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Liu S.,Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences | Wilkes A.,Values for Development Ltd | Li Y.,Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences | Gao Q.,Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences | And 3 more authors.
Environmental Science and Policy | Year: 2016

Greenhouse gas (GHG) data submitted in April 2014 on land use, land use change and forestry (LULUCF), energy, industrial processes, solvents and other product use, agriculture, and waste for 37 developed countries was analyzed to estimate the relative contributions of different sectors to GHG emission reductions. This GHG data from the first commitment period of the Kyoto Protocol included 35 parties to Annex B of the Kyoto Protocol, the United States and Canada. Results show that the contribution of each sector was, in order: energy (36.9%), industrial processes (12.4%), agriculture (9.9%), LULUCF (7.7%), waste (3.4%), and solvents and other product use (0.1%). The average proportion of base year emissions reduced in each sector by countries in Annex B was, in order: energy (7.4%), agriculture (2.7%), LULUCF (1.9%), industrial processes (1.2%), waste (0.5%), and solvents and other product use (0.1%). Overall, the energy sector contributed the highest GHG emission reductions, while the agriculture and LULUCF sectors also made contributions. Most countries achieved limited absolute GHG reductions from their chosen LULUCF activities, but the relative contribution of GHG emission reductions from LULUCF was significant but small. This suggests that, unless there are substantial changes to accounting rules, future emission reductions will mainly result from mitigation actions targeting fossil fuel consumption, while the agriculture and LULUCF sectors will continue to play auxiliary roles. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. Source

Li Z.,Inner Mongolia Agricultural University | Han G.,Inner Mongolia Agricultural University | Zhao M.,Inner Mongolia Agricultural University | Wang J.,Inner Mongolia Agricultural University | And 7 more authors.
Agricultural Systems | Year: 2015

Grasslands play important roles on all continents in ecosystem service and livestock production systems. With increasing human and livestock population, significant challenges are faced in providing safe and high quality animal and herbage products from grasslands in China. The family ranch is the basic management unit and production system in Inner Mongolia, north China. Animal populations are increasing, but the income of herders and grassland condition are not improving. There is a need for new management strategies to guide the future development of animal husbandry. Based on the results of demonstration experiments and surveys in Siziwang Banner, the StageONE Model developed for Australian Centre for International Agricultural Research (ACIAR) project ". Sustainable Livestock Grazing Systems on Chinese Temperate Grasslands" was used to simulate changes in management strategies in a typical whole farm system, in order to identify feasible, sustainable and profitable farm management strategies. A new management strategy, including lower stocking rates and increased use of feed supplement in winter and spring, was adopted in a small number of farms and compared with the typical farm using the StageONE model. The results show that the total actual energy intake of sheep in the new strategy is higher than under traditional management, and the net energy surplus is -0.36-MJ/sheep unit/d, which is lower than under traditional management. The new strategy, in which stocking rates are reduced by 14.1%, also reduced methane emissions by 34.14% and increased net income by 15.85%. The simulation results suggest new ways for herders, companies and government to improve grassland management while increasing herders' net incomes. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. Source

Chang X.,CAS Institute of Soil and Water Conservation | Bao X.,University of Chinese Academy of Sciences | Wang S.,CAS Institute of Tibetan Plateau Research | Wang S.,Chinese Academy of Sciences | And 6 more authors.
Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment | Year: 2015

Grassland degradation is a major issue in many parts of the world. Rehabilitation of areas that have been degraded by overgrazing can potentially accumulate soil carbon, but there have been few studies in the vast grasslands of Mongolia. Here, we calibrated and validated Century model with 618 measurements from a soil inventory covering four grassland types in a forest steppe region of Mongolia. Soil organic carbon (SOC) simulated by Century largely agreed with the observational dataset and the sign of SOC response to intensive grazing. We employed the calibrated model to assess SOC accumulation under reduced grazing intensity scenarios, and the projected accumulation rates were 22.0-36.9gCm-2yr-1 in the near term (2012-2035). These results imply that reducing the intensity of grazing may be an effective strategy for restoration of degraded grasslands, which can be implemented by reducing livestock numbers and/or by changing the timing and duration of grazing events. Moreover, the simulated SOC accumulation was mainly determined by a conceptual slow pool, which was not supported by experimental observations in similar soils. Therefore, evaluating the long-term climate mitigation through soil carbon accumulation in degraded grasslands still warrants further attention. © 2015 Z Published by Elsevier B.V. Source

Tang S.,China Agricultural University | Tang S.,Inner Mongolia Agricultural University | Zhang Y.,Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences | Guo Y.,Hebei North University | And 8 more authors.
Atmospheric Environment | Year: 2015

Atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) plays an important role in the radiative balance of the earth's atmosphere. Most studies have primarily focused on the growing season. However, few reports are available on CO2 emissions in the Inner Mongolian desert steppe ecosystem during the spring thaw period. To assess the responses of soil-atmosphere CO2 exchange to different stocking rates in the desert steppe, we conducted this study during the winter-spring transition period. The experiment was conducted with four treatments defined along a grazing gradient of un-grazing (UG), light grazing (LG), moderate grazing (MG) and heavy grazing (HG) with three replications of each treatment in the desert steppe of Inner Mongolia during the spring thaw period in 2010 and 2011. Soil CO2 fluxes were measured using Picarro G1301 (an automatic cavity ring-down spectrophotometer) in twelve grazing areas. Our results indicate that mean CO2 emission during the spring thaw period was 8.23 mg CO2-C m-2 h-1. Average CO2 fluxes over the two years during the spring thaw period were 10.59 mg CO2-C m-2 h-1 (UG), 8.10 mg CO2-C m-2 h-1 (LG), 7.89 mg CO2-C m-2 h-1 (MG) and 6.35 mg CO2-C m-2 h-1 (HG). Cumulative CO2 emission amounted to 118.51 kg C ha-1 during the spring thaw period (March-April) on average over two years. In this study, grazing practice significantly reduced CO2 emission during the spring thaw period in the desert steppe. Our results are in accordance with other findings suggesting that emissions of CO2 are regulated significantly by soil temperature during the spring thaw period in this area. The significant empirical relationships provide a simple way to estimate regional amounts of CO2 emission from desert steppe during the spring thaw period. © 2015. Source

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