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Harding W.R.,DH Consulting | Taylor J.C.,North West University South Africa | Taylor J.C.,South African Institute For Aquatic Biodiversity
Water SA | Year: 2014

Historical diatom records provide a means of retrospectively determining water quality and inferring ecological condition in rivers and streams. In this study we re-sampled sites originally sampled 48 years previously. We then determined the scores for the Biological Diatom Index (BDI) and the South African Diatom Index (SADI) for each dataset. The results revealed that the present day conditions in this relatively undisturbed locality were almost identical to those reflected by the samples collected half a century before. This illustrates the value of historical diatom data for the purposes of determining antecedent water quality. © 2014, South African Water Research Commission, All right reserved.

Barnhoorn I.E.J.,University of Venda | van Dyk J.C.,University of Johannesburg | Genthe B.,South African Council for Scientific and Industrial Research | Harding W.R.,DH Consulting | And 2 more authors.
Chemosphere | Year: 2015

There are increasing concerns regarding the safe human consumption of fish from polluted, freshwater impoundments. The aim of this study was to analyse the muscle tissue of the sharptooth catfish Clarias gariepinus for selected organo-chlorine pesticides (OCPs) and to perform a human health risk assessment using a standard protocol described by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA). Fish were collected from the polluted Roodeplaat-(RDPD), Rietvlei-(RVD) and Hartbeespoort (HBPD) Dam impoundments located in the north-eastern regions of South Africa. GC-MS analyses showed levels of various OCPs in fish muscle samples from all three impoundments. For fish collected from the RDPD, p,p'-DDE, endosulfan, lindane and β- and δ-HCH were the most prevalent OCPs detected, while p,p'-DDE and endosulfan were the most predominant in fish from the RVD. Lindane and β- and δ-HCH were the main OCPs detected in fish from the HBPD. Dieldrin was the only OCP detected at concentrations for which a cancer risk and a hazard index above the acceptable risk levels were estimated. This was the case for fish from both the RDPD and RVD impoundments. No toxic risk was estimated should fish from the HBPD be consumed. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.

Rose K.D.,Concawe | Samaras Z.,Aristotle University of Thessaloniki | Clark R.,Royal Dutch Shell | Elliott N.,Esso Petroleum Company Ltd | And 6 more authors.
SAE International Journal of Fuels and Lubricants | Year: 2010

Fatty Acid Methyl Ester (FAME) products derived from vegetable oils and animal fats are now widely used in European diesel fuels and their use will increase in order to meet mandated targets for the use of renewable products in road fuels. As more FAME enters the diesel pool, understanding the impact of higher FAME levels on the performance and emissions of modern light-duty diesel vehicles is increasingly important. Of special significance to Well-to-Wheels (WTW) calculations is the potential impact that higher FAME levels may have on the vehicle's volumetric fuel consumption. The primary objective of this study was to generate statistically robust fuel consumption data on three light-duty diesel vehicles complying with Euro 4 emissions regulations. These vehicles were evaluated on a chassis dynamometer using four fuels: A hydrocarbon-only diesel fuel and three FAME/diesel fuel blends containing up to 50% v/v FAME. One FAME type, a Rapeseed Methyl Ester (RME), was used throughout. One vehicle was equipped only with an oxidation catalyst while the other two were also equipped with two types of Diesel Particulate Filters (DPFs). In addition to CO 2 emissions, regulated tailpipe emissions (NOx, HC, CO, PM, and PN) were collected in order to evaluate the impact of higher RME contents on emissions performance. The results obtained over the New European Driving Cycle (NEDC) indicate that the volumetric fuel consumption systematically increases with increasing RME content for all three vehicles. Within the statistical precision, the vehicles were not able to compensate for the lower energy content of the RME/diesel blends and consumed more fuel in direct proportion to the lower energy content of the RME/diesel blends. As the RME content of the fuel increased, the particulate mass (PM) and solid particle number (PN) were generally found to decrease over the NEDC while the NOx, CO, and HC emissions increased. The overall impact of RME on regulated tailpipe emissions is much smaller, however, compared to the variations in emissions seen over the NEDC sub-cycles. © 2010 SAE International.

Johnson R.,bioMerieux | Mills J.,bioMerieux | Pittet J.-L.,bioMerieux | Hughes D.,DH Consulting
Journal of AOAC International | Year: 2013

The VIDAS® Listeria monocytogenes Xpress (LMX) test is an enzyme-linked fluorescent immunoassay designed for use with the automated VIDAS or mini-VIDAS instruments for the specific detection of L. monocytogenes using a 26 h proprietary enrichment broth. The VIDAS LMX method was validated according to harmonized AOAC Research Institute (RI) and Official Methods of Analysis guidelines in both the AOAC Performance Tested MethodSM (PTM) and GovVal programs. In the PTM comparison studies, the VIDAS LMX method was compared to the U.S. Department of Agriculture-Food Safety and Inspection Service Microbiology Laboratory Guidebook, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration Bacteriological Analytical Manual, and AOAC Official Methods. The comparative food studies consisted of two main parts: internal testing and AOAC independent laboratory testing, which included seven food matrixes (deli ham, processed cheese, vanilla ice cream, cooked shrimp, smoked white fish, frozen spinach, and peanut butter). As part of the AOAC RI GovVal program, the VIDAS LMX method was compared to the Health Canada MFHPB-30 method for the detection of L. monocytogenes in five ready-to-eat (RTE) meats (hot dogs, deli turkey, deli ham, fermented sausage, and liver paté). Twenty replicates of each inoculation level and five uninoculated controls were evaluated in each study. The LMX method also included the use of chromogenic media, chromIDTM Ottaviani Agosti agar and chromID™ L. mono. agar, for confirmation of LMX presumptive results. In both the PTM and GovVal evaluations, there were no significant differences in the Chi-square values for the LMX method when compared to reference methods. The additional parameters tested in the PTM evaluation (inclusivity, exclusivity, ruggedness, stability, and lotto- lot) satisfied the AOAC RI performance requirements. In both the PTM and GovVal validation studies, the VIDAS LMX method demonstrated reliability as a rapid qualitative method for next-day detection of L. monocytogenes in a variety of foods, including RTE meats. © 2013 Publishing Technology.

Data on fish standing stocks in 7 South African reservoirs were used to assess prospects of reducing in-lake amounts of total phosphorus (TP) through remedial biomanipulation – the removal of fish to deplete internal stocks of biomass-incorporated TP and especially to restrict enhancement of TP availability through internal ‘bottom up’ recycling by fish. Literature-derived conversion functions were used to estimate the quantity of TP stored in fish biomass, recycled by fish through excretion, and released from bottom sediments through carp and catfish bioturbation. This provided a quasi mass-balance assessment of these contributory influences of fish on TP budgets of reservoirs ranging from mesotrophy to hypertrophy in trophic status (annual mean TP levels of 0.04–0.51 mg/ℓ). Absolute contributions of fish were inevitably related directly to reservoir-specific fish stock abundance, both total-fish and coarse-fish biomass levels which increased with trophic status, generating parallel absolute increases in TP sinks and internal TP loading fluxes. On overall average, total fish stock sequestered 2.2 kg TP/ha in biomass, recycled 13.8 kg TP/ha/yr through excretion, and mobilized 8.0 kg TP/ha/yr through sediment bioturbation. Average values relative to external loadings in 5 reservoirs amounted to 3.8% (biomass), 22.8% (excretion) and 11.8% (bioturbation), totalling 38.4%. Most pertinently, the relative importance of fish in reservoir TP budgets declined progressively with rising trophic status, with corresponding averages less than half (1.4, 8.7 and 5.4%, total = 15.4%) in 3 hypertrophic reservoirs (> 0.10 mg TP/ℓ). While total fish eradication plausibly reduces average internal phosphorus by some 40% relative to external load, the corresponding average reduction in hypertrophic reservoirs in greatest need of nutrient reduction is far less (~ 15%). ‘Bottom-up’ bioremediation accordingly offers little help in the management of nutrient-enriched reservoirs, and is essentially futile where high external nutrient loading persists. © 2015, South African Water Research Commission . All rights reserved.

Fish predation on zooplankton is the basic foundation for top-down biomanipulation of lacustrine ecosystems. To test this premise, we determined stable isotope (SI) values (δ13C and δ15N) of representative samples of major planktonic (phytoplankton, zooplankton), benthic (submerged macrophytes and associated epiphytes, benthic macro-invertebrates) and nektonic (fish) food-web components, collected from 3 to 7 shallow inshore locations (with additional plankton samples at 1 or 2 deep offshore sites) in Rietvlei Dam over a period of 30 months. The resulting δ13C values did not indicate significant consumption of zooplankton by fish, while the δ15N values for fish confirmed their wide trophic separation from zooplankton. Instead, SI values indicated that fish relied mostly on food resources of benthic origin (through direct consumption or piscivory). The SI signatures of individual fish species were consistent with their known feeding habits. The lack of trophic couplings between zooplankton and fish accords with previous gut content analyses of fish and analyses of zooplankton abundance and size structure in hypertrophic reservoirs. Marginal utilisation of zooplankton by indigenous reservoir fish is attributable to their native origin as riverine species unaccustomed to feeding on zooplankton. These findings indicate that top-down biomanipulation is unlikely to be effective as a management tool in eutrophic South African reservoirs. Primary producer components exhibited surprisingly wide and unsystematic temporal fluctuations in both δ13C and δ15N values; some potential contributory factors are considered. Changes in phytoplankton δ13C values were broadly tracked by zooplankton - their nominal consumers. Some questions arising from the study, and some apparently anomalous findings are identified and discussed.

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