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Zheng Y.,CAS Institute of Botany | Zheng Y.,Chinese Ministry of Water Resources | Xu X.,Dezhou Academy of Agricultural science | Simmons M.,CAS Institute of Botany | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Plant Nutrition and Soil Science | Year: 2010

An experiment was conducted to test whether foliar application of KNO3 on wheat in the heading stage could reduce salinity-induced injuries, produce high grain yield, and improve grain quality. Salt-resistant DK961 and salt-sensitive JN17 wheat cultivars under 0 or 100 mM-NaCl conditions were foliarly watered with distilled water or a 10 mM-KNO3 solution. The four treatments included: T1 (CK1), 0 mM NaCl + distilled water; T2, 0 mM NaCl + 10 mM KNO3;T3 (CK2), 100 mM NaCl + distilled water; T4, 100 mM NaCl + 10 mM KNO3. The results indicate that there were no differences (p > 0.05) in plant growth, grain yield, and grain quality between T2 and T1 in both cultivars, but these response variables were significantly lower in T3 than in T1.K+:Na+ ratio, chlorophyll content, photosynthetic capacity, grain yield, flour yield, water absorbance, ash content, dough-development time and dough-stability time were significantly higher in T4 than in T3, while protein concentration, wet-gluten concentration, and antioxidant enzyme activities were lower. Although foliar application of KNO3 on JN17 enhanced plant growth, grain yield, and grain quality, these parameters were still lower in T4 than in T1. Our findings suggest that cultivating the salt-resistant wheat cultivar combined with foliar application of KNO3 at heading stage may alleviate salinity injuries and produce higher grain yield and better grain quality under saline conditions. © 2010 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim. Source


Zhu Q.,Shandong Agricultural University | Zhang M.,Shandong Agricultural University | Ma Q.,Dezhou Academy of Agricultural science
Scientia Horticulturae | Year: 2012

This experiment was carried out to determine the influence of copper-based foliar fertilizer and controlled release urea on soil chemical properties, plant growth and yield of tomato. Tomato plants were grown in pots under field condition. Controlled release urea (CRU), comparing with common urea, was placed into soil before transplanting seedlings. Plants were sprayed with copper-based foliar fertilizer with added zinc (CFF+Zn), a novel foliar formulation based on traditional Bordeaux mixture, at 43, 50, 70 and 97 days after transplanting (DAT) compared with plants sprayed with CFF and Kocide 2000 (KCD). Water-sprayed plants and no fertilized soil served as the controls. CRU provided the significantly higher NO3-N concentration in soil than common urea at the end of the experiment. Under the same placement of CRU, the application of CFF+Zn increased the available fraction of Cu in soil and thus made influence on soil pH and EC. At 89 DAT, plant height and leaf chlorophyll content were higher in plants sprayed with CFF+Zn compared with water-sprayed plants. Leaves from CFF, CFF+Zn and KCD treatments showed significantly higher total Cu concentration than control at 65 and 89 DAT. Without the placement of soil fertilizer, CFF treated plant increased the yield by 20.75% compared with water-sprayed plant. CRU treatment accompanied with water application significantly increased total yield by 28.58% compared with the Urea treatment. Accompanied with the same placement of CRU, yields of the plants sprayed with CFF+Zn were 27.07%, 20.73% and 20.46% more than the yields of water, CFF and KCD-sprayed plants, respectively. These results clearly indicate that the application of copper-based foliar fertilizer with added zinc and controlled release urea is favorable for tomato. © 2012 Elsevier B.V. Source


Guan Y.,Shandong Agricultural University | Guan Y.,Shandong Academy of Agricultural Sciences | Wang H.,Shandong Academy of Agricultural Sciences | Qin L.,Shandong Academy of Agricultural Sciences | And 5 more authors.
Euphytica | Year: 2011

Plant height (PHT), stem and leaf fresh weight (SLFW), juice weight (JW) and sugar content of stem (Brix) are important traits for biofuel production in sweet Sorghum. QTL analysis of PHT, SLFW, JW and Brix was conducted with composite interval mapping using F2 and F2:3 populations derived from the cross between grain Sorghum (Shihong137) × sweet Sorghum (L-Tian). Three QTLs controlling PHT were mapped on SBI-01, SBI-07 and SBI-09 under four different environments. These QTLs could explain 10. 16 to 45.29% of the phenotypic variance. Two major effect QTLs on SBI-07 and SBI-09 were consistently detected under four environments. Eight QTLs controlling SLFW were mapped across three environments and accounted for 5.49-25.36% of the phenotypic variance. One major QTL on SBI-09 located between marker Sb5-206 and SbAGE03 was observed under three environments. Four QTLs controlling Brix were identified under two environments and accounted for 11.03-17.65% of the phenotypic variance. Six QTLs controlling JW were detected under two environments, and explained 6.63-23.56% of the phenotypic variance. QTLs for JW on SBI-07 and SBI-09 were consistent in two environments showing higher environmental stability. In addition, two chromosome regions on SBI-07 and SBI-09 were identified in our study having major effect on PHT, SFLW and JW. The results would be useful for the genetic improvement of sweet Sorghum to be used for biofuel production. © 2011 Springer Science+Business Media B.V. Source


Zhang Z.-K.,Shandong Agricultural University | Li H.,Dezhou Academy of Agricultural science | Zhag Y.,Shandong Agricultural University | Huang Z.-J.,Shandong Agricultural University | And 2 more authors.
Agricultural Sciences in China | Year: 2010

An experiment was carried out to determine plant growth, mineral uptake, lipid peroxidation, antioxidative enzymes, and antioxidant of cucumber plants (Cucumis sativus L. cv. Xintaimici) under copper stress, either ungrafted or grafted onto the rootstock (Cucurbita ficifolia). Excess Cu inhibited growth, photosynthesis, and pigment synthesis of grafted and ungrafted cucumber seedlings and significantly increased accumulation of Cu in roots besides reducing mineral uptake. Cu concentration in roots of grafted cucumber plants was significantly higher than that of ungrafted plants and obviously lower in leaves. The accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) significantly increased in cucumber leaves under Cu stress and resulted in lipid peroxidation, and the levels of ROS and lipid peroxidation were greatly decreased by grafting. Activities of protective enzymes (superoxide dismutase, SOD; peroxidase, POD; catalase, CAT; ascorbate peroxidase, APX; dehydroascorbate reductase, DHAR; glutathione reductase, GR) and the contents of ascorbate and glutathione in leaves of grafted plants were significantly higher than those of ungrafted plants under Cu stress. Better performance of grafted cucumber plants were attributed to the higher ability of Cu accumulation in their roots, better nutrient status, and the effective scavenging system of ROS. © 2010 Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences. Source


Li Y.B.,Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences | Pang H.C.,Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences | Yang X.,Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences | Li Y.Y.,Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences | And 4 more authors.
Shengtai Xuebao/ Acta Ecologica Sinica | Year: 2013

Annual rotary tillage often can create a compacted plough pan in shallow soil layers, and result in the decrease of soil fertility and crop yield due to the reduction of water storage and nutrient supply. Meanwhile, the decreased water use efficiency has worsened the imbalance between supply and demand of agricultural water, especially in water shortage regions. In order to minimize such negative effects caused by annual rotary tillage, a new deep soil tillage method called deep vertically rotary tillage with use of vertically corkscrew aiguilles was implemented to test its role in improving soil water movement and water use efficiency in northern China's Huang-huai-hai region. Eight treatments including deep vertically rotary tillage to 30 cm (treatment I), deep vertically rotary tillage to 50 cm (treatment II), deep vertically rotary tillage to 30 cm with plastic film mulching (treatment III), deep vertically rotary tillage to 50 cm with plastic film mulching (treatment IV), deep vertically rotary tillage to 30 cm with no-cultivation (treatment V) and deep vertically rotary tillage to 50 cm with no-cultivation (treatment VI) were conducted, while rotary tillage (treatment VII) and subsoiling (treatment VIII) were used as experimental control. Based on the analysis of soil moisture contour mapping, soil water consumption and water use efficiency among different treatments, several main results were found. (1) Compared with rotary tillage and subsoiling, cultivated soil layers by deep vertically rotary tillage became looser and deeper. Therefore, rain-water infiltration and soil water up-and-down transferring capacity under deep vertically rotary tillage were improved, which resulted in the reduction of total crop water consumption and promotion of water use efficiency. For instance, the total crop water consumption of treatment I- IV decreased by 12.2%-16.4% and 10.2%-14.5% with respect to that of rotary tillage and subsoiling, respectively. Furthermore, the water use efficiency at yield level of treatment I- IV increased by 28.3%-50.6% and 19.1%-39.7% compared to that of the two controlled treatments, respectively. (2) Deep vertically rotary tillage was proved to be beneficial for rain-water infiltration and soil water up-and-down transferring capacity which increased with tillage depth. However, total water consumption amount increased and water use efficiency decreased with tillage depth to some extent. For instance, compared with treatment I, water consumption amount of treatment IIincreased by 5%, and leaf water use efficiency at the 59th and 111th day after sowing and water use efficiency at yield level decreased by 1.6%, 1.0% and 2.1%, respectively. (3) Surface water loss at lower field coverage in early growing stages of crops was inhibited by plastic film mulching after deep vertically rotary tillage. In such cases, total soil consumption was reduced, while soil water up-and-down transferring capacity and water use efficiency were enhanced. Moreover, higher water use efficiency could obtain if deeper new tillage layer was conducted. For instance, water use efficiency at yield level of treatment III increased by 8.5% compared with treatment I, and that of treatment IV increased by 17.3% compared with treatment II. In addition, compared with treatment III, leaf water use efficiency at the 59th day and 111th day after sowing of treatment IV and water use efficiency at yield level increased by 8.3%, 7.4% and 5.9% respectively. The results showed that deep vertically rotary tillage can provide a new and effective way to break up the compacted plough pan, solve the shallow tillage layer problem and increase water use efficiency. Source

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