as inpatients in the Department of Paediatrics, AJ Institute of Medical Sciences from January 2010 to July 2012 were collected. The data (demographic profile, clinical features, investigation, treatment and complications) from all the case records were filled up in predesigned proforma and analysed statistically. Results: A total of 74 patients were diagnosed and treated for malaria. Males (58.1%) were more affected than females (41.9%). The patients in the age group of 0-5 years (42%) were more affected. The incidence of malaria increased from the month of June onwards coinciding with the monsoon season. Plasmodium vivax was the major parasite type (56.8%), followed by mixed malarial infection(37.9%) and Plasmodium falciparum (5.4%). Main presenting symptoms were fever (100%), chills & rigors (90.5%), vomiting (52.7%) and headache (40.5%). Vomiting was the main drug adverse effect seen. Conclusion: Malaria is a major health concern in this region, particularly more in rainy season. It is found that compared to the older children, the 0-5 years age group was more affected. Plasmodium vivax was the major parasite type causing malaria. Implementation of national drug policy on malaria has certainly decreased the morbidity and mortality in this region. © 2014 Asian Pacific Tropical Medicine Press. Source

Sageerabanoo S.,Dhanalakshmi Srinivasan Medical College | Malini A.,Government of Puducherry | Mangaiyarkarasi T.,Sri Manakula Vinayagar Medical College | Hemalatha G.,Aarupadai Veedu Medical College
Journal of Natural Science, Biology and Medicine | Year: 2015

Background: Production of β-lactamase enzymes by Gram-negative bacteria is the most common mechanism to acquire drug resistance to β-lactam antibiotics. Limitations in detecting extended spectrum β-lactamases (ESBL) and Amp-C β-lactamases have contributed to the uncontrolled spread of bacterial resistance and are of significant clinical concern. Materials and Methods: A total of 148 samples was selected on the basis of resistance against third-generation cephalosporin for screening ESBLs and Amp-C β-lactamases production. These multidrug-resistant strains were phenotypically screened for ESBL production by phenotypic confirmatory disc diffusion test and double disc synergy test. Modified three-dimensional method was used for Amp-C β-lactamases detection. Result: Among the 148 isolates, 82 (55.40%) were ESBL producers, and 115 (77.70%) were Amp-C β-lactamases producers. Co-existence of ESBL and Amp-C was observed in 70 (47.29%) isolates. Escherichia coli was the most common ESBL and Amp-C β-lactamase producer. All ESBL producers were highly resistant to ciprofloxacin (83.10%), cotrimoxazole (95.27%), and gentamicin (89.18%). However, these bacterial strains were sensitive to imipenem 146 (98.64%) and piperacillin/tazobactam 143 (96.62%). Conclusion: Our study showed that ESBL producing organisms were not only resistant to cephalosporins but also to other group of drugs and also that multiple mechanisms play a role in drug resistance among Gram-negative bacteria. Source

Aditi R.,M S Ramaiah Medical College | Aarathi R.,M S Ramaiah Medical College | Pradeep R.,Indira Gandhi Institute of Child Health | Hemalatha L.,Indira Gandhi Institute of Child Health | And 2 more authors.
Indian Journal of Surgical Oncology | Year: 2016

According to the literature available, HER2(human epidermal growth factor 2)status in gastric carcinoma has been studied worldwide, however there is a paucity of published data from India. Hence, this study was taken up to evaluate HER2 overexpression in gastric adenocarcinoma patients and to assess the relationship between its expression and clinicopathological tumor parameters. Prospective study was conducted in a teaching hospital over a period of 27 months. Total or subtotal gastrectomy resection specimens and small biopsies were included in the study. Immunohistochemistry (IHC) was carried out on all the cases to evaluate the expression of HER2 in formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue samples. Fluorescence Insitu Hybridization (FISH) was done for equivocal cases on IHC. The data was analyzed using Chi square test / Fisher’s Exact Test. Odds ratio was computed between HER2 and other pathologic variables. HER2 overexpression was confirmed in 16 (27.6 %) cases of which 15 (93.8 %) cases were of intestinal type whereas only 1 (6.2 %) case of diffuse type adenocarcinoma. Hence, HER2 positivity was significantly more common in the intestinal type of gastric cancer compared to the diffuse type (p = 0.045). Positivity of HER2 was more in small biopsies as compared to the resection specimens in this study but the p value was not significant. There was no difference in HER2 overexpression in relation to the age, gender, tumor site, tumor differentiation and stage. HER2 overexpression is more prevalent in the intestinal subtype. The relatively high percentage of HER2 positive tumors may provide a useful target for immunotherapy of these cancers. © 2015, Indian Association of Surgical Oncology. Source

Swarnlatha N.,Dhanalakshmi Srinivasan Medical College
Indian Journal of Public Health Research and Development | Year: 2013

Background: The growing menace created by the HIV/AIDS has alarmed not only the public health officials but also the general community. The Voluntary Counseling and Testing centre remodeled as Integrated Counseling and testing Centres are reversing the epidemic. Objectives: To identify the socio-demographic profiles, HIV sero-status and risk behavior pattern of the attendees in the VCTC attached to a Medical College Hospital in Tirupati, A.P., Study Design: Cross-sectional observational study Setting: Voluntary Counseling and Testing Centre attached to Microbiology Department of the Medical College, Tirupati. Participants: All the VCTC attendees between January 2011 and March 2011 were included in the study Study variables: Age, sex, marital status, level of education, occupation, place of residence, HIV sero-status, pattern of risk behavior in relation to HIV/AIDS and the person referring. Statistical Analysis: Proportions and chi-square test. Results: It was found that out of 2863 individuals, 11.4% were sero-positives. Sero-positivity was high in 20-49 years age group (79.4%), illiterates (45.8%), unskilled workers (39.1%), rural areas (60.3%) and married (71.7%) individuals. Source

Swarnalatha N.,Dhanalakshmi Srinivasan Medical College
Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research | Year: 2013

It has been documented that the elderly are more prone to psychological problems and depression is the commonest of the geriatric psychiatric disorders. In fact, the elderly in India face a multitude of psychological, social, and physical health problems. There is a dearth of community studies in India, which have investigated geriatric depression and its associated risk factors. Hence, the present study was undertaken with the following objectives. Study Objectives: 1. To assess the prevalence of depression among the elderly. 2. To determine the epidemiological factors which are associated with depression. Design: A cross-sectional, observational, community based study. Period: April 2009 to September 2009. Setting: A Rural Health Centre which was a rural field practice area which was attached to the Community Medicine Department, SV Medical College, Tirupati, India. Subjects: The individuals who were aged 60 years and above were interviewed and examined. Method: By random sampling, the villages were selected. This study was conducted through house-to-house visits in the selected villages. Clinical examinations, observations and interviews were carried out by using a pre-designed, pre-tested proforma in the local language. Size: Four hundred subjects. The data was analysed by using SPSS (Statistical Package for Social Sciences), version17. Results: The prevalence of depression was 47%. The depression was high among the elderly who were aged 80 years and above (54.3%), females (56.5%), illiterates (59.0%), those who were below the poverty line (86.1%), those who were living alone (87.3%), those who were economically partially dependent (63.3%) and those depended totally for the activities of daily living (100.0%). These factors were significantly associated with depression. Conclusion: The prevalence of depression was found to be positively associated with increasing age, the female sex, illiteracy, a low socio-economic status, those who were living alone, those who were economically partially dependent and those who were totally dependent for the activities of daily living. Source

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