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Dhahran, Saudi Arabia

Stindt J.,Heinrich Heine University Dusseldorf | Kluge S.,Heinrich Heine University Dusseldorf | Droge C.,Heinrich Heine University Dusseldorf | Keitel V.,Heinrich Heine University Dusseldorf | And 22 more authors.
Hepatology | Year: 2016

Progressive familial intrahepatic cholestasis type 2 (PFIC-2) is caused by mutations in ABCB11, encoding the bile salt export pump (BSEP). In 2009, we described a child with PFIC-2 who developed PFIC-like symptoms after orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT). BSEP-reactive antibodies were demonstrated to account for disease recurrence. Here, we characterize the nature of this antibody response in 7 more patients with antibody-induced BSEP deficiency (AIBD). Gene sequencing and immunostaining of native liver biopsies indicated absent or strongly reduced BSEP expression in all 7 PFIC-2 patients who suffered from phenotypic disease recurrence post-OLT. Immunofluorescence, western blotting analysis, and transepithelial transport assays demonstrated immunoglobulin (Ig) G-class BSEP-reactive antibodies in these patients. In all cases, the N-terminal half of BSEP was recognized, with reaction against its first extracellular loop (ECL1) in six sera. In five, antibodies reactive against the C-terminal half also were found. Only the sera recognizing ECL1 showed inhibition of transepithelial taurocholate transport. In a vesicle-based functional assay, transport inhibition by anti-BSEP antibodies binding from the cytosolic side was functionally proven as well. Within 2 hours of perfusion with antibodies purified from 1 patient, rat liver showed canalicular IgG staining that was absent after perfusion with control IgG. Conclusions: PFIC-2 patients carrying severe BSEP mutations are at risk of developing BSEP antibodies post-OLT. The antibody response is polyclonal, targeting both extra- and intracellular BSEP domains. ECL1, a unique domain of BSEP, likely is a critical target involved in transport inhibition as demonstrated in several patients with AIBD manifest as cholestasis. © 2016 by the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases.

Saroufim M.,American University of Beirut | Habib R.,American University of Beirut | Karram S.,American University of Beirut | Youssef Massad C.,American University of Beirut | And 8 more authors.
American Journal of Dermatopathology | Year: 2014

BRAF mutation has been linked to the development of melanocytic tumors in homogeneous Caucasian cohorts. The role of solar UV radiation (UVR) in BRAF mutation status is poorly understood. We studied the epidemiology of BRAF mutation across a spectrum of melanocytic neoplasms in populations with differing UVR rates. Extended testing for 9 mutation types was attempted on 600 melanocytic neoplasms including banal nevi (n = 225), dysplastic nevi (n = 113), primary (n = 172), and metastatic melanomas (n = 90). Specimens were collected from 4 countries with increasing UVR rates (in kJ/m2/yr): Syria (n = 45; UVR = 93.5), Lebanon (n = 225; UVR = 110), Pakistan (n = 122; UVR = 128), and Saudi Arabia (n = 208; UVR = 139). UVR was estimated from 21-year averages from The National Center for Atmospheric Research database. The overall BRAF mutation rate was 49% (268 of 545) and differed significantly by the geographic location [34% Pakistan, 49% Lebanon, 67% Syria, and 54% Saudi Arabia; P = 0.001], neoplasm type (P < 0.001), and anatomical location (P < 0.001) but not with age (P = 0.07) and gender (P = 1.0). V600E was the predominant mutation type, found in 96.3% of the cases. Incidence of melanoma was significantly greater in BRAF-negative (39%) versus BRAF-positive (17%) groups. For BRAF-positive cases, less severe lesions were systematically more frequent (P < 0.001). Multivariate analysis indicated that BRAF mutation is predicted by neoplasm type, anatomical site, and geographic location. In our Near East cohort, BRAF mutation rates varied by geographic location but not based on UVR. BRAF-positive status was associated with less severe lesions. © 2013 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.

Saab J.,American University of Beirut | Fedda F.,American University of Beirut | Khattab R.,American University of Beirut | Yahya L.,American University of Beirut | And 7 more authors.
Journal of Cutaneous Pathology | Year: 2012

Background: Cutaneous leishmaniasis displays considerable variation in its histopathological and clinical presentation. Clinically, it progresses from a papule into a painless ulcerated and crusted nodule/papule. Microscopically, it progresses from sheets of amastigote-filled histiocytes to granulomatous inflammation. Methods: The study was conducted on 145 skin biopsies from untreated patients with histopathological and/or clinical suspicion of cutaneous leishmaniasis in Lebanon, Syria and Saudi Arabia (1992-2010). The pre-biopsy clinical diagnosis and demographic data were collected. Biopsies were evaluated for the major microscopic pattern, and the parasitic index (PI) was also determined. Diagnosis was confirmed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) followed by molecular sub-speciation. Results: Of the 145 patients, 125 were confirmed as cutaneous leishmaniasis by PCR. Eighteen cases presented with a pre-biopsy clinical diagnosis other than cutaneous leishmaniasis that ranged from dermatitis to neoplasm. Of the 125 cases, 57 showed a major histopathological pattern other than cutaneous leishmaniasis. Identification of amastigotes was equivocal (PI ≤ 1) in 38 of the 57 cases. Of interest, all the 18 cases with a pre-biopsy clinical diagnosis other than cutaneous leishmaniasis also showed atypical histopathology for cutaneous leishmaniasis. Conclusions: The manifestations of cutaneous leishmaniasis are broad and may mimic other inflammatory and neoplastic diseases. Pathologists and dermatologists should be aware of such pitfalls and can utilize PCR to confirm the diagnosis of leishmaniasis. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

Bicknell L.S.,Medical Research Council MRC | Walker S.,University of Sussex | Klingseisen A.,Medical Research Council MRC | Stiff T.,University of Sussex | And 11 more authors.
Nature Genetics | Year: 2011

Studies into disorders of extreme growth failure (for example, Seckel syndrome and Majewski osteodysplastic primordial dwarfism type II) have implicated fundamental cellular processes of DNA damage response signaling and centrosome function in the regulation of human growth. Here we report that mutations in ORC1, encoding a subunit of the origin recognition complex, cause microcephalic primordial dwarfism resembling Meier-Gorlin syndrome. We establish that these mutations disrupt known ORC1 functions including pre-replicative complex formation and origin activation. ORC1 deficiency perturbs S-phase entry and S-phase progression. Additionally, we show that Orc1 depletion in zebrafish is sufficient to markedly reduce body size during rapid embryonic growth. Our data suggest a model in which ORC1 mutations impair replication licensing, slowing cell cycle progression and consequently impeding growth during development, particularly at times of rapid proliferation. These findings establish a novel mechanism for the pathogenesis of microcephalic dwarfism and show a surprising but important developmental impact of impaired origin licensing. © 2011 Nature America, Inc. All rights reserved.

Abduljabbar M.A.,Dhahran Health Center | Aljubeh J.M.,Sheikh Khalifa Medical City | Amalraj A.,Aramco Services Company | Cherian M.P.,Sheikh Khalifa Medical City
Saudi Medical Journal | Year: 2010

The incidence rate of childhood type 1 diabetes increased alarmingly over the past 18 years in our study population. A Kingdom-wide diabetes registry is essential to study the epidemiology of this disease in the whole country.

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