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Igoud S.,Polytechnic University of Mozambique | Igoud S.,Development Unit of Solar Equipments | Souahi F.,Polytechnic University of Mozambique | Chitour C.E.,Polytechnic University of Mozambique | And 3 more authors.
Desalination and Water Treatment | Year: 2015

Wastewater treatment sector, in Algeria, uses exclusively two processes: the activated sludge applied in the north and the lagooning in the highlands and the south. In the operating balance of the National Sanitation Office (ONA), the activated sludge wastewater treatment plants are characterized by a high electricity consumption which induced high cost and greenhouse gas (GHG) emission. In 2010, about 104.32 million m3 of wastewater was treated. This operation consumed 30,900 MWh of electricity which cost 1.04 million Euros (€) and emitted 18,761 tons of CO2-equivalent. In 2013, the treated wastewater increased by 35.2% and the electricity consumption by 45.8%. To establish an exhaustive diagnostic, this study evaluated the electricity consumed during 2009/2010 in an activated sludge wastewater treatment plant of 70,000 population equivalents (PE) (i.e. Unit of a pollution load produced daily per person, fixed at 60 grams of DBO5, which is used for the sizing of the wastewater treatment plants). Three areas were investigated: (1) the treatment process which consumed 89.63% of electricity; (2) the management department and the laboratory with 4.60%; and (3) the outdoor lighting with 5.77%. The biological treatment was the intensive-energy part of the treatment which consumed 70.05% of electricity. The aim of this diagnostic was to evaluate the performance level of the activated sludge wastewater treatment process relatively to the energy, financial and environmental factors in order to optimize the process and, then, to evaluate the benefit that could be provided by the integration of renewable energy in a sustainable wastewater treatment context. © 2014 Balaban Desalination Publications. All rights reserved. Source

Chekired F.,Polytechnic School of Algiers | Chekired F.,Development Unit of Solar Equipments | Larbes C.,Polytechnic School of Algiers | Mellit A.,Jijel University | Mellit A.,International Center for Theoretical Physics
International Journal of Sustainable Energy | Year: 2014

A comparison between two intelligent maximum power point tracking (MPPT) controllers for photovoltaic systems is presented in this article. The presented MPPTs are based on the fuzzy logic controller (FLC) and neuro-fuzzy controller (NFC). Both controllers are designed and implemented on a Xilinx (Virtex-IIV2MB1000) reconfigurable field programmable gate array using hardware description language. Implemented controllers have been simulated and tested under constant and rapid variation of atmospheric conditions. Results show that the NFC performs better than the FLC in the viewpoint efficiency, response time and stability; however, with regard to the simplicity of implementation, the FLC is less complicated than the NFC. © 2012 Taylor & Francis. Source

Igoud S.,Polytechnic University of Mozambique | Igoud S.,Development Unit of Solar Equipments | Souahi F.,Polytechnic University of Mozambique | Eddine Chitour C.,Polytechnic University of Mozambique | And 5 more authors.
Desalination and Water Treatment | Year: 2015

The wastewater reuse, especially for irrigation, requires a safer microbial quality. However, the tertiary treatment is often nonexistent, especially in developing countries where, unfortunately, wastewater treatment needs to be more systematic. Solar water disinfection processes could be appropriate treatments for improving the microbial quality of the wastewater reuse. This study evaluates the effectiveness of both solar photolysis and solar photocatalysis processes in disinfecting secondary-treated wastewater recovered from an activated sludge wastewater treatment plant where the disinfection treatment is not applied. The best parameters of the solar disinfection processes were determined. The experiments were conducted in a bench test composed of 4 flat-bottom flasks with a volume of 2 L each. Then, the disinfection efficiency of both processes was evaluated by a comparative study where 250 Wh/m2 of UV radiation was cumulated. The disinfection efficiency of studied pathogenic (1) total coliforms, (2) fecal coliforms, (3) streptococci, (4) staphylococci, (5) sulfite-reducing spores, and (6) fungi ranged from 0.86-Log to 3.35-Log reduction. At last, an innovative static plan photoreactor of 50 L allowed reproducing the positive effect of the solar wastewater disinfection. After 8 h of solar exposure duration and a cumulative UV radiation of 360 Wh/m2, results showed a complete disinfection of all studied pathogenic below the limit detection of the microbial analysis, except of sulfate-reducing spores. © 2013, Balaban Desalination Publications. All rights reserved. Source

Metidji N.,Development Unit of Solar Equipments | Metidji N.,Blida University | Bacha N.E.,Blida University | Saidi D.,Center Nuclear of Draria | Boutarfaia S.,Center Nuclear of Draria
Advanced Materials Research | Year: 2013

This work has been undertaken in order to determine the effect of alloying with Ni, Mo and B additions on physical and mechanical properties of FeAl alloys. The structural evolutions and morphological changes alloys were characterized by X. ray diffractometry (XRD), Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) and an Optical Microscope. Antiphase domain sizes and morphologies are reported and correlations between such ordening phenomena, phase precipitations and mechanical properties (micro hardness at low temperature) are discussed. © (2013) Trans Tech Publications, Switzerland. Source

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