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Rahman S.A.,Stevens Institute of Technology | Huang Y.,Stevens Institute of Technology | Claassen J.,Columbia University | Heintzman N.,DexCom Inc. | Kleinberg S.,Stevens Institute of Technology
Journal of Biomedical Informatics | Year: 2015

Most clinical and biomedical data contain missing values. A patient's record may be split across multiple institutions, devices may fail, and sensors may not be worn at all times. While these missing values are often ignored, this can lead to bias and error when the data are mined. Further, the data are not simply missing at random. Instead the measurement of a variable such as blood glucose may depend on its prior values as well as that of other variables. These dependencies exist across time as well, but current methods have yet to incorporate these temporal relationships as well as multiple types of missingness. To address this, we propose an imputation method (FL. k-NN) that incorporates time lagged correlations both within and across variables by combining two imputation methods, based on an extension to k-NN and the Fourier transform. This enables imputation of missing values even when all data at a time point is missing and when there are different types of missingness both within and across variables. In comparison to other approaches on three biological datasets (simulated and actual Type 1 diabetes datasets, and multi-modality neurological ICU monitoring) the proposed method has the highest imputation accuracy. This was true for up to half the data being missing and when consecutive missing values are a significant fraction of the overall time series length. © 2015 Elsevier Inc. Source


Jacobs P.G.,Oregon Health And Science University | Youssef J.E.,Oregon Health And Science University | Castle J.R.,Oregon Health And Science University | Engle J.M.,Legacy Health System | And 5 more authors.
Proceedings of the Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society, EMBS | Year: 2011

Patients with diabetes have difficulty controlling their blood sugar and suffer from acute effects of hypoglycemia and long-term effects of hyperglycemia, which include disease of the eyes, kidneys and nerves/feet. In this paper, we describe a new system that is used to automatically control blood sugar in people with diabetes through the fully automated measurement of blood glucose levels and the delivery of insulin and glucagon via the subcutaneous route. When a patient's blood sugar goes too high, insulin is given to the patient to bring his/her blood sugar back to a normal level. To prevent a patient's blood sugar from going too low, the patient is given a hormone called glucagon which raises the patient's blood sugar. While other groups have described methods for automatically delivering insulin and glucagon, many of these systems still require human interaction to enter the venous blood sugar levels into the control system. This paper describes the development of a fully automated closed-loop dual sensor bi-hormonal artificial pancreas system that does not require human interaction. The system described in this paper is comprised of two sensors for measuring glucose, two pumps for independent delivery of insulin and glucagon, and a laptop computer running a custom software application that controls the sensor acquisition and insulin and glucagon delivery based on the glucose values recorded. Two control algorithms are designed into the software: (1) an algorithm that delivers insulin and glucagon according to their proportional and derivative errors and proportional and derivative gains and (2) an adaptive algorithm that adjusts the gain factors based on the patient's current insulin sensitivity as determined using a mathematical model. Results from this work may ultimately lead to development of a portable, easy to use, artificial pancreas device that can enable far better glycemic control in patients with diabetes. © 2011 IEEE. Source


Basu A.,Endocrine Research Unit | Dube S.,Endocrine Research Unit | Slama M.,Endocrine Research Unit | Errazuriz I.,Endocrine Research Unit | And 6 more authors.
Diabetes | Year: 2013

The accuracy of continuous interstitial fluid (ISF) glucose sensing is an essential component of current and emerging open-and closed-loop systems for type 1 diabetes. An important determinant of sensor accuracy is the physiological time lag of glucose transport from the vascular to the interstitial space. We performed the first direct measurement of this phenomenon to our knowledge in eight healthy subjects under an overnight fasted condition. Microdialysis catheters were inserted into the abdominal subcutaneous space. After intravenous bolus administrations of glucose tracers, timed samples of plasma and ISF were collected sequentially and analyzed for tracer enrichments. After accounting for catheter dead space and assay noise, the mean time lag of tracer appearance in the interstitial space was 5.3-6.2 min. We conclude that in the overnight fasted state in healthy adults, the physiological delay of glucose transport from the vascular to the interstitial space is 5-6 min. Physiological delay between blood glucose and ISF glucose, therefore, should not be an obstacle to sensor accuracy in overnight or fasting-state closedloop systems of insulin delivery or open-loop therapy assessment for type 1 diabetes. © 2013 by the American Diabetes Association. Source


Trademark
DexCom Inc. | Date: 2008-01-29

MEDICAL DEVICES, NAMELY, MEDICAL SENSORS USED TO DETERMINE THE CONCENTRATION OF GLUCOSE IN THE HUMAN BODY AND ACCESSORIES THEREFOR, INCLUDING, RECEIVERS, SENSOR HOUSINGS AND SENSOR INSERTION DEVICES.


Trademark
DexCom Inc. | Date: 2004-03-05

Medical devices, namely, medical sensors used to determine the concentration of glucose in the human body and accessories therefor, namely, receivers, sensor housings and sensor insertion devices.

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