Fundulea, Romania
Fundulea, Romania

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Cociu A.I.,Development Institute Fundulea | Zaharia G.V.,Development Institute Fundulea | Constantin N.,National Research and Development Institute for Machines
Romanian Agricultural Research | Year: 2010

The increase of water use efficiency is very important, especially in water-limited conditions. The research project, carried out on cambic chernozem soil at Fundulea, in 2008 and 2009, had as the main objective the evaluation of contribution of the deep sub-soiling, done before the implementation of this experiment, and of certain tillage systems on over-winter soil water storage, water use efficiency (WUE) and water use as well as on the yield of winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), maize (Zea mays L.) and soybean [Glycine max. (L) Merr.)], in rotation. The following tillage systems were studied: (1) traditional, with moldboard plough (TS); (2) cizel plough tillage (CS); (3) disc/sweep tillage (DS); (4) strip till, only for row crops (ST); and no till (NT). The over-winter soil water storage estimation was based on calculation of the coefficient of rainfall accumulation during winter (CA), and of capacity of soil water conservation (CC). In the case of maize after wheat, CA was 0.6 on plots with deep sub-soiling, 0.6 on plots without deep sub-soiling, 0.6 with TS, 0.6 with CS, 0.7 with DS, 0.7 with ST, and 0.7 with NT. CC was 85 % on plots with deep sub-soiling, 85 % on plots without deep subsoiling, 82 % with TS, 0.84 % with CS, 86 % with DS, 86 % with ST, and 86 % with NT. For soybean after maize, CA was 0.5 on plots with deep sub-soiling, 0.6 on plots without deep sub-soiling, 0.5 with TS, 0.5 with CS, 0.5 with DS, 0.6 with ST, and 0.6 with NT. CC was 77 % on plots with deep sub-soiling, 79 % on plots without deep sub-soiling, 72 % with TS, 78 % with CS, 78 % with DS, 78 % with ST, and 79 % with NT. Water use and water use efficiency showed non significant differences for all crops under this study on both plots with deep sub-soiling and without deep sub-soiling, suggesting that the yield differences were not significantly determined by water supply. The water use average for wheat was: 380 mm with TS, 377 mm with CS, 395 mm with DS, and 382 mm with NT. For maize, water use was 339 mm with TS, 345 mm with CS, 343 mm with DS, 341 mm with ST and 343 mm with NT. For soybean, water use was 320 mm with TS, 315 mm with CS, 317 mm with DS, 314 mm with ST and 319 mm with NT. Water use efficiency from precipitations was: For wheat 13.1 kg ha -1mm -1 with TS, 12.1 kg ha -1mm -1 with CS, 12.2 kg ha -1mm -1 with DS, and 13.3 kg ha -1mm -1 with NT. For maize 25.6 kg ha -1mm -1 with TS, 25.6 kg ha -1mm -1 with CS, 25.3 kg ha -1mm -1 with DS, 22.9 kg ha -1mm -1 with ST, and 26.1 kg ha -1mm -1 with NT. For soybean 6.6 kg ha -1mm 1 with TS, 5.5 kg ha -1mm -1 with CS, 5.8 kg ha -1mm -1 with DS, 5.5 kg ha -1mm -1 with ST, and 6.0 kg ha -1mm -1 with NT. Yield increases due to deep sub-soiling were: 0.1% for wheat, 1.5% for maize, and 7.3% for soybean. The average yields recorded were: For wheat 4948 kg ha -1 with TS, 4536 kg ha -1 with CS, 4814 kg ha -1 with DS, 5048 kg ha -1 with NT. For maize 8743 kg ha -1 with TS, 8954 kg ha -1 with CS, 8792 kg ha -1with DS, 7940 kg ha -1 with ST and 9052 kg ha -1 with NT. For soybean 2098 kg ha -1 with TS, 1812 kg ha -1 with CS, 1846 kg ha -1 with DS, 1798 kg ha -1 with ST and 1941 kg ha -1 with NT. The highest yields were obtained with NT for wheat and maize. WUE was strongly correlated with yield, and had the highest values for wheat and maize with NT. In the case of soybean, we consider that a significant yield increase can be obtained with an efficient weed control and soil protection with adequate amounts of residues from the previous crop.


Petcu E.,Development Institute Fundulea | Babeanu N.,University of Bucharest | Popa O.,University of Bucharest | Partal E.,Development Institute Fundulea | Pricop S.-M.,Agricultural Research
Romanian Agricultural Research | Year: 2010

Grain oil content and fatty acid composition are very important traits in sunflower. A research was carried on in 2008 and 2009 to determine planting date and plant population effects on oil content and fatty acid composition, using three sunflower hybrids (Favorit, Performer, and Alex). The results revealed that oil content from sunflower seeds was very significantly affected by year, planting date, hybrids and plant populations, as well as by most interactions between these factors. Planting date was the main source of variance for oil content. The early planting date in both years led to an increase of grain oil content in all studied sunflower hybrids and on the average for all plant population. Plant populations had a smaller effect and this effect varied according to the weather conditions of the years and the hybrid. Hybrids had a large influence on oil content, the hybrid Favorit showing the highest oil concentration in most conditions. The delay in planting decreased concentration of the oleic acid and increased linoleic acid concentration in all sunflower hybrids, more obviously in drought conditions.


Lazar C.,Development Institute Fundulea | Lazar D.A.,University of Bucharest
Romanian Agricultural Research | Year: 2010

Understanding the long term impact of temperature changes on phenology, yield and stability yield of wheat is important for establishing correct breeding goals. Weather data from 1991-2008, representative for South Eastern Romania were used to determine the DSSAT cultivar dependent coefficients for vernalization and photoperiod requirements and the grain filling duration providing a top average yield combined with the best yield stability. Cultivars with low sensibility for photoperiod (P1D = 25) and rather high requirement for vernalization (P1V = 45) had the best stability for high yields for all three tested values (400, 500 and 600) for the P5 coefficient (controlling the grain fill duration). If an arbitrary increase of temperature with 1°C is applied, the yield stability of these ideotypes increased significantly, but for an increase with 2°C an increase of vernalization requirements is suggested for the cultivars with shorter grain filling period (P1D = 25, P1V = 60, P5 = 400) and for cultivars with mid and longer grain filling period a high yield stability was given by a low to moderate value for photoperiod coefficient (P1D = 50) and a moderate vernalization requirement (P1V = 30).The positive effects of higher values of coefficient for grain filling (P5) on yield decrease when temperature increases. Anthesis and maturity are anticipated with about one week for each 1°C increase of temperature. Winter wheat cultivars with very low requirements both for vernalization and photoperiod are not suitable for South-Eastern Romania due the low yield level and very poor yield stability. Cultivars with very high requirements for photoperiod (P1D = 100) have a considerable risk for relatively low yields.


Ittu M.,Development Institute Fundulea | Cana L.,Development Institute Fundulea | Banateanu C.,Agricultural Research | Voica M.,Agricultural Research | Lupu C.,Research and Development Institute for Plant Protection Bucharest
Romanian Agricultural Research | Year: 2010

Improvement of assessment methods and selection of new robust sources of resistance, are wheat pre-breeding goals of outmost importance at NARDI Fundulea. Natural occurrence of FHB/DON contamination, host resistance and pathogen aggressiveness in current Triticum aestivum/Fusarium pathosystems under artificial inoculation were investigated. Analysis of 715 wheat samples collected from natural conditions revealed up to 10% risks of fungus contamination in three out of 15 environments, locations Livada (N/W Romania) and Piteşti-Albota (S/W Romania), being relatively the most vulnerable to FHB occurrence. Level of DON accumulation in grain was generally under 1.25 mg/kg, the limit reinforced for grain by UE regulations. A broad range of variation for aggressiveness in seedling and adult stages among 30 and 10 respectively, Fusarium accessions collected from five locations was found. Based on varietal response to FHB inoculation performed with both, point and spray inoculation methods, phenotypic differences between resistance types of 20 wheat Romanian cultivars were noticed that suggest association of resistance Type 1 and 2 (Dumbrava, Delabrad, Dor) or prevalence of Type 1 (Izvor, Crina, Magistral).


Petcu E.,Development Institute Fundulea | Pacureanu J.M.,Development Institute Fundulea
Helia | Year: 2011

In this paper we present the results of the study of new sunflower forms obtained through hybridization between cultivated sunflower (Helianthus annuus) and two wild Helianthus species. Wild species H. argophyllus and H. maximiliani were used in order to improve drought and broomrape resistance of some Romanian sunflower inbreed lines. The investigation encompassed the period 2008-2009. Interspecific F1 plants were obtained by embryo rescue techniques, and BC2, F3 were obtained as a result of self-pollination and backcrossing with cultivated sunflower. The heritability in the first generation was intermediate, but the plants strongly resembled the wild species in most biomorphological traits. The plant with pubescent leaves was selected for drought resistance. The F2 plants were also investigated for broomrape resistance using tests performed under artificial inoculation with broomrape seeds from two infested areas in Romania. Concerning drought and broomrape resistance the results indicated good resistance, suggesting successful gene introgression. Resistant lines will be self-pollinated and retested in the next year and some of the obtained hybrid forms will be included in the sunflower breeding program as genetic sources for drought and broomrape resistance.


In order to improve drought resistance of sunflower in the context of the global warming and to accelerate this improvement, introgression of resistance genes from wild species was attempted, using embryo rescue techniques, combined with classical procedures to improve crossing, self-pollination and backcrossing. Thirty four approved or pending approval lines (B and C) were tested for combination capacity with the wild Helianthus argophyllus. After crossing between H. annuus and H. argophyllus, 6 generations in two years (2008- 2009) were obtained, as follows: F1 (interspecific crossing - harvest immature hybrid embryos), BC1F1; BC2F1; BC3F1; BC4F1; BC4F2. In case of the crossing between species H. argophyllus and H. annuus only four generations (F1; BC1F1; BC1F2; BC2F1) in 2 years were obtained, due to the long vegetation period of the wild species, the long flowering period, the high degree of branching and not finally higher incompatibility between the two species.


Sauca F.,Development Institute Fundulea | Petcu E.,Development Institute Fundulea | Stanciu D.,Development Institute Fundulea | Stanciu M.,Development Institute Fundulea
Romanian Agricultural Research | Year: 2010

In order to identify sunflower hybrids with good performance under organic (ecological) agricultural system, nineteen Romanian sunflower hybrids were tested in 2009 in dryland yield trials under organic agricultural system, in four locations from South Romania (Ştefan eel Mare, Stupina, Şimnic and Fundulea). At Fundulea yield trials were performed in parallel also under conventional agricultural system. The hybrids tested in organic farming were very different both in average yield (which varied from 1283 to 2224 kg/ha) and in yield stability, as reflected by the coefficient of variation (which varied from 8.4 to 52.7%). Several hybrids, such as H13 and H7 combined high average yield and good yield stability. The performance of the hybrids under organic farming at Fundulea was correlated with the performance under and conventional agricultural system (r = +0.82***), but several exceptions were identified. Testing under different agricultural systems can be useful in identifying sunflower hybrids with broad adaptability.


David M.,Development Institute Fundulea
Romanian Agricultural Research | Year: 2010

Excised leaf water loss has been suggested as a technique to identify cereal genotypes that loose less water through cuticle and incompletely closed stomata, mainly during the night, and are therefore more adapted to dry environments. Initial water content (IWC) and water loss after 4 hours (WL1) and during the period from 4 to 24 hours (WL2) following excision was measured in a collection of forty four cultivars of common wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and durum wheat (T. durum L.), including cultivars from different regions and with contrasting performance under drought. Environmental conditions of the two years of study had a large influence on IWC, WL1 and WL2. Differences between cultivars were significant for all parameters, but interaction between cultivars and years was strong for water loss, suggesting that readings from one year might not be meaningful for other environmental conditions. Genotype* Environment interaction for IWC was less important. Common wheat cultivars adapted to dryer conditions generally had lower IWC, while durum wheat cultivars had highest IWC. Water loss during the first 4 hours after excision was negatively correlated, or was not correlated with water loss during the next 20 hours. Water loss through cuticles, as expressed by water loss from excised leaves, did not represent a major mechanism determining known genotypic differences in drought resistance in the field. Further improvements of the techniques for measuring water loss from excised leaves are needed to reduce the interaction with environmental conditions, in order to make this approach more useful for breeding drought resistant wheat.


Neacsu A.,Development Institute Fundulea | Serban G.,Development Institute Fundulea | Tuta C.,Agricultural Research | Toncea I.,Development Institute Fundulea
Romanian Agricultural Research | Year: 2010

Organic agriculture imposes strict limitations on the use of synthetic fertilizers and pesticides, and as a result, is generally characterized by a reduced availability of nutrients (especially N and P), higher risk of weed infestation and disease or insects attack. All of these can affect the yield level and/or quality. We compared protein concentration and rheological parameters of several wheat cultivars grown under organic, conventional and low input systems for two years in Romania. All analyzed quality parameters were strongly influenced by the environmental conditions. The effect of agricultural systems was significant for protein concentration, dough strength and breakdown, as well as for estimated bread volume, while the cultivar effect was significant only for dough breakdown, elasticity, and speed of formation, as well as for bread volume. The interaction between agricultural systems and cultivars was not significant for any of the analyzed parameters, and this suggests that breeding for high bread-making quality can be efficient for improving quality in all agricultural systems. On average, with the management practices used in our tests, organic wheat had about 30% lower protein concentration, 8% longer mixing time, 23% lower dough strength, 51% lower breakdown and 44% lower bread volume. Most of the differences in rheological parameters seem to be related with the difference in protein concentration, and this suggest that special measures to increase nitrogen availability in the organic system are necessary in order to improve bread-making quality of wheat produced in this system. Cultivar differences in quality parameters were too small to counteract the effects of the management practices.


Ciuca M.,Development Institute Fundulea | Banica C.,Development Institute Fundulea | David M.,Development Institute Fundulea | Saulescu N.N.,Development Institute Fundulea
Romanian Agricultural Research | Year: 2010

Sixty two doubled haploid (DH) lines from the cross between cultivars Izvor (high osmotic adjustment) and Jiana (medium osmotic adjustment), obtained using the "Zea system", were used to study the association between the capacity for osmotic adjustment, as estimated by the pollen grain test developed by Morgan (1999), and several SSR markers located on chromosome 7A. SSR m arkers Xwmc9, Xwmc596 and Xwmc603 were significantly associated with pollen grain response to immersion in solution of 55% PEG + KCl, being located at approximately 9.1 cM estimated distance from the osmotic adjustment gene. Thesemarkers, which had a relatively low recombination frequency with theosmotic adjustment locus, can prove useful for increasing the frequency of progenies with better performance under drought in a wheat breeding program.

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