Dhaka, Bangladesh
Dhaka, Bangladesh

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Chakraborty L.,Dhaka Medical College Hospital
Mymensingh medical journal : MMJ | Year: 2012

This descriptive study was done to compare total Prostate Specific Antigen (tPSA) and the Free to Total Prostate Specific Antigen [(F/T) PSA] ratio measurements for prostate cancer detection. This study included a total of 43 patients with suspected prostate cancer observed over a period of 12 months. Out of 43 consecutive male patients (mean age 69±9.39 years, range 48-100 years), 32 had benign disease (74%) and 11 had prostate carcinoma patients (26%), who had histologically proven prostate cancer. The mean total PSA was 67.9 ng/ml and 12.4 ng/ml in patients with carcinoma prostate and nodular hyperplasia of prostate (NHP) respectively (p<0.05). The mean free PSA in carcinoma patients was 7.4±9.8 ng/ml and in NHP patients it was 2.3±4.1 ng/ml. The difference in mean free PSA concentration was significant (p<0.05). The free to total PSA ratio in two groups was significantly different (p<0.01) from each other. In carcinoma patients, mean F/T PSA ratio was 0.144±0.152 as compared 0.328±0.076 in patients with benign disease. The sensitivity and specificity of the test was calculated at different F/T PSA ratio cutoff. At 0.1 cut off value, sensitivity of the test was 64% and specificity was 84%. The positive predictive value (PPV) was 58% and negative predictive value (NPV) was 87%. From cutoff value of 0.12 to 0.16, sensitivity was increased from 64% to 91% but specificity was reduced from 84% to 59%. The PPV did not show much change and NPV was increased from 89% to 95%. Increasing the cut off value thereafter showed no change in sensitivity but specificity was further reduced to 41%. Therefore in this patient, F/T PSA ratio cut off of 0.15 was found to be the appropriate cutoff value. In 43 men who were biopsied, 11(26%) prostatic carcinoma were identified. Only one patient (9.1%) had F/T PSA ratio above 0.15 and diagnosed by biopsied. Out of 32 patients who were negative for malignancy, 13 patients had F/T PSA ratio more than 0.15 and 19 patients had F/T PSA ratio less than 0.15. The validity of tPSA and F/T PSA ratio in the diagnosis of prostate cancer was identified by calculating their sensitivity, specificity, PPV and NPV. In case of F/T PSA ratio the sensitivity was 91% and in conventional tPSA the sensitivity was 82%. Specificity was low in both the cases. But in tPSA the specificity was only 13% compare to 59% in F/T PSA. Positive predictive value (PPV) for tPSA was 25% and in F/T PSA it was 44%. Negative predictive value (NPV) for t PSA was 67% and for F/T PSA was 95% which was very high. The effectiveness of F/T PSA ratio at 0.15 cut off value with corresponding tPSA>10ng/ml shows sensitivity 83% in prostate cancer and 50% in NHP patient.

Chowdhury F.H.,Dhaka Medical College Hospital | Haque M.R.,Dhaka Medical College Hospital
Asian Spine Journal | Year: 2014

Study Design: Retrospective clinical study. Purpose: We report our experience of eight patients treated with C1-C3 lateral mass rod-screw stabilization and fusion in the treatment of Hangman's fracture and other axis pathologies. Overview of Literature: Different surgical approaches, both anterior and posterior, have been described for treating Hangman's fracture and other pathologies where surgery is indicated. Methods: All patients who underwent surgical treatment for Hangman's fracture and axial pathology where C1-C3 lateral mass screw-rod stabilization and fusion done, following reduction of the fracture or removal of the pathology were included in this series. The recorded patient management data was retrospectively studied. Results: There were 8 cases in total. All were male, with an average age of 40.75 years. Hangman's fracture occurred in 6 cases (75%), one with metastatic squamous cell carcinoma and the remaining with plasmocytoma. Among the Hangman's fractures 4 (66.66%) had no neuro-deficit. Reduction and bilateral C1-C3 lateral mass screw and rod fixation with posterior fusion by bone graft was performed in all cases. In 2 cases, a C2 body tumor was removed transorally. All patients with neuro-deficit fully recovered, except one who expired in the early post-operative period. Rest of all patients were leading a normal life till last follow up. Conclusions: Although the number of cases was very small with a relatively short follow up period, C1 and C3 lateral mass screwrod fixation followed by fusion showed promise as an effective and biomechanically sound way for the treatment of properly selected Hangman's fracture cases, and may also be suitable in other axial pathologies. © 2014 by Korean Society of Spine Surgery.

Mazumder U.,Dhaka Medical College Hospital
Mymensingh medical journal : MMJ | Year: 2011

Obesity in pregnancy remains a significant health problem that result in physiological, emotional, social and economic consequences on woman, their families and society. Obesity is considered one of the nutritional problems complicating pregnancy in our country. This study was conducted in antenatal clinic at out patient department of Obstetrics & Gynecology, BIRDEM Hospital, one of the countries largest tertiary level hospitals, during January 2007 to December 2008. During the study period of two years, a total no. of 100 cases were enrolled in two groups. Out of this 50 were control and 50 were over weight and obese. In this study, Mean of height, weight and BMI of the over weight and obese group were 5.21±0.21, 79.35±13.66, 32.36±4.76 respectively. The Mean of birth weight, APGAR score after 1 min and after 5 min of the over weight and obese group were 3.07±0.75, 7.10±1.11, 9.92±0.98 respectively and in normal weight group were 2.74±0.55, 7.40±1.56, 9.92±1.83 respectively. There was significant difference in birth weight, APGAR score after 1 min between the groups (p<0.05) but there was no significant difference in APGAR score after 5 min between groups (p>0.05). Regarding the fetal outcome in this study, 20% of the over weight and obese group delivered macrosomic baby in comparison to only 4% in the normal weight group. On the other hand 46% of the case group had to refer their babies to the neonatal unit in comparison to only 12% in the control group. Gestational Diabetes Mellitus (GDM) (46%) and Preeclampsia (44%) developed more in obese group. Eighty eight (88%) of obese and overweight mother experienced in caesarean delivery. Asphyxia, Respiratory Distress Syndrome (RDS), congenital anomaly and prenatal death were more in the over weight and obese group than normal weight group. Thus, overweight and obesity has got significant deleterious effect on maternal and perinatal outcomes of pregnancy.

Hoque M.A.,Dhaka Medical College Hospital
Mymensingh medical journal : MMJ | Year: 2010

Fahr's disease, first described by Karl Theodor Fahr in 1930, refers to sporadic or familial idiopathic basal ganglia calcification that is associated with many neurological and psychiatric abnormalities, but may also be secondary to other diseases. Most cases present with extrapyramidal symptoms. But here we describe a case of Fahr's disease, who presented with complex partial seizure and behavioral abnormalities. On screening, the cause of seizure was found to be bilateral calcification of cerebellum, basal ganglia and thalamus, due to abnormal calcium and phosphate metabolism. A clinical diagnosis of complex-partial seizure with secondary generalization due to secondary Fahr's disease was done on the basis of clinical features, investigations, and exclusion of other causes of intracranial calcification.

Mollah A.H.,Dhaka Medical College Hospital
Mymensingh medical journal : MMJ | Year: 2012

This cross sectional study was conducted to assess seroprotection by completed 3 doses of hepatitis B vaccine in routine EPI schedule in preterm & LBW as well as term appropriate weight babies and to compare the immune response among them. The study was conducted in EPI centre of Dhaka Medical College Hospital where 50 preterm (<37 completed weeks of gestation) and low birth weight (<2500 gm) infants enrolled in group A and 50 term (37-42 completed weeks of gestation) appropriate weight (≥2500 gm) in group B. All infants were immunized with 3 doses of hepatitis B vaccine according to EPI schedule and first vaccine was given at 6 weeks after birth and subsequent doses are given at one month interval. Adverse events were monitored. Anti HBs titre was determined 1 month after 3rd dose of vaccine from serum by ELISA method (VITROS anti HBs reagent pack). Seroprotectivity (anti HBs titres >10 mIU/ml) of hepatitis B vaccine after 3 doses were 94% and 98% in group A and B respectively (p>0.05). However, the preterm infants had a lower geometric mean titre of antibodies after 3 doses of vaccine than did the term infants (92.75 mIU/ml vs. 310.59 mIU/ml respectively; p<0.001). After 3 doses of hepatitis B vaccine though the seroprotective anti HBs titre (i.e. >10 mIU/ml) was ~96% irrespective of gestational age and birth weight but good antibody titre (i.e. >100 mIU/ml) was found among preterm babies having gestational age >34 weeks (73.6%) and birth weight >2000 gm (64%).

Chowdhury R.N.,Dhaka Medical College & Hospital
Mymensingh medical journal : MMJ | Year: 2014

Patients with epilepsy experience recurrent, unprovoked seizures. In most of the cases seizure occurs spontaneously, but there may be association with various triggers. These triggers may act as seizure precipitating factors (SPFs). This study was done to find out the most common SPFs and their relationship to different types epileptic patients attending a tertiary care hospital in Bangladesh. This cross sectional study was carried out in specialized epilepsy weekly outdoor clinic and Medicine outpatient department (OPD) of Dhaka Medical College Hospital from January 2008 to July 2011, which included 1168 epilepsy patients. All patients attending the clinic were included in the study. Epilepsy syndromes were broadly classified into four categories using the classification system of international league against epilepsy (ILAE) namely, generalized epilepsy (GE), localization related epilepsy (LRE), symptomatic and unclassified. Each patient was evaluated and classified by consultant neurologist. All participants were interviewed through a predesigned close ended questionnaire that included a long list of 30 precipitating factors. Among all the patients 71.5% were male, with most common age group 11-20 years (36.8%). About 62% could indentify at least one precipitator. Excitation (25.2%) was the most common SPF reported by patients followed by emotional stress in 17.7%. Fever precipitated seizure in 16.4% of the subjects. A good number of them (15.5%) noticed that whenever there was sleep deprivation, they had an attack of epilepsy. However, drug withdrawal, playing outside and head trauma were also common among the patients, about 11.7%, 11.3% and 8.4% respectively. Most of the patients can identify their seizure precipitant and clustering of many SPFs suggests a common patho-physiologic mechanism for these triggers. Excitation, sleep deprivation, fever, watching television and head trauma showed a strong association with generalized epilepsy. Patients with seizure disorder should be evaluated for presence of SPFs, because identification of these might help in proper management of epilepsy.

Rahman M.H.,Dhaka Medical College & Hospital
Mymensingh medical journal : MMJ | Year: 2012

A 29 years old patient, claimed to be a male, presented to us with pubertal gender swing from female to male. Since birth he was reared as a female child. His breasts, axillary hairs and pubic hairs developed at about 11-12 years of age. At that time he also observed the mental and physical changes towards a male. He began to feel sexual attraction towards females due to enlargement of his phallus and he preferred to behave as a male. The patient further noticed deepening of voice as well as appearance of facial hairs at about 15 years of age. He never experienced menstruation. His parents are first degree cousins. On examination, there was facial hairs in upper lip and chin (G3), breasts were in mature stage (B5), pubic hairs were darker, coarser and curlier and spreading sparsely (P3), and stretched dorsal phallic length was 6cm. In perineoscrotal area, there was hypospadias with blind vaginal pouch, partially fused, pigmented & ruggated bilateral labio-scrotal folds and soft palpable ellipsoid gonads measuring about 8 ml (each) in volume within labio-scrotal folds. Ultrasound examination revealed no uterus and karyotyping test found 46XY. Provisionally, he was diagnosed as a case of 46,XY Disorders of Sex Development (DSD). On further investigations, serum testosterone was low, serum LH and DHEA were raised and serum electrolytes were normal. From history, physical examination and investigations we diagnosed the case as 46,XY DSD due to 17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase-3 deficiency.

Bacterial sepsis continues to be an important cause of morbidity and mortality in neonates. In newborn with presumed sepsis, short-term treatment with rhG-CSF increased the neutrophil count and more importantly improved survival. The objective of the study was to evaluate the effect of rhG-CSF for the treatment of neonates in presumed sepsis with neutropenia. This interventional study was conducted in the Department of Neonatology, BSMMU, Dhaka during July 2009 to May 2010. Total 30 neonates of presumed sepsis with absolute neutrophil count ≤5000/cumm, age<28 days and birth weight 1000-2000g were included in the study. A subcutaneous injection of rhG-CSF (10μgm/kg/day) was administered to 15 neonates for 5 consecutive days (study group) and 15 neonates did not receive it (control group) in addition to standard antibiotic protocol for neonatal sepsis. Baseline characteristics of 30 neonates shows male/female ratio, weight on admission, gestational age were similar in both groups. Among 30 neonates of clinically presumed sepsis 7(23%) were culture proven. E. coli was the most common organism. After 24 hours of treatment mean ANC was increased more in study group (p<0.05) compared to control group. Mean ANC after 72 hours of treatment was increased significantly in study group than control group: 5940.00 versus 5706.00 (p=0.01). At the end of treatment, the mean ANC was higher than that of control (p=0.001). Twelve neonates in study group and ten neonates in control group survived to hospital discharge. The mortality rate in the study group 3/15(20%) and in control group 5/15(33%) were not significant. Duration of hospital stay was less in study group but not significant. The study concluded that before routine use of rhG-CSF in neonatal sepsis with neutropenia further large scale, multi-centre, randomized, placebo controlled trial are needed to validate the beneficial effect.

Saha L.,Dhaka Medical College Hospital
Mymensingh medical journal : MMJ | Year: 2011

Cesarean delivery has become a commonly used measure for delivery of the fetus. In the recent years incidence of Cesarean section (CS) has increased dramatically with massive pubic interest. It is called Primary Cesarean section when it is performed for the first time on a pregnant woman. This is a cross sectional study conducted on primary cesarean section from January to December 2004 in Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujib Medical University (BSMMU) Hospital, Dhaka. A total of 100 cases were selected for the study. The major findings of the study were as follows: Overall cesarean section rate was 57.87 percent and among them 74.34 percent were primary cesarean section. The median age group of patients being operated was 20 to 25 years. Most of the operations were carried out on primigravid patient due to various indications. The main indications were fetal distress (35%), pre-eclampsia (14%) and cervical dystocia (12%). The rate of emergency Cesarean section rate was 70% while elective Cesarean section was 30%. Most of the Cesarean section was performed under spinal anesthesia (96%). Maternal morbidity was 20%. Among those, post-operative infections (45%) and UTI (25%) were the most common. The less common complications were Post Partum Haemorrhage (PPH), puerperal-pyrexia, urinary bladder injury and spinal headache. 88% of the babies were born with good APGAR score (Appearance, Pulse, Grimace, Activity, and Respiration). Perinatal mortality was found to be 4%. The death cases were severe perinatal asphyxia, very LBW (Low Birth Weight) and stillborn. Most of the patients (69%) were discharged from hospital within 8 days of operation.

Sultana T.,Dhaka Medical College Hospital
Mymensingh medical journal : MMJ | Year: 2011

The morphology of red cells by phase-contrast microscopy (PCM) is a useful diagnostic marker for glomerular haematuria. This study evaluated the value of urinary dysmorphic red cells and G1 cells (special type of dysmorphic red cell) count by PCM providing a simple, cost effective and low risk technique in the diagnosis of glomerular diseases. Urine samples of 120 patients with haematuria and proteinuria were examined and the percentage of dysmorphic red cells and G1 cells were calculated. Cases were divided into two groups; group I (>20% dysmorphic red cells- glomerular group) and group II (≤20% dysmorphic red cells as non glomerular group). Renal histopathology was used as the gold standard method for the diagnosis of glomerulonephritis. Results from PCM showed a sensitivity of 92.7%, specificity 100% by the detection of dysmorphic red cell while by the detection of G1 cells, a sensitivity of 97.6% and specificity 100% were observed. The percentage of G1 cells is superior to counting dysmorphic red cells. The high sensitivity of phase contrast microscopy confirms its usefulness for the detection of dysmorphic red cells and G1 cells that can guide clinicians in the identification of the site of haematuria using non invasive tests.

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