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Dhaka, Bangladesh

Saha L.,Dhaka Medical College Hospital
Mymensingh medical journal : MMJ

Cesarean delivery has become a commonly used measure for delivery of the fetus. In the recent years incidence of Cesarean section (CS) has increased dramatically with massive pubic interest. It is called Primary Cesarean section when it is performed for the first time on a pregnant woman. This is a cross sectional study conducted on primary cesarean section from January to December 2004 in Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujib Medical University (BSMMU) Hospital, Dhaka. A total of 100 cases were selected for the study. The major findings of the study were as follows: Overall cesarean section rate was 57.87 percent and among them 74.34 percent were primary cesarean section. The median age group of patients being operated was 20 to 25 years. Most of the operations were carried out on primigravid patient due to various indications. The main indications were fetal distress (35%), pre-eclampsia (14%) and cervical dystocia (12%). The rate of emergency Cesarean section rate was 70% while elective Cesarean section was 30%. Most of the Cesarean section was performed under spinal anesthesia (96%). Maternal morbidity was 20%. Among those, post-operative infections (45%) and UTI (25%) were the most common. The less common complications were Post Partum Haemorrhage (PPH), puerperal-pyrexia, urinary bladder injury and spinal headache. 88% of the babies were born with good APGAR score (Appearance, Pulse, Grimace, Activity, and Respiration). Perinatal mortality was found to be 4%. The death cases were severe perinatal asphyxia, very LBW (Low Birth Weight) and stillborn. Most of the patients (69%) were discharged from hospital within 8 days of operation. Source

Rahman M.H.,Dhaka Medical College Hospital
Mymensingh medical journal : MMJ

A 29 years old patient, claimed to be a male, presented to us with pubertal gender swing from female to male. Since birth he was reared as a female child. His breasts, axillary hairs and pubic hairs developed at about 11-12 years of age. At that time he also observed the mental and physical changes towards a male. He began to feel sexual attraction towards females due to enlargement of his phallus and he preferred to behave as a male. The patient further noticed deepening of voice as well as appearance of facial hairs at about 15 years of age. He never experienced menstruation. His parents are first degree cousins. On examination, there was facial hairs in upper lip and chin (G3), breasts were in mature stage (B5), pubic hairs were darker, coarser and curlier and spreading sparsely (P3), and stretched dorsal phallic length was 6cm. In perineoscrotal area, there was hypospadias with blind vaginal pouch, partially fused, pigmented & ruggated bilateral labio-scrotal folds and soft palpable ellipsoid gonads measuring about 8 ml (each) in volume within labio-scrotal folds. Ultrasound examination revealed no uterus and karyotyping test found 46XY. Provisionally, he was diagnosed as a case of 46,XY Disorders of Sex Development (DSD). On further investigations, serum testosterone was low, serum LH and DHEA were raised and serum electrolytes were normal. From history, physical examination and investigations we diagnosed the case as 46,XY DSD due to 17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase-3 deficiency. Source

Bacterial sepsis continues to be an important cause of morbidity and mortality in neonates. In newborn with presumed sepsis, short-term treatment with rhG-CSF increased the neutrophil count and more importantly improved survival. The objective of the study was to evaluate the effect of rhG-CSF for the treatment of neonates in presumed sepsis with neutropenia. This interventional study was conducted in the Department of Neonatology, BSMMU, Dhaka during July 2009 to May 2010. Total 30 neonates of presumed sepsis with absolute neutrophil count ≤5000/cumm, age<28 days and birth weight 1000-2000g were included in the study. A subcutaneous injection of rhG-CSF (10μgm/kg/day) was administered to 15 neonates for 5 consecutive days (study group) and 15 neonates did not receive it (control group) in addition to standard antibiotic protocol for neonatal sepsis. Baseline characteristics of 30 neonates shows male/female ratio, weight on admission, gestational age were similar in both groups. Among 30 neonates of clinically presumed sepsis 7(23%) were culture proven. E. coli was the most common organism. After 24 hours of treatment mean ANC was increased more in study group (p<0.05) compared to control group. Mean ANC after 72 hours of treatment was increased significantly in study group than control group: 5940.00 versus 5706.00 (p=0.01). At the end of treatment, the mean ANC was higher than that of control (p=0.001). Twelve neonates in study group and ten neonates in control group survived to hospital discharge. The mortality rate in the study group 3/15(20%) and in control group 5/15(33%) were not significant. Duration of hospital stay was less in study group but not significant. The study concluded that before routine use of rhG-CSF in neonatal sepsis with neutropenia further large scale, multi-centre, randomized, placebo controlled trial are needed to validate the beneficial effect. Source

Mollah A.H.,Dhaka Medical College Hospital
Mymensingh medical journal : MMJ

This cross sectional study was conducted to assess seroprotection by completed 3 doses of hepatitis B vaccine in routine EPI schedule in preterm & LBW as well as term appropriate weight babies and to compare the immune response among them. The study was conducted in EPI centre of Dhaka Medical College Hospital where 50 preterm (<37 completed weeks of gestation) and low birth weight (<2500 gm) infants enrolled in group A and 50 term (37-42 completed weeks of gestation) appropriate weight (≥2500 gm) in group B. All infants were immunized with 3 doses of hepatitis B vaccine according to EPI schedule and first vaccine was given at 6 weeks after birth and subsequent doses are given at one month interval. Adverse events were monitored. Anti HBs titre was determined 1 month after 3rd dose of vaccine from serum by ELISA method (VITROS anti HBs reagent pack). Seroprotectivity (anti HBs titres >10 mIU/ml) of hepatitis B vaccine after 3 doses were 94% and 98% in group A and B respectively (p>0.05). However, the preterm infants had a lower geometric mean titre of antibodies after 3 doses of vaccine than did the term infants (92.75 mIU/ml vs. 310.59 mIU/ml respectively; p<0.001). After 3 doses of hepatitis B vaccine though the seroprotective anti HBs titre (i.e. >10 mIU/ml) was ~96% irrespective of gestational age and birth weight but good antibody titre (i.e. >100 mIU/ml) was found among preterm babies having gestational age >34 weeks (73.6%) and birth weight >2000 gm (64%). Source

Mazumder U.,Dhaka Medical College Hospital
Mymensingh medical journal : MMJ

Obesity in pregnancy remains a significant health problem that result in physiological, emotional, social and economic consequences on woman, their families and society. Obesity is considered one of the nutritional problems complicating pregnancy in our country. This study was conducted in antenatal clinic at out patient department of Obstetrics & Gynecology, BIRDEM Hospital, one of the countries largest tertiary level hospitals, during January 2007 to December 2008. During the study period of two years, a total no. of 100 cases were enrolled in two groups. Out of this 50 were control and 50 were over weight and obese. In this study, Mean of height, weight and BMI of the over weight and obese group were 5.21±0.21, 79.35±13.66, 32.36±4.76 respectively. The Mean of birth weight, APGAR score after 1 min and after 5 min of the over weight and obese group were 3.07±0.75, 7.10±1.11, 9.92±0.98 respectively and in normal weight group were 2.74±0.55, 7.40±1.56, 9.92±1.83 respectively. There was significant difference in birth weight, APGAR score after 1 min between the groups (p<0.05) but there was no significant difference in APGAR score after 5 min between groups (p>0.05). Regarding the fetal outcome in this study, 20% of the over weight and obese group delivered macrosomic baby in comparison to only 4% in the normal weight group. On the other hand 46% of the case group had to refer their babies to the neonatal unit in comparison to only 12% in the control group. Gestational Diabetes Mellitus (GDM) (46%) and Preeclampsia (44%) developed more in obese group. Eighty eight (88%) of obese and overweight mother experienced in caesarean delivery. Asphyxia, Respiratory Distress Syndrome (RDS), congenital anomaly and prenatal death were more in the over weight and obese group than normal weight group. Thus, overweight and obesity has got significant deleterious effect on maternal and perinatal outcomes of pregnancy. Source

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