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De Preter K.,Ghent University | Vermeulen J.,Ghent University | Brors B.,German Cancer Research Center | Delattre O.,University Pierre and Marie Curie | And 16 more authors.
Clinical Cancer Research | Year: 2010

Purpose: Reliable prognostic stratification remains a challenge for cancer patients, especially for diseases with variable clinical course such as neuroblastoma. Although numerous studies have shown that outcome might be predicted using gene expression signatures, independent cross-platform validation is often lacking. Experimental Design: Using eight independent studies comprising 933 neuroblastoma patients, a prognostic gene expression classifier was developed, trained, tested, and validated. The classifier was established based on reanalysis of four published studies with updated clinical information, reannotation of the probe sequences, common risk definition for training cases, and a single method for gene selection (prediction analysis of microarray) and classification (correlation analysis). Results: Based on 250 training samples from four published microarray data sets, a correlation signature was built using 42 robust prognostic genes. The resulting classifier was validated on 351 patients from four independent and unpublished data sets and on 129 remaining test samples from the published studies. Patients with divergent outcome in the total cohort, as well as in the different risk groups, were accurately classified (log-rank P < 0.001 for overall and progression-free survival in the four independent data sets). Moreover, the 42-gene classifier was shown to be an independent predictor for survival (odds ratio, >5). Conclusion: The strength of this 42-gene classifier is its small number of genes and its cross-platform validity in which it outperforms other published prognostic signatures. The robustness and accuracy of the classifier enables prospective assessment of neuroblastoma patient outcome. Most importantly, this gene selection procedure might be an example for development and validation of robust gene expression signatures in other cancer entities. ©2010 AACR.

Sainz-Jaspeado M.,Institute Dinvestigacio Biomedica Of Bellvitge Idibell | Huertas-Martinez J.,Institute Dinvestigacio Biomedica Of Bellvitge Idibell | Lagares-Tena L.,Institute Dinvestigacio Biomedica Of Bellvitge Idibell | Martin Liberal J.,Institute Dinvestigacio Biomedica Of Bellvitge Idibell | And 6 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2013

Angiogenesis is the result of the combined activity of the tumor microenvironment and signaling molecules. The angiogenic switch is represented as an imbalance between pro- and anti-angiogenic factors and is a rate-limiting step in the development of tumors. Eph receptor tyrosine kinases and their membrane-anchored ligands, known as ephrins, constitute the largest receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) subfamily and are considered a major family of pro-angiogenic RTKs. Ewing sarcoma (EWS) is a highly aggressive bone and soft tissue tumor affecting children and young adults. As other solid tumors, EWS are reliant on a functional vascular network for the delivery of nutrients and oxygen and for the removal of waste. Based on the biological roles of EphA2 in promoting angiogenesis, we explored the functional role of this receptor and its relationship with caveolin-1 (CAV1) in EWS angiogenesis. We demonstrated that lack of CAV1 results in a significant reduction in micro vascular density (MVD) on 3 different in vivo models. In vitro, this phenomenon correlated with inactivation of EphA2 receptor, lack of AKT response and downregulation of bFGF. We also demonstrated that secreted bFGF from EWS cells acted as chemoattractant for endothelial cells. Furthermore, interaction between EphA2 and CAV1 was necessary for the right localization and signaling of the receptor to produce bFGF through AKT and promote migration of endothelial cells. Finally, introduction of a dominant-negative form of EphA2 into EWS cells mostly reproduced the effects occurred by CAV1 silencing, strongly suggesting that the axis EphA2-CAV1 participates in the promotion of endothelial cell migration toward the tumors favoring EWS angiogenesis. © 2013 Sáinz-Jaspeado et al.

Huertas-Martinez J.,Bellvitge Biomedical Research Institute IDIBELL | Rello-Varona S.,Bellvitge Biomedical Research Institute IDIBELL | Herrero-Martin D.,Bellvitge Biomedical Research Institute IDIBELL | Barrau I.,Bellvitge Biomedical Research Institute IDIBELL | And 15 more authors.
Oncotarget | Year: 2014

Rhabdomyosarcoma is the most common soft tissue sarcoma of childhood and adolescence. Despite advances in therapy, patients with histological variant of rhabdomyosarcoma known as alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma (ARMS) have a 5-year survival of less than 30%. Caveolin-1 (CAV1), encoding the structural component of cellular caveolae, is a suggested tumor suppressor gene involved in cell signaling. In the present study we report that compared to other forms of rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS) CAV1 expression is either undetectable or very low in ARMS cell lines and tumor samples. DNA methylation analysis of the promoter region and azacytidine-induced re-expression suggest the involvement of epigenetic mechanisms in the silencing of CAV1. Reintroduction of CAV1 in three of these cell lines impairs their clonogenic capacity and promotes features of muscular differentiation. In vitro, CAV1-expressing cells show high expression of Caveolin-3 (CAV3), a muscular differentiation marker. Blockade of MAPK signaling is also observed. In vivo, CAV1-expressing xenografts show growth delay, features of muscular differentiation and increased cell death. In summary, our results suggest that CAV1 could function as a potent tumor suppressor in ARMS tumors. Inhibition of CAV1 function therefore, could contribute to aberrant cell proliferation, leading to ARMS development.

Rodriguez-Hernandez C.J.,Barcelona Institute for Research in Biomedicine | Rodriguez-Hernandez C.J.,Developmental Tumor Biology Laboratory | Llorens-Agost M.,Institute Biologia Molecular Y Celular Of Plantas Upv Csic | Llorens-Agost M.,National University of Ireland | And 6 more authors.
FEBS Letters | Year: 2013

Both radiotherapy and most effective chemotherapeutic agents induce different types of DNA damage. Here we show that tungstate modulates cell response to DNA damaging agents. Cells treated with tungstate were more sensitive to etoposide, phleomycin and ionizing radiation (IR), all of which induce DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs). Tungstate also modulated the activation of the central DSB signalling kinase, ATM, in response to these agents. These effects required the functionality of the Mre11-Nbs1-Rad50 (MRN) complex and were mimicked by the inhibition of PP2A phosphatase. Therefore, tungstate may have adjuvant activity when combined with DNA-damaging agents in the treatment of several malignancies. © 2013 Federation of European Biochemical Societies. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Garcia I.,Developmental Tumor Biology Laboratory | Mayol G.,Developmental Tumor Biology Laboratory | Rodriguez E.,Developmental Tumor Biology Laboratory | Sunol M.,Hospital Sant Joan de Deu | And 11 more authors.
Molecular Cancer | Year: 2010

Background: The chromodomain, helicase DNA-binding protein 5 (CHD5) is a potential tumor suppressor gene located on chromosome 1p36, a region recurrently deleted in high risk neuroblastoma (NB). Previous data have shown that CHD5 mRNA is present in normal neural tissues and in low risk NB, nevertheless, the distribution of CHD5 protein has not been explored. The aim of this study was to investigate CHD5 protein expression as an immunohistochemical marker of outcome in NB. With this purpose, CHD5 protein expression was analyzed in normal neural tissues and neuroblastic tumors (NTs). CHD5 gene and protein expression was reexamined after induction chemotherapy in a subset of high risk tumors to identify potential changes reflecting tumor response.Results: We provide evidence that CHD5 is a neuron-specific protein, absent in glial cells, with diverse expression amongst neuron types. Within NTs, CHD5 immunoreactivity was found restricted to differentiating neuroblasts and ganglion-like cells, and absent in undifferentiated neuroblasts and stromal Schwann cells. Correlation between protein and mRNA levels was found, suggesting transcriptional regulation of CHD5. An immunohistochemical analysis of 90 primary NTs highlighted a strong association of CHD5 expression with favorable prognostic variables (age at diagnosis <12 months, low clinical stage, and favorable histology; P < 0.001 for all), overall survival (OS) (P < 0.001) and event-free survival (EFS) (P < 0.001). Multivariate analysis showed that CHD5 prognostic value is independent of other clinical and biologically relevant parameters, and could therefore represent a marker of outcome in NB that can be tested by conventional immunohistochemistry. The prognostic value of CHD5 was confirmed in an independent, blinded set of 32 NB tumors (P < 0.001).Reactivation of CHD5 expression after induction chemotherapy was observed mainly in those high risk tumors with induced tumor cell differentiation features. Remarkably, these NB tumors showed good clinical response and prolonged patient survival.Conclusions: The neuron-specific protein CHD5 may represent a marker of outcome in NB that can be tested by conventional immunohistochemistry. Re-establishment of CHD5 expression induced by chemotherapy could be a surrogate marker of treatment response. © 2010 Garcia et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

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